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Fruitful Interactions between non formal and formal education

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Fruitful Interactions between non formal and formal education

    Association for the Development of Education in Africa

    Biennale on Education in Africa

    (Libreville, Gabon, March 27-31, 2006)

    Selected Cases of Fruitful Interactions

    Between Formal and Non-Formal Education

    in Africa

    by Anne Ruhweza Katahoire (PhD)

Working Document

    DRAFT

PLEASE DO NOT DISSEMINATE

    DOC A-2.5

    • Original Version in English

    This document was prepared by ADEA for its Biennial Meeting (Libreville, Gabon, March 27-31, 2006). The views and opinions expressed in this volume are those of the authors and should not be attributed to ADEA, to its members or affiliated organizations or to any individual acting on behalf of ADEA.

    The document is a working document still in the stages of production. It has been prepared to serve as a basis for discussions at the ADEA Biennial Meeting and should not be disseminated for other purposes at this stage.

    ? Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) 2006

    Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA)

    International Institute for Educational Planning

    7-9 rue Eugène Delacroix

    75116 Paris, France

    Tel.: +33(0)1 45 03 77 57

    Fax: +33(0)1 45 03 39 65

    adea@iiep.unesco.org

    Web site: www.ADEAnet.org

    ADEA 2006 Biennial Meeting Fruitful Interactions Between Formal and Informal Education In Africa

    Contents ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................ 4 1. ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................ 5 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................... 6 3. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 9 4. THE CHALLENGE AHEAD ............................................................................................... 10 4.1 UPE still a challenge ...................................................................................................... 10

    4.1.1 Access and retention a problem ................................................................................................. 10

    4.1.2 Quality an issue ........................................................................................................................ 10

    4.1.3 Literacy rates low ..................................................................................................................... 11 4.2 Rethinking the education and learning system ............................................................ 11 5. A SYSTEMIC APPROACH: LINKAGES BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION ........................................................................................................................ 13 5.1 Why a systemic approach?............................................................................................ 13

    5.1.1 Changing realities..................................................................................................................... 13

    5.1.2 Linkages between formal, informal and non-formal education revisited ...................................... 13

    5.1.3 A holistic conceptualization of education ................................................................................... 14 5.2 INTEGRATION AND LINKAGES WITHIN A HOLISTIC SYSTEM ............................. 14

    5.2.1 Forms of integration ................................................................................................................. 15

    5.2.2 Forms of linkages...................................................................................................................... 15 6. CASES OF INTEGRATION AND LINKAGES .................................................................... 16 6.1 Systemic integration and linkages ................................................................................. 16

    6.1.1 Community schooling ................................................................................................................ 16

    6.1.2 National Qualifications Frameworks and Accreditation systems ................................................. 17 6.2 Institutional integration and linkages ............................................................................. 18

    6.2.1 Linkages in the form of curriculum innovations .......................................................................... 18

    6.2.2 Linkages in the form of open and distance learning .................................................................... 20

    6.2.3 Linkages in the form of adoption of effective teaching /learning methodologies ........................... 20

    6.2.4 Linkages in the form of Management, provision, ownership and financing of institutions ............. 21 6.3 Programmatic Integration and linkages ........................................................................ 22

    6.3.1 Linkages through combined literacy and skills development initiatives........................................ 23

    6.3.2 Linkages through combined use of classroom approaches and educational technologies ............. 23

    6.3.4 Linkages in evaluation of learning outcomes .............................................................................. 24

    6.3.5 Linkages between ECD, Adult Basic Education and Family Literacy .......................................... 25 7. FRUITFUL INTERACTIONS: LESSONS AND CHALLENGES .......................................... 27 7.1 Lessons ........................................................................................................................... 27 7.2 Challenges ...................................................................................................................... 30 8. RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................................... 32 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................... 33

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    ADEA 2006 Biennial Meeting Fruitful Interactions Between Formal and Informal Education In Africa

