CCNA 3 and 4 Companion Guide, 3rd Edition (CNAP)

By Eugene Williams,2014-06-17 08:09
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CCNA 3 and 4 Companion Guide, 3rd Edition (CNAP) ...

    rdCCNA 3 and 4 Companion Guide, 3 Edition

    ISBN: 1-58713-113-7

    Cisco Press


CCNA 3 (Chapters 2 through 10)

Chapter 2

    Introduction to Classless Routing

    Page 66 In Figure 2-12, the commands in the figure should be applied in two portions:

    First enter “router rip” and that will put the router into router configuration

    mode. Then, on the second line, enter the “version 2” command.

Page 66 In Example 2-4, highlight:

    Sending updates every 30 seconds, next due in 12 seconds

    Invalid after 180 seconds, hold down 180, flushed after 240

Page 67 In the second paragraph, delete the second sentence, ―In Example 2-4, 18 seconds

    have passed since Router A received an update from Router B.‖

    Page 71 In Figure 2-13, Default Routing w/RIP, the following destination IP address

    should replace the destination IP address between Hong Kong 1 and the Internet

    cloud in the graphic:

    Page 72 In Example 2-9, Default Route, change the IP address to:

    HongKong1 (config )#ip route

    Page 72 In the third paragraph, the third sentence should read, ―In the diagram, Hong

    Kong 1 has only one way out to the Internet through the interface‖

Chapter 3 (p. 77)

    Single-Area OSPF

    Page 79 In the second paragraph, the second and third sentences should read, ―Every

    router in the OSPF area, as in Figure 3-4, has the same link-state database.

    Therefore, every router has the same information about the state of the links and

    every other router’s neighbors.‖

Page 80 In the first paragraph, the first sentence should read, “Each router keeps a list of

    adjacent neighbors, called the adjacency database. The adjacency database is a

    list of all the neighbor routers to which a router has established bidirectional

    communication. This is unique to each router.”

    Page 83 Figure 3-7 should be replaced with the following figure:

Page 85 In the sixth paragraph, the first sentence should read, ―OSPF uses the shortest-

    path first algorithm to determine the best path to a destination.‖

Page 85 In the sixth paragraph, the third sentence should read, ―Edsger Wybe Dijkstra, a

    Dutch computer scientist, formulated the shortest path-algorithm, also

    known as Dijkstra’s algorithm.

Page 86 In the first paragraph, the first four sentences should read, ―A router will try to

    become adjacent, or neighbor, to at least one other router on each IP

    network to which it is connected. OSPF routers determine which routers to

    become adjacent to based on the type of network they are connected to. Some

    routers may try to become adjacent to all neighbor routers. Other routers may

    try to become adjacent to only one or two neighbor routers.

Page 87 In the first paragraph, delete the fifth sentence, ―Using the preceding example

    numbers, only 5 and 10 sets of link states need be sent, respectively.‖

Page 90 The next to the last paragraph should refer to Figure 3-13.

Page 93 The third paragraph should read, ―In Figure 3-15, after the DR acknowledges

    receipt of the LSU, it floods the LSU to all OSPF routers on the network

    using the multicast address Each router acknowledges receipt of

    the LSU with an LSAck.

    Page 97 The first paragraph should read, ―OSPF uses cost as the metric for determining

    the best route. A cost is associated with the output side of each router

    interface. Costs are also associated with extremely derived routing data. In

    general, the path cost is calculated using the formula 10^8/bandwidth, where

    bandwidth is expressed in bps. The system administrator can also configure

    cost by other methods. The lower the cost, the more likely the interface is to

    be used to forward data traffic. The Cisco IOS automatically determines cost

    based on the bandwidth of the interface.

Page 98 In Table 3-4, the title at the top of the first column should read, ―Link Type and


Page 99 Add spaces in the second command so it reads:

    router (config-router) # area area-number authentication

Chapter 4 (p. 115)

    Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

     Page 121 In the first paragraph, the first bullet should read:

    ; Feasible distance (FD) The feasible distance (FD) is the lowest

    calculated metric to each destination. For example, the feasible distance to is 2195456 as indicated in Example 4-2.

     Page 122 At the top of the page, the second bullet should read:

    Route statusRoutes are identified as being either passive, which means that the

    route is stable and ready for use, or active, which means that the route is in the

    process of being recomputed by DUAL.

Chapter 5 (p. 147)

    Switching Concepts and LAN Design

    Page 148 In the third paragraph, the fifth sentence should read, ―A hub does not make

    decisions when receiving data signals; it simply regenerates the data signals that

    it receives to all devices connected, except for the device that originally sent

    the signal.”

Page 151 In the second paragraph, the second sentence should read, “Routers do not

    forward broadcasts unless they are programmed to do so.”

    Page 153 In the ―Elements of Ethernet/802.3 Networks‖ section, in the first paragraph, the

    first and second sentences should be replaced with, “Ethernet is a broadcast

    transmission technology. Therefore network devices such as computers,

    printers, and file servers communicate with one another over a shared

    network medium. The performance of a shared medium Ethernet/802.3 LAN

    can be negatively affected by several factors.”

