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Justice Guide4

By Carol Berry,2014-01-31 11:13
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Justice Guide4

    目录

    每章简介和原文 .............................................................................................................................................- 4 -

    Episode Guide .........................................................................................................................................- 4 -

    Episode One ............................................................................................................................................- 4 -

    PART ONE: THE MORAL SIDE OF MURDER ...................................................................- 4 -

    PART TWO: THE CASE FOR CANNIBALISM ...................................................................- 4 - Episode Two ............................................................................................................................................- 4 -

    PART ONE: PUTTING A PRICE TAG ON LIFE...........................................................................- 4 -

    PART TWO: HOW TO MEASURE PLEASURE ...........................................................................- 5 - Episode Three ..........................................................................................................................................- 5 -

    PART ONE: FREE TO CHOOSE .................................................................................................- 5 -

    PART TWO: WHO OWNS ME?...................................................................................................- 5 -

    Episode Four ...........................................................................................................................................- 5 -

    PART ONE: THIS LAND IS MY LAND......................................................................................- 5 -

    PART TWO: CONSENTING ADULTS ........................................................................................- 5 - Episode Five ............................................................................................................................................- 6 -

    PART ONE: HIRED GUNS ..........................................................................................................- 6 -

    PART TWO: MOTHERHOOD: FOR SALE ................................................................................- 6 - Episode 6 .................................................................................................................................................- 6 -

    PART ONE: MIND YOUR MOTIVE .............................................................................................- 6 -

    PART TWO: THE SUPREME PRINCIPLE OF MORALITY .....................................................- 6 - Episode 7 .................................................................................................................................................- 6 -

    PART ONE: A LESSON IN LYING................................................................................................- 6 -

    PART TWO: A DEAL IS A DEAL ..................................................................................................- 7 -

    Episode 8 .................................................................................................................................................- 7 -

    PART ONE: WHAT‘S A FAIR START? .........................................................................................- 7 -

    PART TWO: WHAT DO WE DESERVE? ......................................................................................- 7 - Episode 9 .................................................................................................................................................- 8 -

    PART ONE: ARGUING AFFIRMATIVE ACTION .......................................................................- 8 -

    PART TWO: WHAT‘S THE PURPOSE?........................................................................................- 8 - Episode 10 ...............................................................................................................................................- 8 -

    PART ONE: THE GOOD CITIZEN................................................................................................- 8 -

    PART TWO: FREEDOM VS. FIT ..................................................................................................- 8 -

    Episode 11 ...............................................................................................................................................- 8 -

    PART ONE: THE CLAIMS OF COMMUNITY ............................................................................- 8 -

    PART TWO: WHERE OUR LOYALTY LIES ................................................................................- 9 - Episode 12 ...............................................................................................................................................- 9 -

    PART ONE: DEBATING SAME-SEX MARRIAGE .....................................................................- 9 -

    PART TWO: THE GOOD LIFE ......................................................................................................- 9 -

    About Justice ...........................................................................................................................................- 9 -

    Michael Sandel ..............................................................................................................................- 10 -

    原文 ............................................................................................................................................................... - 11 -

    1--1 THE MORAL SIDE OF MURDER .............................................................................................. - 11 -

    12 THE CASE FOR CANNIBALISM ..............................................................................................- 17 -

    2--1 PUTTING A PRICE TAG ON LIFE ..............................................................................................- 24 -

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2--2 HOW TO MEASURE PLEASURE...............................................................................................- 29 -

    3--1 FREE TO CHOOSE ......................................................................................................................- 35 -

    3--2 WHO OWNS ME? ........................................................................................................................- 40 -

    4--1 THIS LAND IS MY LAND...........................................................................................................- 46 -

    4--2 CONSENTING ADULTS ............................................................................................................- 50 -

    5--1 Hired Guns .....................................................................................................................................- 56 -

    52 Motherhood For Sale ....................................................................................................................- 61 -

    61 MIND YOUR MOTIVE ...............................................................................................................- 66 -

    62 THE SUPREME PRINCIPLE OF MORALITY ..........................................................................- 71 - 71 A LESSON IN LYING .................................................................................................................- 76 -

