International Diplomacy – A Few Terms
Bio-diplomacy The promotion of environmental protection, and
(biodiversity diplomacy) biological and cultural diversity through
Coercive diplomacy The threat or use of force to achieve diplomatic
Cowboy diplomacy International relations characterized by hasty risk-
taking, bullying, military deployment, or a
combination of such tactics; usually stemming
from an overly-simple, black and white view of the
world. (“You’re either with us or against us.”)
Cultural diplomacy The exchange of ideas, information, values,
systems, traditions, beliefs, and other aspects of
culture, with the intention of fostering mutual
Diplomacy The art or practice of conducting international
relations, as in negotiating alliances, treaties, and
Diplomacy of Deference Coined during Obama’s first trip to Asia. Refers to
Obama’s attempts to display modesty about US
attitudes towards other countries, and give a less
belligerent/arrogant posture abroad.
Dollar diplomacy (1) The use of diplomacy to protect investments
abroad through economic incentives. (2) The use
of economic power to further political and other
foreign policy objectives.
Economic diplomacy The formulation and advancing of policies relating
to production, movement or exchange of goods,
services, labour and investment in other countries.
Freelance diplomacy (1) A form of self-financing diplomatic
representation used by countries such as small,
developing and yet-unrecognized nations, that do
not have the means to employ diplomats full-time.
(2) Also refers to the individual diplomatic efforts
of those who are hired for specific tasks.
Good offices diplomacy Where the UN Secretary-General tries to prevent
international disputes from developing, escalating,
International Relations and Diplomacy 1 Wendy Worthington 2011
A Few Other Useful Terms
Appeasement The policy of granting concessions to potential
enemies in the hope of maintaining peace.
Deterrence The maintenance of military power to
discourage attacks by (potential) enemies.
Engagement The use of a wide range of contact between
nations, specifically to influence foreign public,
including public democracy, international aid,
and other forms of communication and
Hard power The ability to coerce based on a country’s
military or economic might.
Soft power The ability to persuade based on the
attractiveness of a country’s culture, political
ideals, and policies.
Smart power The use of diplomatic, economic, military,
political, legal, and cultural tools – or a
combination of tools – to further foreign policy
International Relations and Diplomacy 3 Wendy Worthington 2011