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SPSS Manual To Accompany Howells Fundamental Statisitcs for The

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SPSS Manual To Accompany Howells Fundamental Statisitcs for The

    SPSS Manual To Accompany Howell’s Fundamental

    Statisitcs for The Behavioral Sciences

    (7th Edition)

    Esther M. Leerkes

    David C. Howell

    University of Vermont

    CONTENTS

    Introduction to SPSS Objectives

    What is SPSS?

    Opening SPSS

    Layout of SPSS

    SPSS Menus and Icons Exiting SPSS

    Exercises

    Entering Data

    Objectives

    The Logic of Data Files Entering Data

    Inserting a Variable Inserting a Case

    Merging Files

    Reading Data From Other Sources

    Graphing Data

    Objectives

    Frequency Distributions Histograms

    Stem-and-Leaf Plot Boxplots

    Bar Graphs

    Line Graphs

    Scatterplots

    Pie Charts

    Chart Templates

    Exercises

    Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Variability and Central Tendency

    Objectives

    Descriptive Statistics Frequencies

    Crosstabs

    Compare Means

    Exercise

    Correlation

    Objectives

    Correlation

    Subgroup Correlations Scatterplots of Data by Subgroups

    Overlay Scatterplots

    Exercises

    Regression and Multiple Regression

    Objectives

    Regression

    Multiple Regression

    Exercises

Comparings Means Using t-tests

     Objectives

     One Sample t-tests

     Paired Sample t-tests

     Independent Samples t-tests

     Exercises

    Comparing Means Using One-Way ANOVA

     Objectives

     One-Way Anova

     General Linear Model to Calculate One-Way ANOVAs

     Exercises

Comparing Means Using Factorial ANOVA

     Objectives

     Factorial ANOVA Using GLM Univariate

     Simple Effects

     Exercises

Comparing Means Using Repeated Measures ANOVA

     Objectives

     Using GLM Repeated Measures to Calculate Repeated Measures ANOVAs

     Multiple Comparisons

     Exercises

Chi-Square

     Objectives

     Goodness of Fit Chi Square All Categories Equal

     Goodness of Fit Chi Square Categories Unequal

     Chi Square for Contingency Tables

     Exercises

Nonparametric Statistics

     Objectives

     Mann-Whitney Test

     Wilcoxon’s Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks Test

     Kruskal-Wallis One-Way ANOVA

     Friedman’s Rank Test for k Related Samples

     Exercises

Preface

    This manual was originally intended to accompany Howell, D. C. (2004) thFundamental Statistics for the Social Sciences, 5 Edition. I am making it available for

    the later editions of that book and of Statistical Methods for Psychology. It is also suitable

    for anyone using Statistical Methods in Psychology, although the examples may differ in

    a few places and references to tables in the text will likely be incorrectly numbered. All chapter numbers refer to the Fundamentals text. This manual is not intended to be an all

    encompassing overview of SPSS. It is intended to illustrate the use of SPSS to conduct procedures covered in the textbook. It was originally written to accompany an earlier version of SPSS than the current Version 17, and, where practical, I have tried to bring it up to date. A few of the older dialog boxes remain if they would cause no confusion. Data files that go with this manual are available at

    http://www.uvm.edu/~dhowell/fundamentals/SPSSManual/SPSSLongerManual/DataForSPSS/ . If

    something is missing it can probably be found at

    http://www.uvm.edu/fundamentals/DataFiles although a table or exercise name may

    have been changed slightly.

    The first draft of this document was written by Ester Leerkes, who did an excellent job. Esther is now an Associate Professor in the department of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of North CarolineGreensboro. (an

    outstanding department. ) She deserves 90% of the credit. I (Dave Howell) only provided comments and suggestions. Recently I have added a bit more material simply to bring the discussion up to date, but Esther is the one who provided the structure, the design, and most of the text. I started with SPSS way back when, and because “I know all that stuff,”

    I did not take the time to attend to many helpful changes. In the process of doing this revision I have learned a lot that I had forgotten or never knew about SPSS. (Thanks, Esther!) . Do not just skip over the section on using menus. There is a lot of good information there. The one weakness in relation to recent versions of SPSS concerns the creation of graphics. I have not attempted to adapt to the newer Chart Builder menu in

    SPSS, but have instead relied on the Legacy graphics. These are modified versions of the

    graphics that older versions produced. I think that they are easier to use, but that may be just because that is always the way I have done things.

    This manual includes hands-on activities in every chapter intended to increase your knowledge of SPSS. Simply reading this manual without attempting the activities is unlikely to increase your comfort with SPSS. The hands-on activities build on one another, so you should perform the activities in order to maximize your learning. ;This

    check mark is used to denote specific steps that should be followed for the hands on activities. Important commands and checkboxes are boldfaced in the instructions (e.g., click Continue, select Save standardized values). These instructions were written

    based on the assumption that readers have a working knowledge of Windows based programs.

    Older versions of SPSS allowed only 8 characters in a name, and did not allow lower case. You will see a few names that look as if they were misspelled (e.g. “CONDTION”)

    These are holdovers from the bad old days. They just look a little odd.

    Every chapter concludes with exercises, most of which offer an additional opportunity to practice procedures outlined in the hands-on activities. Completing these exercises independently will greatly improve your comfort with SPSS. In making this revision I have not addressed the exercises. I was sufficiently proud of myself for taking on the revision in the first place, and didn’t have the energy to go to the exercises.

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