    72 A Deal is a Deal ..........................................................................................................................- 80 -

    81 WHAT‘S A FAIR START? (Timing 0-23) .............................................................................- 86 - 82 WHAT DO WE DESERVE? (Timing 0-23) ...........................................................................- 91 - 91 ARGUING AFFIRMATIVE ACTION (Timing 0-25) ..............................................................- 95 - 92 What‘s the Purpose? (Timing 25-end) .....................................................................................- 102 - 101 The Good Citizen (Timing 1-25) ............................................................................................- 107 -

    102 Freedom Vs. Fit ..................................................................................................................... - 112 -

    111 The Claims of Community .................................................................................................... - 117 -

    112 Where Our Loyalth lies ..........................................................................................................- 122 -

    Story of Billy Bulger ...................................................................................................................- 125 -

    Story of Robert E. Lee .................................................................................................................- 126 -

    Michael Walzer‘s implications of justice .....................................................................................- 127 - 121 DEBATING SAME-SEX MARRIAGE .................................................................................- 129 - 122 The Good Life .......................................................................................................................- 134 -

    Discuss ........................................................................................................................................................- 140 -

    Discuss for episode 1: ........................................................................................................................- 140 -

    Discuss for episode 2: ........................................................................................................................- 140 -

    Discuss for episode 3: ........................................................................................................................- 141 -

    Discuss for episode 4: ........................................................................................................................- 141 -

    Discuss for episode 5: ........................................................................................................................- 143 -

    Discuss for episode 6: ........................................................................................................................- 143 -

    Discuss for episode 7: ........................................................................................................................- 145 -

    Discuss for episode 8: ........................................................................................................................- 145 -

    Discuss for episode 9: ........................................................................................................................- 147 -

    Discuss for episode 10: ......................................................................................................................- 148 -

    Discuss for episode 11: ......................................................................................................................- 149 -

    Discuss for episode 12: ......................................................................................................................- 150 -

    Reading........................................................................................................................................................- 151 -

    Jeremy Bentham, Principles of Morals and Legislation (1780) ..........................................................- 152 -

    Chapter I. Of the Principle of Utility. ..........................................................................................- 152 -

    Chapter IV. Value of a Lot of Pleasure or Pain, How to be Measured. ........................................- 155 - J.S. Mill, Utilitarianism (1863)............................................................................................................- 156 -

    Chapter I. General Remarks. .......................................................................................................- 157 -

    Chapter 2. What Utilitarianism Is. ...............................................................................................- 159 -

    Chapter 3. Of the Ultimate Sanction of the Principle of Utility...................................................- 170 -

    Chapter 4. Of what sort of Proof the Principle of Utility is Susceptible. ....................................- 175 -

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    Chapter 5. On the Connection between Justice and Utility. ........................................................- 179 - John Locke, Second Treatise of Government (1690) ..........................................................................- 192 -

    CHAP. I. ......................................................................................................................................- 192 -

    CHAP. II. Of the State of Nature. ................................................................................................- 193 -

    CHAP. III. Of the State of War. ...................................................................................................- 196 -

    CHAP. IV. Of Slavery. .................................................................................................................- 198 -

    CHAP. V. Of Property. .................................................................................................................- 199 -

    CHAP. VII. Of Political or Civil Society. ....................................................................................- 206 -

    CHAP. VIII. Of the Beginning of Political Societies. ................................................................. - 211 -

    CHAP. IX. Of the Ends of Political Society and Government.....................................................- 218 -

    CHAP. X. Of the Forms of a Common-wealth. ...........................................................................- 220 -

    CHAP. XI. Of the Extent of the Legislative Power. ....................................................................- 221 - In the Matter of Baby ―M‖ (1988) .......................................................................................................- 236 - Immanuel Kant, Groundwork for the Metaphysics n. 形而上学,玄学of Morals (1785) ...............- 239 -

    PREFACE ............................................................................................................................- 239 -

    FIRST SECTION ................................................................................................................- 242 -

    SECOND SECTION ...........................................................................................................- 248 -

    John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (1971) ..............................................................................................- 277 -

    PGA Tour, Inc. v. Martin (2000) ..........................................................................................................- 277 -

    Goodridge古德里奇v. Department of Public Health (2003) .............................................................- 283 -

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    每章简介和原文

Episode Guide

    For the best learning experience, watch the twelve Justice episodes in chronological order. Every Sunday, an additional episode will be added to the web site and available for viewing. Each one hour episode includes two separate lectures. Below is a summary of all twelve episodes.