    Acronyms and abbreviations

1. ABET Adult Basic Education and Training

    2. ADEA Association for the Development of Education in Africa 3. ASECA A Secondary Education Curriculum for Adults 4. BOCODOL Botswana College of Distance and Open Learning 5. CAEB Conseil des Activités Éducatives du Bénin 6. COPE Complementary Opportunities Program of Education 7. ECD Early Childhood Development

    8. EFA Education For All

    9. FABE Family Adult Basic Education

    10. FLP Family Literacy Project

    11. GCSE General Certificate in Secondary Education 12. HIV/AIDS- Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    13. INADES -African Institute for Economic and Social Development

    14. KCPE Kenya Certificate of Primary Education

    15. MDGs Millennium Development Goals

    16. MoE Ministry of Education

    17. NALSIP National Adult Literacy Strategic Plan 18. NGOs Non- Governmental Organizations

    19. NLPN National Literacy Program in Namibia

    20. NQFs National Qualifications Frameworks

    21. NTI- National Teachers‟ Institute

    22. ODL Open Distance Learning

    23. OSEO- Œuvre Suisse d‟Entraide Ouvrière

    24. PTAs Parent Teachers Associations

    25. PRL Recognition of Prior Learning

    26. SAQA South Africa Qualifications Authority

    27. SC/USA Save the Children , United States of America 28. SMCs School Management Committees

    29. SOLO The Sudan Open Learning Organization

    30. TIMSS Trends in International Mathematical and Science Study 31. TSC Teachers Service Commission

    32. UPE Universal Primary Education

    33. UNESCO United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization

    34. UNICEF- United Nations Children‟s Fund

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    ADEA 2006 Biennial Meeting Fruitful Interactions Between Formal and Informal Education In Africa

    1. ABSTRACT

    1. This paper is based on a review of selected cases of fruitful interactions between formal and non -formal education in Africa undertaken to assess forms of integration and linkages that currently exist between formal and non-formal education programs. The review was based mainly on desk research and relied on bibliographic analysis supplemented by grey literature in the form of project documentation, mid term review reports and evaluations.

    2. The paper begins with a brief review of the progress made by countries in sub-Saharan African towards achieving basic education for all based on the 2006 Education For All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report and then goes on to discuss the challenge ahead. In its analysis, the study adopts a systemic approach which advocates for the recognition of a holistic system of education with linkages between the formal and non-formal systems as providing optimal structure and preparedness to accomplish the social, economic and human welfare objectives. It adopts Hoppers three

    categorizations of forms of integration, namely systemic, institutional and programmatic.

    3. Cases of systemic integration and linkages highlighted in the study include educational policies which transcend the dichotomy between formal and non-formal education, community schooling which serves as alternative system within formal education and the establishment of National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs) and accreditation systems. Cases of institutional integration highlighted in the study include linkages that have taken the form of curriculum innovations, open and distance learning, adoption of effective teaching /learning methodologies and management, control and financing of institutions. Cases of programmatic integration included in this study have linkages that take the form of programs that combine the development of production skills with literacy education for youths and adults and also those that combine the use of educational technologies with face to face sessions, linkages through evaluation of learning outcomes and programs and projects linking Early Childhood Development (ECD), Adult Basic Education and Family literacy.

     4. This study highlights several cases of fruitful forms of integration and linkages that currently exist between formal and non-formal education in sub-Saharan Africa. More linkages exist at programmatic and institutional levels than at the systemic level. Cases from Francophone West Africa reflect a bottom up approach to the establishment of a holistic system with pressure coming mainly from the communities. Cases from countries mainly in southern Africa seems to be coming from the opposite direction starting with the development of policies and frameworks. The paper suggests that there is a lot to learn from both approaches. Both approaches are viable and the ultimate goal is the same as that of the formation of a holistic education system.

    5. The study recommends therefore that more governments in Africa need to put in place policies and mechanisms that promote a more holistic system of education. Within this overarching framework, differentiated sets of provisions should be promoted for learning within which the conventional school is only one of the forms but is by no means the only one. There is need for a supportive infrastructure to be developed that offers administrative and professional services and that is accessible to all provisions within the system. There is also need for a funding framework that ensures acceptable equity in access to state subsidies and an overall quality assurance system that enables diverse forms of provision to grow but within a frame of strict criteria for access and quality.

