Unit 3 Company structure
One of the most important tasks for the management of any organization is to determine its
autonomous – independent, able to take decisions without consulting a higher authority decentralization – dividing an organization into decision-making units that are not centrally
hierarchy – a system of authority with different levels, one above the other
line hierarchy – the power to give instructions to people at the level below in the chain of
incompatible goals – goals that are opposed each other and have conflicts existing together 公司结构
Most business organizations have hierarchy consisting of several levels and a clear line of
command. There may also be staff positions that are not integrated into the hierarchy. The
organization might also be divided into functional department, such as production, finance,
marketing. Sales and personnel. Larger organizations are often further divided into
autonomous divisions, each with it own functional sections. More recent organizational
systems include matrix management and teams, both of which combine people from different
functions and keep decision-making at lower levels. Each structure has its own advantages
Whether to use a certain structure depends on the situation.
Functional structure is efficient, but there are two standard criticisms. Firstly, people are
usually more concerned with the success of their department than that of the company. And
there may be incompatible goals for different department; consequently, there will be battles
between them. Secondly, separating functions is unlikely to encourage innovation.
Decentralization is another way of organizing a company. It is commonly applied in some
large company which has a various kind of production. General Motors, for example, under it,
there are many brands. Each brand has its own functional system.
Matrix Management keeps authority at lower levels. It allows people at different levels to
make important decisions, but in matrix management people have to report to more that one
superior; consequently, it is not necessarily a very efficient one.
advertising budget – 广告预算
market share for new products – 新产品的试产份额
high profit margins 高利润空间
Large inventory makes sure that products are available. – 巨大的库存确保了货源的充足.
department > unit, section
be made up of be composed of be divided into
consist of contain include
be in charge of be responsible for
e.g. I am in charge of this department.
I am responsible for this department.
be accountable to be responsible to
e.g. I am accountable to my boss.
I am responsible to my boss.
for example for instance
in other words that is
due to owing to
consequently therefore thus
on the contrary on the other hand conversely
industry belt – an area with lots of industrial companies, around the edge of a city productivity – 生产力;率；
insulated and isolated – alone, placed in a position away from others
Isolated companies or groups are at a disadvantage, because most groups of people get most of their ideas and innovations from the outside. So in order to maximize productivity, creativity, innovation, and wealth, you should break up your business into a number of groups which compete but also communicate with each other quite freely. You should also exchange ideas and information with other companies, and regularly engage staff who have worked for your competitors.
I think I would like to choose working in a small company. Here are the reasons. Almost all big companies started from small ones. They develop and expand step by step. With proper management, small company will have a bright further. Furthermore, the atmosphere is much friendlier and you know everyone; it brings you much convenient. And you can easily have a face-to-face talk with your boss about problems. Consequently, you will have greater freedom flexibility and openness, with which you have a better possibility of realizing your potential. Moreover, you can actually see the result of your contribution to the company.
Advantages of working for a big company
You can be proud of working for a company with a national or international reputation.
You will get a higher salary.
You can become more specialized by performing one job