Episode One

    PART ONE: THE MORAL SIDE OF MURDER

    If you had to choose between (1) killing one person to save the lives of five others and (2) doing nothing even though you knew that five people would die right before your eyes if you did nothingwhat would you do? What would be the right thing to

    do? That’s the hypothetical scenario Professor Michael Sandel uses to launch his

    course on moral reasoning. After the majority of students votes for killing the one person in order to save the lives of five others, Sandel presents three similar moral conundrumseach one artfully designed to make the decision more difficult. As students stand up to defend their conflicting choices, it becomes clear that the assumptions behind our moral reasoning are often contradictory, and the question of what is right and what is wrong is not always black and white

PART TWO: THE CASE FOR CANNIBALISM

    Sandel introduces the principles of utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, with a famous nineteenth century legal case involving a shipwrecked crew of four. After nineteen days lost at sea, the captain decides to kill the weakest amongst them, the young cabin boy, so that the rest can feed on his blood and body to survive. The case sets up a classroom debate about the moral validity of utilitarianismand its doctrine

    that the right thing to do is whatever produces "the greatest good for the greatest number."

    Episode Two

    PART ONE: PUTTING A PRICE TAG ON LIFE

    Today, companies and governments often use Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarian logic under the name of “cost-benefit analysis.” Sandel presents some contemporary cases in which cost-benefit analysis was used to put a dollar value on human life. The cases give rise to several objections to the utilitarian logic of seeking “the greatest good for the greatest number.” Should we always give more weight to the happiness of a majority,

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    even if the majority is cruel or ignoble? Is it possible to sum up and compare all values using a common measure like money?

    PART TWO: HOW TO MEASURE PLEASURE

    Sandel introduces J.S. Mill, a utilitarian philosopher who attempts to defend utilitarianism against the objections raised by critics of the doctrine. Mill argues that seeking “the greatest good for the greatest number” is compatible with protecting individual rights, and that utilitarianism can make room for a distinction between higher and lower pleasures. Mill’s idea is that the higher pleasure is always the pleasure

    preferred by a well-informed majority. Sandel tests this theory by playing video clips from three very different forms of entertainment: Shakespeare’s Hamlet, the reality show Fear

    Factor, and The Simpsons. Students debate which experience provides the higher

    pleasure, and whether Mill’s defense of utilitarianism is successful.

    Episode Three

    PART ONE: FREE TO CHOOSE

    Sandel introduces the libertarian conception of individual rights, according to which only a minimal state is justified. Libertarians argue that government shouldn’t have the power to enact laws that 1) protect people from themselves, such as seat belt laws, 2) impose some people’s moral values on society as a whole, or 3) redistribute income from the rich to the poor. Sandel explains the libertarian notion that redistributive taxation is akin to forced labor with references to Bill Gates and Michael Jordan.

    PART TWO: WHO OWNS ME?

    Libertarian philosopher Robert Nozick makes the case that taxing the wealthyto

    pay for housing, health care, and education for the pooris a form of

    coercion. Students first discuss the arguments behind redistributive taxation. Don’t most poor people need the social services they receive in order to survive? If you live in a society that has a system of progressive taxation, aren’t you obligated to pay your taxes? Don’t many rich people often acquire their wealth through sheer luck or family fortune? A group of students dubbed “Team Libertarian” volunteers to defend the

    libertarian philosophy against these objections

    Episode Four

    PART ONE: THIS LAND IS MY LAND

    The philosopher John Locke believes that individuals have certain rights so fundamental that no government can ever take them away. These rightsto life, liberty

    and property—were given to us as human beings in the “the state of nature,” a time before government and laws were created. According to Locke, our natural rights are governed by the law of nature, known by reason, which says that we can neither give them up nor take them away from anyone else. Sandel wraps up the lecture by raising a question: what happens to our natural rights once we enter society and consent to a system of laws?

