Unit 1 The three sectors of the economy
We generally describe the economy as consisting of three sectors. The first one is the primary sector which mainly includes agriculture, and the extraction of raw materials from the earth. The secondary sector is the manufacturing industry, in which raw materials are turned into finished products, although of course many of the people working for manufacturing companies do not actually make anything but provide a service, for example, administration, law, finance, personnel, and so on. The last economic sector is the tertiary sector, which comprises the commercial services, education, health care, tourism, leisure, and so on.
I am firmly convinced that I will work in the tertiary sector. Here are the reasons for this. Firstly, I am a student majoring in English which is related to arts, not to science, and English is used as a tool for communication with which I can’t make goods. What’s more, I don’t
have any knowledge about producing goods. Secondly, I hope I will choose the job related to my major or my hobby. I want to be a teacher or translator or businessman in the further, and those three jobs are all in the tertiary sector. Above all, I think I will work in the tertiary sector.
Two hundred years ago, the vast majority of the population of virtually every country lived in the countryside and worked in agriculture. But most of western countries have begun to convert their structures of economy since the advent of Industry Revolution. Today, in what many people call the advanced industrialized countries, only 2-3% of the populations earn their living from agriculture. Manufacturing and service industries have become the backbone of economy of those countries. This phenomenon has caused the decline of agriculture and heavy manufacturing in developed countries and moving of agriculture and heavy manufacturing to developing countries.
This topic is a general debate all around the world. The reason why people pay much attention to the decline of manufacturing industry in the developed countries is mainly because that many people think manufacturing can provide lots of job vacancies. Thus, people are much more concerning their job opportunities if there are less manufacturing companies. However, things are not as people think. Today, with the development of robotization and technology of production, less labor force will be need than before. That is to say, we actually do not depend on heavy industry for employment. Meanwhile, the more advanced the technology of production is, the more physical objects of consumption supply to us. And people become more interested in arts, entertainment, music, amusement after being supplied with adequate amount of commodities. Those become the latter stages of employment and are very important. As I said above, less people are involved in the manufacturing industry, and more people go on to tertiary sector, so it seems to be that manufacturing is less important. But, I think manufacturing still has its importance in a country’s economy. That is why we still want to buy BWM and BENZ, and those famous car brands from western countries. From above, I think the importance of manufacturing will not decline and meanwhile manufacturing will change itself, to become more sufficient, more
environmentally friendly, and more advanced in producing goods.
background – foreground
extract – 节选
noise and commotion – 喧哗和骚动
scatter – 分散
smell – v. 熔炼
smelting – n. 熔炼
the digging and smelting and milling of ore or bauxite
scores of 许多的 大量的