WORLD WAR II
Prior to World War I
Four Empires controlled almost all of Central and Eastern Europe After World War I …
The Treaty of Versailles, signed 28 June 1919
• Punish Germany for WWI
• Create new democracies and promote self-determination by breaking
up the four Empires
; Nine countries were given new boundaries and independence The War to End All Wars
Under the Treaty, Germany:
• had to accept full blame for WWI;
• lost around 13.5% of its 1914 territory (some seven million people)
and all of its overseas possessions;
• was stripped on military power and forced to demilitarize the
• had to pay huge reparations to Allies.
• The Treaty of Versailles was felt by many to be too harsh on the
; Conflict between Treaty nations.
• Treaty was meant to secure lasting peace but instead built anger and
animosity and laid the groundwork for WWII.
… or War?
• Germans felt the Treaty stripped them of territories.
• Soviets also resented lost territories. • Many new democratic governments could not deal with debt, hunger
• Many democracies failed and dictators took charge. Soviet Union
• Totalitarian government.
• Collectivization transformed the
country into agricultural and industrial power. • Police state: Those who disagreed were exiled into Siberian prison
camps or executed. 8-13 million people killed.
； JOSEPH STALIN
• Nationalist political movement.
• Established totalitarian government.
• Economy in private hands but run by government.
； BENITO MUSSOLINI
• Nazi Party.
• Superiority of Germans; inferior races
annihilated or serve master race.
• Wanted to form a single German state.
• Germans needed “lebensraum” – living space –which justified
； ADOLF HITLER
• Nationalist military leaders wanted
• Rid Asia of western imperialists.
• Build an empire.
； EMPEROR HIROHITO
“I believe it is peace for our time . . . peace with honour.”
“I have said this before, but I shall say it again and again; your boys are not
going to be sent into any foreign wars.”
"Germany has concluded a Non-Aggression Pact with Poland... We shall
adhere to it unconditionally... we recognize Poland as the home of a great
and nationally conscious people."