    PART TWO: CONSENTING ADULTS

    If we all have unalienable rights to life, liberty, and property, how can a government enforce tax laws passed by the representatives of a mere majority? Doesn’t that amount to taking some people’s property without their consent? Locke’s response is that we give our “tacit consent” to obey the tax laws passed by a majority when we choose to live in a society. Therefore, taxation is legitimate and compatible with individual rights, as long as it applies to everyone and does not arbitrarily single anyone out.

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Episode Five

    PART ONE: HIRED GUNS

    During the Civil War, men drafted into war had the option of hiring substitutes to fight in their place. Professor Sandel asks students whether they consider this policy just. Many do not, arguing that it is unfair to allow the affluent to avoid serving and risking their lives by paying less privileged citizens to fight in their place. This leads to a classroom debate about war and conscription. Is today’s voluntary army open to the

    same objection? Should military service be allocated by the labor market or by conscription? What role should patriotism play, and what are the obligations of citizenship? Is there a civic duty to serve one’s country? And are utilitarians and libertarians able to account for this duty?

    PART TWO: MOTHERHOOD: FOR SALE

    In this lecture, Professor Sandel examines the principle of free-market exchange in light of the contemporary controversy over reproductive rights. Sandel begins with a humorous discussion of the business of egg and sperm donation. He then describes the case of “Baby M"—a famous legal battle in the mid-eighties that raised the unsettling question, “Who owns a baby?" In 1985, a woman named Mary Beth Whitehead signed a contract with a New Jersey couple, agreeing to be a surrogate mother in exchange for a fee of $10,000. However, after giving birth, Ms. Whitehead decided she wanted to keep the child, and the case went to court. Sandel and students debate the nature of informed consent, the morality of selling a human life, and the meaning of maternal rights. Episode 6

    PART ONE: MIND YOUR MOTIVE

    Professor Sandel introduces Immanuel Kant, a challenging but influential philosopher. Kant rejects utilitarianism. He argues that each of us has certain fundamental duties and rights that take precedence over maximizing utility. Kant rejects the notion that morality is about calculating consequences. When we act out of dutydoing something simply because it is rightonly then do our actions have moral

    worth. Kant gives the example of a shopkeeper who passes up the chance to shortchange a customer only because his business might suffer if other customers found out. According to Kant, the shopkeeper’s action has no moral worth, because he did the right thing for the wrong reason.

    PART TWO: THE SUPREME PRINCIPLE OF MORALITY

    Immanuel Kant says that insofar as our actions have moral worth, what confers moral worth is our capacity to rise above self-interest and inclination and to act out of duty. Sandel tells the true story of a thirteen-year old boy who won a spelling bee contest, but then admitted to the judges that he had, in fact, misspelled the final word. Using this story and others, Sandel explains Kant’s test for determining whether an action is morally right: to identify the principle expressed in our action and then ask whether that principle could ever become a universal law that every other human being could act on.

    Episode 7

    PART ONE: A LESSON IN LYING

    Immanuel Kant’s stringent theory of morality allows for no exceptions. Kant

    believed that telling a lie, even a white lie, is a violation of one’s own dignity. Professor Sandel asks students to test Kant’s theory with this hypothetical case: if your friend were

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    hiding inside your home, and a person intent on killing your friend came to your door and asked you where he was, would it be wrong to tell a lie? If so, would it be moral to try to mislead the murderer without actually lying? This leads to a discussion of the morality of “misleading truths.” Sandel wraps up the lecture with a video clip of one of the most

    famous, recent examples of dodging the truth: President Clinton talking about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky.