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    ADEA 2006 Biennial Meeting Fruitful Interactions Between Formal and Informal Education In Africa

    2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    6. A great deal of attention has been paid to the development of universal basic education within the framework of the Dakar and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The EFA Monitoring Report 2006 indicates that while across sub-Saharan Africa enrolment rates are rising rapidly and the gender gap is slowly closing, high fertility is exacerbating the challenge of getting all children into school. In addition the HIV and AIDS epidemic, other diseases and political conflicts are expected to leave one tenth of these children orphaned by 2010, hence necessitating immediate special intervention. The Report further reveals that while significant progress has been made with regard to access to basic education, not all of these children complete basic education. Projections made for 2015 indicate that if no change occurs, 31 of the 53 African countries will not achieve the EFA Goals, and 25 states will present primary school completion rates of less than 75%. Completion of primary and basic education does not guarantee the preparation of literate citizens. Issues of quality of education cannot be disregarded if success is to be fully achieved.

    7. Literacy is at the core of the Dakar Goals. Even if it is not explicitly mentioned in the MDGs, the latter cannot be achieved in illiterate countries. Educational systems cannot fulfil their aims if focus is given only to formal education. Literacy cuts across all levels of formal and non-formal education. Being literate allows the individual to better understand and operate the various codes that organise and regulate his/her society. Literacy is also a means of individual empowerment and a means of societal development (UNESCO 2005).

    8. The development of literacy has persistently been associated with non-formal education, and as a result, literacy programs are quite often encased in a remedial paradigm, designed as a remedy to the failure of formal education in preparing literate citizens. Secondly, literacy is looked at in a narrow perspective, focusing on issues of reading and writing, and leaving behind other dimensions such as those of cultural empowerment and health promotion, for example. Thirdly, the development of literate citizens is disregarded in comparison to educational aims such as that of access to basic education; and fourthly, national policies regarding literacy are often not clearly defined and issues of language that are basic in the development of literacy, are many times disregarded. By paying special attention to literacy in Africa during its Biennial, ADEA is not only strengthening the importance of literacy for the sustainable development of the continent, but it is also creating the conditions to revise the paradigm of literacy in Africa and to discuss its adequacy to the needs of the continent. This case study is encased within this perspective.

    9. African countries have experienced many different literacy programs. These have been designed with different aims as they target different groups of population. However, levels of illiteracy in African countries are still very high (Global Monitoring Report, 2006). Attention needs to be paid to the nature and characteristics of such programs, as well as to their adequacy to the contexts in which they are being implemented. Many literacy programs are too subject and activity-oriented; others do not take into account learners‟ prior knowledge. Moreover, quite often issues of languages are not considered in the design and implementation of the programs. Program adequacy is fundamental for reaching efficiency.

    10. This study explored cases of fruitful interactions between formal and non-formal education in sub -Saharan Africa, and the linkages and means used in bridging the two sub-systems. It relied mainly on bibliographic analysis that took into account the following research questions: what forms of integration and linkages currently exist between formal and non-formal education programs? Are the linkages and bridging means related to all programs or are they focusing on programs for youngsters who did not enrol and/or dropped out of school? Does the existence of linkages make programs more efficient? How far are issues of language integrated in the linkages between programs, and how far do they affect the efficiency of the programs? Is prior knowledge taken into account in literacy programs in general and do they contribute to program efficiency?

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    ADEA 2006 Biennial Meeting Fruitful Interactions Between Formal and Informal Education In Africa

    11. In its analysis of integrations and linkages the study adopts Hoppers‟ three categorisations of forms of integration, namely systemic, institutional and programmatic. Cases of systemic integration that currently exist in sub-Saharan Africa are at the policy and provision levels where there is a growing recognition of the need for a more holistic education system within the framework of lifelong learning. Countries such as Botswana, Namibia South Africa and Cape Verde now have education policies which transcend the dichotomy between formal and non-formal education. Systemic integration also exists in the structural linkages that have been realized through certain forms of community schooling as alternative forms of formal education in Mali, Senegal and Burkina Faso. Systemic integrations also exist through National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs) and accreditation systems that have been established in some African countries such as South Africa and Namibia.

