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What is a MARC Record and Why is it Important

By Lorraine Black,2014-06-10 20:32
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What is a MARC Record and Why is it Important

    What is a MARC Record and Why is it Important?

MARC stands for Machine-Readable Cataloging. The MARC format is a way to put the

    information that used to be on a catalog card, into a library’s online catalog. Everything that used to be on a catalog card has a place in a MARC record. In order for MARC records to properly function in an online catalog, there must be a consistency in the way they are coded.

    Unique information appears at the beginning the of MARC record

    Leader: The leader is the first 24 characters of the record. Each space has an assigned meaning, but most of the information in the leader is for the processing of the record.

    Directory: The directory tells the computer system which tags are in the record, their length, and starting location.

    Variable Control Fields: These fields are identified by a tag in the directory but have no indicator positions or subfields. There are two kinds of Variable Control Fields (00X).

Variable Control Fields:

    001 Control number (usually system generated)

    003 Whose system control number is in 001

     005 Date and time of last transaction (usually system generated) Sixteen characters that

    indicate the date and time of the latest record transaction and serve as a version

    identifier for the record.

Fixed Field Data Elements: The fixed field data elements of MARC records have

    specific fields and values depending on the format of the piece being cataloged. The field may contain a single data element or a series of fixed length elements, which are identified by position. These fixed length fields are:

    006 Fixed-Length Data Elements-Additional Materials

    007 Physical Description-Fixed Fields

    008 Fixed-Length Data Elements

    Commonly Used MARC Fields (Variable Data Fields)

    These fields vary in length. They contain bibliographic information and are the component of the MARC record that will interest librarians since they contain the actual bibliographic information that formerly appeared on catalog cards. The variable fields have content designators consisting of:

Tag - three-digit code that identifies the kind of data in the field.

    Indicator - a number from 0-9 (or blank), which immediately follows the tag and further defines the field. Each tag (except the 00X tags) has two indicator positions. e.g. A first indicator of “1” after the 245 tag specifies a title added entry (the proper indicator when an author is entered; the most common situation). A second indicator of “2” after the 245 tag specifies 2 nonfiling characters as in a title which begins with a single

    letter article followed by a space. ”A Painted House”

    Subfield - a lower-case letter (sometimes a number), which identifies a subfield and indicates the type of data to follow.

    Delimiter - a symbol, which precedes a subfield identifier. MultiLIS uses the dollar sign ($) as a delimiter. Other systems may use ?, _, #, etc. as delimiter marks.

Terminator - a symbol, which marks the end of a field or a record.

    e.g. 24504$a

    Tag 1st indicator 2nd indicator delimiter subfield code

     245 0 4 $ a

    Commonly Used Fields

    010 LCCN (Library of Congress Card Number) (NR)

     Both indicators are blank.

     Subfield used most often:

     a LCCN

    Example: 010 $a98-46370

    020 ISBN (International Standard Book Number) (R)

    Both indicators are blank.

     Subfields used:

     a ISBN

     c Terms of Availability (usually cost)

     z Cancelled or invalid ISBN

    Examples: 020 $a0439064864

     020 $a0440945151 (pbk.)

    020 $a038550120X$c27.95

    022 ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) (R)

     Indicator 1 is usually blank.

     Indicator 2 is blank.

     Subfield used most often:

     a ISSN

    Example: 022 $a0028-9604

040 Cataloging Source (NR)

     Both indicators are blank.

     Subfield used:

     a Original cataloging agency

    DLC is Library of Congress, IMchF-DB is Follett

     c Transcribing agency

     d Modifying agency

     Example: 040 $aDLC$cDLC$dIMchF-DB

     Library of Congress cataloged the original item, and translated it

     into USMARC format. Follett modified the item by adding

     subject headings.

100 Personal name main entry (primary author) (NR)

     1st Indicator: Type of personal name

    0 is Forename only

     1 is Single Surname (most common)

     3 is Name of Family

     2nd Indicator is blank.

     Subfields used most often:

     a Personal name

     b Numeration

     c Titles and other words associated with the name

     d Dates (of birth - and death if deceased)

     q Qualification of a name (fuller form)

     Examples: 1001 $aShakespeare, William,$d1564-1616.

    1001 $aChurchill, Winston,$cSir,$d1874-1965.