    PART TWO: A DEAL IS A DEAL

    Sandel introduces the modern philosopher John Rawls and his theory of a “hypothetical social contract.” Rawls argues that principles of justice are the outcome of a special kind of agreement. They are the principles we would all agree to if we had to choose rules for our society and no one had any unfair bargaining power. According to Rawls, the only way to ensure that no one has more power than anyone else is to imagine a scenario where no one knows his or her age, sex, race, intelligence, strength, social position, family wealth, religion, or even his or her goals in life. Rawls calls this hypothetical situation a “veil of ignorance.” What principles would we agree to behind

    this “veil of ignorance”? And would these principles be fair? Professor Sandel explains the idea of a fair agreement with some humorous examples of actual contracts that produce unfair results.

    Episode 8

    PART ONE: WHAT’S A FAIR START?

    Is it just to tax the rich to help the poor? John Rawls says we should answer this question by asking what principles you would choose to govern the distribution of income and wealth if you did not know who you were, whether you grew up in privilege or in poverty. Wouldn’t you want an equal distribution of wealth, or one that maximally benefits whomever happens to be the least advantaged? After all, that might be you. Rawls argues that even meritocracya distributive system that rewards effort—doesn’t

    go far enough in leveling the playing field because those who are naturally gifted will always get ahead. Furthermore, says Rawls, the naturally gifted can’t claim much credit because their success often depends on factors as arbitrary as birth order. Sandel makes Rawls’s point when he asks the students who were first born in their family to raise their hands.

    PART TWO: WHAT DO WE DESERVE?

    Professor Sandel recaps how income, wealth, and opportunities in life should be distributed, according to the three different theories raised so far in class. He summarizes libertarianism, the meritocratic system, and John Rawls’s egalitarian theory. Sandel then launches a discussion of the fairness of pay differentials in modern society. He compares the salary of former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor ($200,000) with the salary of television’s Judge Judy ($25 million). Sandel asks, is this fair? According to John Rawls, it is not. Rawls argues that an individual’s personal

    success is often a function of morally arbitrary factsluck, genes, and family

    circumstancesfor which he or she can claim no credit. Those at the bottom are no less worthy simply because they weren’t born with the talents a particular society rewards,

    Rawls argues, and the only just way to deal with society’s inequalities is for the naturally advantaged to share their wealth with those less fortunate.

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Episode 9

    PART ONE: ARGUING AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

    Sandel describes the 1996 court case of a white woman named Cheryl Hopwood who was denied admission to a Texas law school, even though she had higher grades and test scores than some of the minority applicants who were admitted. Hopwood took her case to court, arguing the school’s affirmative action program violated her rights.

    Students discuss the pros and cons of affirmative action. Should we try to correct for inequality in educational backgrounds by taking race into consideration? Should we compensate for historical injustices such as slavery and segregation? Is the argument in favor of promoting diversity a valid one? How does it size up against the argument that a student’s efforts and achievements should carry more weight than factors that are out of his or her control and therefore arbitrary? When a university’s stated mission is to

    increase diversity, is it a violation of rights to deny a white person admission?

    PART TWO: WHAT’S THE PURPOSE?

    Sandel introduces Aristotle and his theory of justice. Aristotle disagrees with Rawls and Kant. He believes that justice is about giving people their due, what they deserve. When considering matters of distribution, Aristotle argues one must consider the goal, the end, the purpose of what is being distributed. The best flutes, for example, should go to the best flute players. And the highest political offices should go to those with the best judgment and the greatest civic virtue. For Aristotle, justice is a matter of fitting a person’s virtues with an appropriate role.

Episode 10

    PART ONE: THE GOOD CITIZEN

    Aristotle believes the purpose of politics is to promote and cultivate the virtue of its citizens. The telos or goal of the state and political community is the “good life”. And those citizens who contribute most to the purpose of the community are the ones who should be most rewarded. But how do we know the purpose of a community or a practice? Aristotle’s theory of justice leads to a contemporary debate about golf. Sandel describes the case of Casey Martin, a disabled golfer, who sued the PGA after it declined his request to use a golf cart on the PGA Tour. The case leads to a debate about the purpose of golf and whether a player’s ability to “walk the course” is essential to the game.

