Ancient Rome -----empire and law Part one : Rome from Republic and Empire
?. The Founding of Rome---753 BC
Aeneas , flee from Troy and arrived in Italy and found Rome. The brothers Romulus and Remus and the She-wolf.
?. The Republic (509—27 BC)
Patricians(贵族?: consuls and senators
Plebeians?平民?: the rest
Tribunes?护民官?: 337BC, from election.
?.The Growth to Empire
※The Punic Wars ( 264—241 BC and 218—202 BC)
?Rome was defeated by Carthage at Cannae in 216 BC ?Fabius Maximus, “Fabian Tactics”(缓兵之计? Hannibal
---Roman defeated Carthage in 202 BC at Zama.
※ War in Greece:Greece become a province in 149 BC. ※ Alliances with States:Provide protection.
Ruling the Republic( the middle of 2th century BC ? .Destablisation of the Republic (100 BC until the Republic fell)
?Civil War: wealth, corruption, a new underclass, slave revolts and the rise of the army under powerful generals .
? Beginning of Civil War:
Julius Caesar(100-44 BC) & Pompey the Great (106—48 BC) Caesar’s conquest
? The Roman Empire
Augustus as princeps, Octavian (63 BC—14 AD):the first emperor.
The Roman control from 510 BC to 1453 AD
? The adoption of Christianity
Crises : 3rd AD, attacks, invasions, agricultural decline, inflation , selection of Emperors; persecution of
?Emperor Constantine( r. 306-337 AD)
※ the Council of Nicea in 325 AD
? Collapse in the west: Rome & Constantinople
?the Western Roman Empire came to an end with the defeat of Romulus Augustulus in 474 AD.
?the Constantine moved the capital to Byzantium in the east, renaming it Constantinople, it lasted until 1453 AD.
Part Two Society and Life
?. Religion: the basis of the Roman state
“we have overcome all the nations of the world, because we have realised that the world is governed and directed
by the gods.” ----------Cicero
“ with immense piety and for this reason had the gods on their side.”------ Dionysius of Halicarnassos ? The home—central to religion; gravitas and pietas
?Roman festivals--- the Lupercalia (Purification and fertility)and the Saturnalia( present giving , visiting friends
?Sacrifice--- animal or human
? The priesthood—election; Vestal Virgins
---the cult of the emperor-god
?. Family and Education
?marriage: first no right, later, humanistic marriage law obtained
?education: reading, writing and mathmatics, Greek, rhetotic ?entertainment: Gladiators Baths
Part Three The Arts, Law and Writing ?. The Arts
? Architecture: awareness of space
--roads, straight, good surfaces, radiated. ---aqueducts : amphitheatres basilica gardens ?sculpture---narrative sculpture
---Twelve Tables: foundations of early Roman law --- three categories: citizen law, law of nations, natural law ---savage punishment
---Judges were ordinary citizens; lawyers developed; Customary law developed
※Rome “ the ruler is not bound by the laws”
---theme: moral attitude (courage, steadfastness, resolution ---realism: emphasizes subjective feeling
?Horace (65-8 BC) Ars Poetica, (The Art of Poetry)
? Virgil (70-19 BC) Eclogues/Aeneid
?Ovid(43 BC-17 AD): Metamorphoses, Art of Love
?Plautus(普鲁塔斯? (254-184 BC) Favourite Roman comic writer --a decline in comedy
?. Historical writing
?Julius Caesar (102-45 BC), Civil Wars , War in Gaul
?Cicero (102-43 BC) On Old Age, On Friendship, On Duties
Voltaire, “Cicero taught us to think”.
?.Scientific, factual writing
?Lucretius (c.94-55 BC), The Nature of Universe: free people from the superstition of religion.
?Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD), Natural History, factual detail
? Pedanius Dioscorides (c. 40—90 AD). De Matereia Medica, plant identification. ?Claudius Galen (131-c.210 AD), four bodily humours and temperaments.
?Why the development of Law many be important to a society, Does is matter, and if so, why?
?Why do you think the Romans paid little attention to philosophy and the arts? Do you think it matters if a
society does not pay much attention to these things? What is the effect if it does or does not?
?Make a presentation for Christianity(5—10minutes)