245 Title Statement (NR)

     1st Indicator: Should the title be indexed as a title added entry?

     0 No title added entry (indicates that no author or 1XX is present)

    1 Title added entry (the proper indicator when an author or 1XX is

    present)

    2nd Indicator: Number of nonfiling characters

    0-9 The number of nonfiling character, including spaces; usually set at

    zero,

    unless a title begins with an article (a, and, or the)

     Subfields used most often:

     a The title

     h GMD (General Material Designation; often used for media)

     b Remainder of title (subtitles)

     c Statement of Responsibility

    Examples: 24510$aHarry Potter and the goblet of fire /$cby J.K. Rowling.

     24512$aA painted house :$ba novel /$cby John Grisham.

    24504$aThe World Book encyclopedia of people and

    places$h[electronic resource].

250 Edition Statement (NR)

    Both indicators are blank.

     Subfield used most often:

     a Edition Statement

    Example: 250 $a14th ed.

    260 Publication, Distribution, etc. (NR)

     Both indicators are blank.

     Subfields used most often:

     a Place of publication

     b Publisher

     c Date of Publication

     Example: 260 $aNew York :$bScholastic Books,$cc1998.

    300 Physical Description (NR)

     1st indicator is blank

     2nd indicator is blank

     a Extent

     b Other physical details

     c Dimensions

     e Accompanying material

     Examples: 300 $a509 p. :$bill. ;$c20 cm.

    300 $a1 videocassette (15 min.) :$bsd., col. ;$c1/2 in.

    $e1 teaching guide

440 Series statement (official series heading, by itself) (R)

    1st Indicator is blank.

    2nd Indicator: 0-9 Number of nonfiling characters (for articles and spaces)

    Subfield used most often:

     a Series title

     n Number of part

     p Name of part

     x ISSN

     v Volume

    Examples: 440 0$aSweet Valley High ;$v6

    440 4$aThe Civil War

    440 0$aGoosebumps : special edition ;$v#04

490 Series Statement/No added entry (R)

    1st Indicator: Specifies whether an 8XX tag is also present 2nd Indicator is blank.

    Subfield used most often:

     a Series statement

    Example: 4900 $aBantam classics

    4901 $aHardy Boys (1 indicates that an 8XX tag is

    present)

     8001 $aDixon, Franklin W.$tThe Hardy Boys casefiles

     (Details for the 800 tag to follow)

500 General notes (R)

     Indicators are undefined.

     Subfield used most often:

     a General note

     Examples: 500 $aIncludes index.

    500 $aSung in French.

504 Bibliography note (R)

     Indicators are undefined.

     Subfield used most often:

     a Bibliography note.

     Example: 504 $aIncludes bibliography.

505 Formatted contents note (helps identify specific contents within a book or

    holding)(R)

     1st Indicator: type of contents note

    0 Complete contents

    1 Incomplete contents (the note is not complete because all the parts

    have not been published)

    2 Partial contents (the note is not complete because the cataloger hasn’t

    filled it in yet)

    2nd Indicator:level of detail

     blank indicates basic

    0 Enhanced

    Subfields used most often:

     a formatted contents note

     g miscellaneous information

     r statement of responsibility

     t title (enhanced note)

    Examples: 5050 $aLucy Johnson -- Caroline Kennedy -- Amy

    Carter.

    5051 $aSomewhere a puppy cries -- Biscuits of glory --

    Night wolves

5050 $aThe solo sock/Margaret Haskins Durber. -- Secaucas, N.J./X.J. Kennedy. -

    The Finn who would not take a sauna/Margaret Haskins Durber.

*The author listed in the 505 note is not searchable in the author search. If you want to

    search the author, add the author’s name in a 700 field.

    e.g. 7001 $aDurber, Margaret Haskins.

    510 Citation/Reference note (where an item has been cited or reviewed) (R)

    1st Indicator: coverage or location in the source

    0 Coverage unknown

    1 Coverage complete

    2 Coverage is selected

    3 Location in source not given

    4 Location in source given

    2nd Indicator is blank

    Subfields used most often:

     a Name of source

     b Dates of coverage of source

     c Location within source

    Examples: 5103 $aSchool Library Journal

    5104 $aSchool Library Journal, December 1995.$cv.3,

    p. 156.

520 Summary, abstract or annotation (R)

     Indicator 1 is usually blank.