    12. Cases of institutional integration highlighted in this paper include linkages that have taken the form of curriculum innovations. Cases from Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso show how linkages have been established between the formal and non-formal through the transformation of the formal school curriculum into a more flexible, relevant and culturally sensitive curriculum. Linkages through Open and Distance Learning are illustrated by cases from Sudan and Botswana where Open and Distance Learning (ODL) has been successfully used for professional development of staff working in both formal and non- formal systems. Cases of adoptions of effective teaching /learning methodologies are highlighted from Burkina Faso where an effective methodology adopted for teaching literacy to adults and youth is now being used in formal schools as well, with impressive learning outcomes. Cases of linkages in management, control and financing of institutions are drawn from Kenya, Mali and Uganda where community schools provide good examples of partnerships between governments, communities and local and International NGOs.

    13. Cases of programmatic integration included in this study have linkages that take the form of programs that combine the development of production skills with literacy education for youths and adults. Examples highlighted here are Basic Education for Urban Poverty Areas (BEUPA) in Uganda and the Enseignement de base à partir des acquis de l'alphabétisation dans les langues nationales (EBAALAN) in Burkina Faso. Cases of programs that combine the use of educational technologies with face to face sessions highlighted in this study include the University Village Association Rural Literacy Program and the Literacy Enhancement Assistance Program, both in Nigeria. Other examples include the African Institute for Economic and Social Development (INADES) training program which is present in several African countries. Other cases of programs highlighted include programs and projects linking ECD, Adult Basic Education and Family literacy in both Uganda and South Africa.

    14. While the majority of linkages were found to be focusing on programs for youngsters who did not enrol or dropped out of school, there were also examples involving programs for adult learners, especially in the linkages through educational technologies and teaching and learning methodologies and in management and provision. Evaluation studies that have examined programs where various forms of linkages exist have shown these programs to be more efficient in terms of learning outcomes and in terms of institutional management and provision, especially where linkages have been established with local communities. The choice and use of local languages was also shown to be a contributory factor to program efficiency especially in the case of bilingual and community schools in Francophone West Africa. The curriculum design and the teaching learning methodologies adopted in the Bilingual and community schools take prior knowledge taken into account in their basic education programs. In South Africa, one of the principles of the NQF is the recognition of prior learning at all levels.

    15. This study concludes that while there are several examples of fruitful forms of integration and linkages between formal and non-formal education which are quite effective, many of them remain at the programmatic and institutional level and are not yet fully integrated at the systems level. Only a holistic and genuinely expanded vision of education and learning can currently cope with the major

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    ADEA 2006 Biennial Meeting Fruitful Interactions Between Formal and Informal Education In Africa

    challenges facing sub-Saharan African countries to make Basic Education and Lifelong learning for all children, youth and adults a reality.

16. The study recommends therefore that:

    1. More governments in Africa need to put in place policies and mechanisms that promote a

    more holistic system of education,

    2. Within this overarching framework, differentiated sets of provisions should be promoted

    for learning within which the conventional school is only one of the forms but is by no

    means the only one,

    3. There is need to develop a supportive infrastructure that offers administrative and

    professional services and that is accessible to all educational and training provisions

    within the system,

    4. There is also a need for a funding framework that ensures acceptable equity in access to

    state subsidies, as well as an overall quality assurance system that enables diverse forms

    of provision to develop within a frame of strict criteria for access and quality.