    PART TWO: FREEDOM VS. FIT

    How does Aristotle address the issue of individual rights and the freedom to choose? If our place in society is determined by where we best fit, doesn’t that eliminate personal choice? What if I am best suited to do one kind of work, but I want to do another? In this lecture, Sandel addresses one of the most glaring objections to Aristotle’s views on freedom—his defense of slavery as a fitting social role for certain human beings. Students discuss other objections to Aristotle’s theories and debate whether his philosophy overly restricts the freedom of individuals.

Episode 11

    PART ONE: THE CLAIMS OF COMMUNITY

    Professor Sandel presents Kant’s objections to Aristotle’s theory. Kant believes politics must respect individual freedom. People must always respect other people’s

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freedom to make their own choicesa universal duty to humanitybut for Kant, there is

    no other source of moral obligation. The discussion of Kant’s view leads to an introduction to the communitarian philosophy. Communitarians argue that, in addition to voluntary and universal duties, we also have obligations of membership, solidarity, and loyalty. These obligations are not necessarily based on consent. We inherit our past, and our identities, from our family, city, or country. But what happens if our obligations to our family or community come into conflict with our universal obligations to humanity?

    PART TWO: WHERE OUR LOYALTY LIES

    Professor Sandel leads a discussion about the arguments for and against obligations of solidarity and membership. Do we owe more to our fellow citizens that to citizens of other countries? Is patriotism a virtue, or a prejudice for one’s own kind? If our identities are defined by the particular communities we inhabit, what becomes of universal human rights? Using various scenarios, students debate whether or not obligations of loyalty can ever outweigh universal duties of justice

    Episode 12

    PART ONE: DEBATING SAME-SEX MARRIAGE

    If principles of justice depend on the moral or intrinsic worth of the ends that rights serve, how should we deal with the fact that people hold different ideas and conceptions of what is good? Students address this question in a heated debate about same-sex marriage. Should same-sex marriage be legal? Can we settle the matter without discussing the moral permissibility of homosexuality or the purpose of marriage?

    PART TWO: THE GOOD LIFE

    Professor Sandel raises two questions. Is it necessary to reason about the good life in order to decide what rights people have and what is just? If so, how is it possible to argue about the nature of the good life? Students explore these questions with a discussion about the relation of law and morality, as played out in public controversies over same-sex marriage and abortion. Michael Sandel concludes his lecture series by making the point that, in many cases, the law can’t be neutral on hard moral questions.

    Engaging rather than avoiding the moral convictions of our fellow citizens may be the best way of seeking a just society.

About Justice

    Justice is one of the most popular courses in Harvard’s history. Nearly one

    thousand students pack Harvard’s historic Sanders Theatre to hear Professor Sandel talk about justice, equality, democracy, and citizenship. Now it’s your turn to take the

    same journey in moral reflection that has captivated more than 14,000 students, as Harvard opens its classroom to the world.

    This course aims to help viewers become more critically minded thinkers about the moral decisions we all face in our everyday lives.

    In this 12-part series, Sandel challenges us with difficult moral dilemmas and asks our opinion about the right thing to do.

    He then asks us to examine our answers in the light of new scenarios. The result is often surprising, revealing that important moral questions are never black and white.

    Sorting out these contradictions sharpens our own moral convictions and gives us the moral clarity to better understand the opposing views we confront in a democracy

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Michael Sandel

    Michael Sandel is the Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor of Government at Harvard, where he has taught political philosophy since 1980. His books include Democracy‘s Discontent, Public Philosophy: Essays on Morality in Politics, The Case Against Perfection: Ethics in the Age of Genetic Engineering, and, most recently, Justice: What‘s the Right Thing to

    Do? His writings have been translated into eleven foreign languages and have appeared in The Atlantic, The New Republic, and the New York Times.

    Sandel has lectured widely in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, and New Zealand, on topics including democracy, liberalism, bioethics, globalization, and justice. He delivered the Tanner Lectures on Human Values at Oxford University, was a visiting professor at the Sorbonne, and in 2009 delivered the BBC’s Reith Lectures. From 2002-2005, Sandel served on the President’s Council on

    Bioethics. A member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Sandel received his doctorate from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar.

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