     Indicator 2 is blank.

     Subfields used most often:

     a Summary, etc. note

    Examples: 520 $aA misinformed boy discovers that the keys to

    unlocking knowledge are located in his school library.

    520 $aAn illustrated collection of nursery rhymes set to

    music.

521 Target audience note (specific audience or intellectual level) (R)

     1st indicator:

     0 Reading grade level

     1 Interest age level

     2 Interest grade level

     3 Special audience characteristics

     2nd indicator is blank.

     Subfields used most often:

     a Target audience note

     b Source

     Examples: 5213 $aVision impaired.

     5212 $aK-3.$bFollett Library Book Co.

    5212 $a7 & up. (of interest to those in seventh grade

    and up)

    5210 $a3.1 (reading level is for the first month of the

    third grade)

526 Reading Program Information Note (usually used for formal curriculum based

    reading programs) (R)

     1st indicator:

     0 Reading program

     8 No display constant generated

     2nd indicator is blank

     Subfields used most often:

     a Reading Program

     b Interest level

     c Reading level

     d Title point value

     5 institution to which field applies (your general location code)

     Examples: 5260 $aAccelerated Reader$b5.0$c4.0$d75

     5260 $aReading Counts$b220$c1.5$d1$5NEEJ

586 Awards Note (R)

     1st indicator is blank

     2nd indicator is blank

     Subfield used most often:

     a Awards note

     Examples: 586 $aNewbery Honor, 1966

     586 $aCaldecott Medal, 1999

    600 Subject added entry - Personal name (R)

     1st indicator: type of personal name

     0 Forename only

     1 Single surname (most common)

     2 Multiple surname

     3 Name of family

     2nd indicator: subject heading list or authority file

     0 Library of Congress subject headings

     1 Library of Congress subject headings for children

     2 National Library of Medicine

     3 National Agricultural Library subject headings

     4 source not specified

     5 Canadian subject headings

     6 French subject headings

     7 Source specified in subfield 2

     Subfields used most often:

     a Name (surname and forename)

     b Numeration

     c Titles and other words associated with the name

     d Dates (of birth-and death, if deceased)

     x General subdivision

     2 Source of heading or term (used with 2nd indicator of 7)

    Example: 60010$aLincoln, Abraham,$d1809-1865.

     60000$aNorodom Sihanouk,$cPrince,$d1922-

650 Subject added entry - Topical term (Most subject headings fit here) (R)

    1st indicator is blank.

    2nd indicator:

    Library of Congress subject headings

    Library of Congress subject headings for Children

    Medical subject headings

    National Agricultural subject headings

    Source not specified

    Subfields used most often:

     a Topical term

     x General subdivision

     y Chronological subdivision

     z Geographic subdivision

    Examples: 650 0$aArchitecture, Modern$y19th century.

     650 0$aDentistry$vJuvenile films.

651 Subject added entry - Geographic name (R)

    1st indicator is undefined.

    2nd indicator is the subject heading list

     Please see indicator 2 under 600 Subject Added Entry

    Subfields used most often:

     a Geographic place or name

     x General subdivision

     y Chronological subdivision

     z Geographic subdivision

     2 Source of heading or term (used with 2nd indicator of 7)

     Example: 651 0$aUnited States$xHistory$yRevolution, 1775-1783.

*Note regarding Sears subject headings: The Library of Congress does not provide an

    assigned indicator for Sears subject headings. MultiLIS uses a second indicator of 7 and a

    $2 with the name of the subject source. Generally, this will be Sears. An example is

    shown below.

    7$aAlphabet.$2sears

700 Added entry - personal name (R)

    1st indicator - type of personal name entry element

    Forename

    Single surname (most common form)

    Multiple surname

    Name of family

    2nd indicator - Type of added entry

    If blank, no information is provided.

    2 Analytical entry

     Subfields used most often:

     a Name

     b Numeration

     c Titles and other words associated with the name

     d Dates (of birth-and death if deceased)

     e Relator (such as ill.)

    Examples: Title with author, translator, and editor. Translators

    will generally not have an added entry.

1001 $aKawai, Toyako.

    24510$aColorful origami /

     $cby Toyako Kawai ; translated by Thomas I. Elliott ; edited by Don Kenny.

    7001 $aKenny, Don.

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