Week 13-14 Class Notes [DOC] - San Jose State University

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Week 13-14 Class Notes [DOC] - San Jose State UniversityWeek,Class,Notes,[DOC],San,Jose,State,SAN,STATE,class

    SAN JOSÉ STATE UNIVERSITY School of Social Work

    ScWk 240

    Fall 2012

    Peter Allen Lee

    Weeks 13 and 14

I. Class Preliminaries

    ; Exams, Written Assignments, and Grading

    ; Last Class

II. Lecture and Discussion

    ; Introduction to Credibility and Verification of Qualitative Research

III. Choosing a Research Design (an ongoing discussion)

    Some Terms and Concepts:

; Credibility and Verification ; Clarifying researcher bias

    ; Rigorous methods ; Member checks

    ; Rival conclusions ; Rich, thick description

    ; Design checks ; External audits

    ; Prolonged engagement and ; Credibility of the researcher

    persistent observation ; Reactivity

    ; Triangulation ; Philosophical belief in the value ; Peer review or debriefing of qualitative inquiry

    ; Negative case analysis

    II. Lecture and Discussion

A. Credibility and Verification of Qualitative Research

    1. Credibility and verification (analogous to reliability and validity in quantitative


     Credibility of qualitative inquiry depends on three elements (Patton):

    a) Rigorous methods for doing fieldwork that yield high-quality data that are

    systematically analyzed with attention to issues of credibility

    b) Credibility of the researcher, which is dependent on training, experience,

    track record, status, and presentation of self

    c) Philosophical belief in the value of qualitative inquiry, that is, a

    fundamental appreciation of naturalistic inquiry, qualitative methods,

    inductive analysis, purposeful sampling, and holistic thinking.

    Page 1

    2. Rigor

    a) Integrity in analysis: generating and assessing rival conclusions so as to

    assure that information and interpretations are not erroneously fitted into

    preconceived themes and set ways of understanding

    b) Design checks: keeping methods and data in context of your study and

    its environment

    c) Prolonged engagement and persistent observation: working over an

    extended period of time in order to build trust with participants, learn the

    culture, and check for misinformation which stems from distortions

    introduced by the researcher or informants.

    d) Triangulation: the use of multiple and different sources, methods,

    investigators, and theories to provide correlating evidence.

    e) Peer review or debriefing: an external check with peers and colleagues

    to monitor the research process.

    f) Negative case analysis: the process of refining working hypotheses

    when encountering negative or disconfirming evidence. This process

    continues until all cases fit the reworked hypotheses.

    g) Clarifying researcher bias: the researcher’s position, bias, or

    assumptions stated at the outset of a study which may shape his/her

    interpretation or approach.

    h) Member checks: solicitation of informants’ views of the credibility of the

    findings and interpretations.

    i) Rich, thick description: the detailed accounts and information which

    facilitates the transferability of such data to other settings.

    j) External audits: the involvement of an outside consultant or auditor

    (having no connection to the study) to examine both the process and the

    product of the study.

    3. The Credibility of the Researcher

a) Training and preparedness of the researcher

    b) Considering Investigator effects: Reactivity

     - reactions by the participants

     - changes in the researcher

     - predispositions, perceptions, biases

     - researcher incompetence

    c) Intellectual Rigor: constant evaluation of “does it make sense?”

    4. Philosophical Belief in Qualitative Inquiry

a) Consider the fundamental uses of qualitative inquiry

    b) Understanding the historical bias against qualitative inquiry c) Qualitative information in context of

     - objectivity vs subjectivity

     - truth and utility

     - generalizability

    III. Choosing a Research Design (an ongoing discussion)

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