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    ADEA 2006 Biennial Meeting Fruitful Interactions Between Formal and Informal Education In Africa

    3. INTRODUCTION

    17. This study is a review of selected cases of fruitful interactions between formal and non-formal education in Africa undertaken to assess forms of integration and linkages that currently exist between formal and non-formal education programs; their focus; whether they make programs more efficient; the extent to which issues of language are integrated in the linkages between programs; the extent to which they affect the efficiency of the programs, and whether prior knowledge is taken into account in basic education programs in general and how that contributed to program efficiency.

    18. The review was based mainly on desk research and relied on bibliographic analysis supplemented by grey literature in the form of project documentation, mid-term review reports and evaluations. The study is presented in eight chapters of which the eighth presents conclusions and recommendations. The first chapter presents a brief review of the progress made by countries in sub-Saharan African towards achieving basic education for all based on the 2006 EFA Global Monitoring report and briefly discuss the challenge ahead..

    19. The second chapter presents a theoretical overview of a systemic approach and the rationale for its adoption; the third chapter presents and discusses cases of integration and linkages drawn from sub- Saharan African countries; the fourth chapter discusses lessons and challenges posed by the cases; and the fifth chapter presents the study‟s recommendations.

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    ADEA 2006 Biennial Meeting Fruitful Interactions Between Formal and Informal Education In Africa

     4. THE CHALLENGE AHEAD

20. The introduction to the 2006 EFA Global Monitoring Report notes that: When 164 governments

    adopted the six Education for All (EFA) goals in 2000, they espoused a holistic vision of education spanning learning from the first years of life through adulthood. In practice however achieving good quality universal primary education (UPE) and gender parity, two of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals have dominated attention” (Education For All, Literacy for life Summary 2006:1).

    21. It is now widely acknowledged that school systems by themselves are unable to cope with current political, economic and social realities and are also unable to meet the basic needs of children, youth and adults in order to cope with such realities. Literature emerging out of the fifteen-year effort to promote Education for All highlights serious deficiencies in the achievement of the goals set at the Jomtien Conference in 1990. The problem is both quantitative (lack of access to the school system at various levels) and qualitative (poor teaching and learning environments, poor learning results and overall dissatisfaction among students, teachers, families and societies.

4.1 UPE still a challenge

    4.1.1 Access and retention a problem

    22. The 2006 EFA Global Monitoring Report notes that while across sub-Saharan Africa enrolment rates are rising rapidly and the gender gap is slowly closing, high fertility is exacerbating the challenge of getting all children into school. In addition the HIV and AIDS epidemic, other diseases and political conflicts are expected to leave one tenth of these children orphaned by 2010 necessitating immediate special intervention.

    23. Despite the rise in enrolments, as of 2002, approximately 100 million children of primary school age were still not enrolled in primary schools, 55% of whom were girls. Seventy percent of this global total is in two regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africa being one of them. Ten of the nineteen countries that are home to more than one million out of primary school children are in sub-Saharan Africa: these include Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Furthermore, not all children enrolled in primary schools reach the last grade of primary school: a problem particularly acute in sub-Saharan Africa.

4.1.2 Quality an issue

    24. According to the EFA 2006 Report, large numbers of untrained teachers have been recruited in sub- Saharan Africa over the years in order to cope with rising enrolments in primary schools. At the same time the pupil/teacher ratios typically exceeds 40:1 and are as high as 70:1 in countries such as Chad, Congo and Mozambique. In other countries like Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, teacher numbers will have to grow dramatically by 20% per year if these countries are to attain the pupil/teacher ratios of 40:1. In Cameroon, the extra teachers needed in absolute numbers are estimated at 20,000. Such figures have consequences for salary budgets and for training.

    25. The Report further notes that large proportions of primary school teachers in sub-Saharan Africa still lack adequate qualifications. In countries like Niger, the proportion of qualified teachers has dropped as a result of the hiring of volunteer teachers to cope with increased demand for primary education. Several other countries like Mozambique and Rwanda have lowered the number of school years required to become a teacher while others have introduced accelerated pre-service training programs.

    26. Newly published data on learning outcomes however suggests that average achievement levels have decreased in recent years in sub-Saharan African countries. The 2003 Trends in International

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