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Chapter 1 Answers - Pearson Schools

By Geraldine Martinez,2014-11-18 09:18
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Chapter 1 Answers - Pearson Schools

    1 The skeletal and muscular systems AS PE for OCR Teacher Resource File 2nd Edition

    The skeleton answers 1.1

1.

2. On the skeleton below use colour coding circles to shade in:

    18 ? Pearson Education Ltd 2008

    AS PE for OCR Teacher Resource File 2nd Edition 1 The skeletal and muscular systems

    The structure of a long bone

    answers 1.2

    1.

2. Using the terms above, write a paragraph to describe the structure of a long bone.

    Interpret students own answer

3.

    Definition Term 99% of the store of this mineral is found in bone it keeps bone hard and strong. calcium The shaft of a long bone. diaphysis A connective tissue found in the spaces inside bone that is the site of blood cell bone marrow production and fat storage.

    A thin layer of glassy-smooth substance that covers the end of long bones to articular prevent friction and wear and tear. cartilage A fibrous protein with great strength that is the main component of bone. collagen The end portion of a long bone that flares out. epiphysis Also called the epiphyseal plate, this is the area of growing bone found in growth plate children and adolescents; it can be easily injured.

    ? Pearson Education Ltd 2008 19

    1 The skeletal and muscular systems AS PE for OCR Teacher Resource File 2nd Edition

    Joints and movement answers 1.3

    Complete the following table by: naming the joints of the upper and lower limbs

     identifying the joint type

     listing the articulating bones naming and illustrating (using stick men/women) the joint movements that occur at the joint.

    UPPER LIMB

    Illustration Joint name Joint type Articulating Movements

    bones possible

     Shoulder Ball and Head of Flexion

    socket humerous Extension

    with glenoid Horizontal flexion

    fossa of Horizontal extension

    scapula Abduction

    Adduction

    Rotation

    Circumduction

     Elbow Hinge Humerus, Flexion

    radius, ulna Extension

     Radio-ulnar Pivot Radius, Pronation

    ulna

     Wrist Condyloid Radius, Flexion*

    ulna, Extension

    carpals

    20 ? Pearson Education Ltd 2008

    AS PE for OCR Teacher Resource File 2nd Edition 1 The skeletal and muscular systems

    LOWER LIMB

    Illustration Joint name Joint type Articulating Movements

    bones possible

     Hip Ball and Head of Flexion**

    socket femur with Extension

    acetabulum Abduction

    of pelvis Adduction

    Rotation

    Knee Hinge Femur, tibia Flexion

    Extension

    Ankle Hinge Tibia, fibula, Doriflexion***

    talus Plantar flexion

    SPINE

    Illustration Joint Type Example of Articulating Movements

    bones possible where it is found

    in the spine

     Between the atlas Flexion

    and the axis Extension

    Pivot Rotation

    Lateral flexion

    Between the bony

    processes of

    Gliding Vertebrae adjacent vertebrae

    Between the

    body’s of adjacent

    Cartilaginous vertebrae

    ? Pearson Education Ltd 2008 21

1 The skeletal and muscular systems AS PE for OCR Teacher Resource File 2nd Edition

    Muscles of the body answers 1.4

    1. Label the major muscles of the body in the diagram below.

    2. Write a paragraph to explain how an agonist and antagonist muscle work together to produce

    coordinated movement. Give two different examples from sport to illustrate your answer.

    example 1:

22 ? Pearson Education Ltd 2008

    AS PE for OCR Teacher Resource File 2nd Edition 1 The skeletal and muscular systems

    example 2:

    3. (a) List the four rotator cuff muscles.

     1.

     2.

     3.

     4.

    (b) What role do the rotator cuff muscles play?

    (c) Why are they necessary?

4. (a) Name two important muscles of the trunk that help maintain good posture.

    1.

     2.

    (b) What do you understand by the term core stability and why is it so important?

    ? Pearson Education Ltd 2008 23

    1 The skeletal and muscular systems AS PE for OCR Teacher Resource File 2nd Edition

5. Complete the missing information in the following table.

    Joint Joint Movement Agonist Antagonist Wrist wrist flexors

    Radio-ulnar pronator teres elbow extension

    shoulder flexion

    shoulder middle deltoid spine extension

    hip iliopsoas

    hip abduction

    biceps femoris knee semiteninosus

    semimembranosus ankle gastrocnemius

    6. Select six muscles from the table in question 5 and describe where on the body they are located.

     Name of muscle Location on body 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 24 ? Pearson Education Ltd 2008

AS PE for OCR Teacher Resource File 2nd Edition 1 The skeletal and muscular systems

    The role of muscular contraction

    answers 1.5

    1. Complete the sentences below by filling in the missing information using the words listed.

    isotonic isometric stops concentric

    shortening controls lengthening

    When there is no movement of a joint when tension is developed in a muscle, this is called

     contraction, which joint movement.

     contraction of a muscle results in the muscle producing joint movement. There are two

    types:

     contraction causes joint movement and involves the muscle while

    developing tension. Eccentric contraction joint movement and involves the

    muscle while developing tension.

    2. Using the sit-up as an example, describe in your own words the type of muscular contraction

    occurring in the rectus abdominis during:

    (i) the upward phase and (ii) downward phase.

    (i) Upward phase

    (ii) Downward phase

? Pearson Education Ltd 2008 25

1 The skeletal and muscular systems AS PE for OCR Teacher Resource File 2nd Edition

3. Look at the diagrams below that show different strengthening exercises. For each exercise identify:

     the muscle being worked at the joint specified

     the type of muscular contraction occurring in the upward phase

     the type of muscular contraction occurring in the lowering phase.

    Exercise Working muscle Type of contraction Type of contraction

    in upward phase in lowering phase

     Elbow joint

Shoulder press

    Elbow joint

Biceps curls

     Knee joint

Leg curls

     Shoulder joint

Chin ups

     Hip joint

Sit ups

26 ? Pearson Education Ltd 2008

AS PE for OCR Teacher Resource File 2nd Edition 1 The skeletal and muscular systems

    The impact of different types of

    physical activity on the skeletal and

    muscular systems answers 1.6

    The diagram below shows an adolescent boy who is hoping to become an elite performer in rugby

    union when he is a little older.

     QuickTime?and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorare needed to see this picture.

1. Using colour-coded circles, identify where on his body he could be susceptible to the following

    bone, joint and muscle disorders:

     osteoporosis

     growth plate injury

     osteoarthritis

     joint stability problems

     posture and alignment issues

    ? Pearson Education Ltd 2008 27

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