    Page 153 In Figure 5-6, the text under the last bar in the graph should read, ―Desktop Video


    Page 159 In Figure 5-12, Segments 1 and 2 should look like Segments 3 and 4. Segments

    1 and 2 should show the three hosts connecting to three ports on the hub, like

    in Segments 3 and 4.

Page 163 The first sentence should read, ―Switching is a technology that decreases

    congestion in Ethernet, Token Ring, and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

    LANs by reducing traffic on each segment, which increases bandwidth for

    each host.”

    Page 163 In the second paragraph, the two bulleted statements should read:

    ; Switching data framesThe process of receiving a frame on a switch interface,

    selecting the correct forwarding switch port(s), and forwarding the frame.

    ; Maintaining switching operationsSwitches build and maintain forwarding

    tables. Switches also construct and maintain a loop-free topology across the


    Page 167 In the ―Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switching‖ section, the first paragraph should read,

    ―There are two methods of switching data frames: Layer 2 switching, which is

    shown in Figure 5-22, and Layer 3 switching, which is shown in Figure 5-23.

    Routers and Layer 3 switches use Layer 3 switching to switch packets. Layer

    2 switches and bridges use Layer 2 switching to forward frames.”

Page 170 In Figure 5-24, change the ―Throughout‖ to ―Throughput‖:

    10 x 4 =

    40 Mbps Throughput

Page 171 In the third paragraph, the fourth sentence should read, ―The frames in the buffer

    are linked dynamically to the destination port.

    Page 171 In the fourth paragraph, the last sentence should read, ―This is important to

    asymmetric switching, where frames are being exchanged between different

    rate ports.”

    Page 172 Under the ―LAN Design Considerations‖ heading, a fourth bulleted point should

    be added:

    ; Collision domain issues

Page 173 In the third paragraph, the second sentence should read, “Whenever possible, the

    traffic to enterprise servers should travel only to the MDF and not be transmitted

    across other networks. However, some networks use a routed core or may even

    have a server farm for the enterprise servers. In these cases network traffic

    will travel across other networks and usually cannot be avoided.”

Page 178 In Figure 5-30, remove the term “Catchment Area” under ―200 m‖.

Page 184 In the first paragraph, the fourth sentence should read, “Asymmetric switching

    provides switched connections between ports of unlike bandwidth, such as a

    combination of 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps ports. Symmetric switching provides

    switched connections between ports of similar bandwidth.”

Page 188 Delete the first paragraph.

Page 195 Delete the text to the left of Figure 5-54: “Rooms” and “Include Cutsheets”.

Page 197 In the first paragraph, the first sentence should read, “Most bridges are capable of

    filtering frames based on any Layer 2 frame field.”

Chapter 6 (p. 209)


Page 214 In Table 6-4, under the ―Color column, change the description to read Link fault

    for alternating green/amber.

    Page 215 In Table 6-4, under the ―Color‖ column, add another entry in the row for ―SPEED

    Port Speed 10/100 ports‖ so it reads, “Flashing Green – Port is operating at

    1000 Mbps.”

Chapter 7 (p. 237)

    Switch Configuration

Page 251-252 In the entire ―Communication Between Switches‖ section, it should read:

    In Figure 4-xx, if Host A, with MAC address A, transmits data to Host B, with

    MAC address B, the transmitted data frame enters Port 1 on Switch A. The switch

    reads the destination MAC address on the incoming data frame and refers to the

    switching table. It recognizes that the MAC address of Host B is mapped to Port 2

    and switches the frame to this outgoing port.

    ***Insert new figure: Figure 4-xx Communication through Multiple


    Switching tables can have more than one MAC address mapped to a particular port. This is common when a hub that has multiple workstations is attached to a switch port or when ports are interconnected.

    A similar process occurs when the transmission needs to pass through two switches, as shown in Figure 4-xx. In this case, Host A wants to transmit to Host F, with MAC address F.

Host A transmits the frame to port 1 on Switch A. Switch A looks at the switching

    table and does not recognize the destination MAC address of Host F. The switch then floods all ports with the incoming data frame, except for port 1.

    Host B and Host C examine the destination MAC address and ignore the frame because it does not correspond to either of their MAC addresses. The data frame is forwarded to Switch B on Port 4. Switch B looks at the switching table and

    recognizes the MAC address. It sends the frame to Host F, with MAC address F, via Port 4.

When Host F replies to Host A, the procedure is reversed. Switch A can now

    update the switching table by mapping Host F to Port 4. Switch B can now

    update the switching table by mapping Host A to Port 2.

    Eventually, Switch A will learn that Host D, Host E and Host F are mapped to Port 4, and Switch B will learn that Host A, Host B and Host C are mapped to Port 2.

    Page 258 In the first paragraph, the first sentence should read, ―A switch may already be

    preconfigured and only passwords may need to be entered for the User EXEC

    or privileged EXEC modes.”

Page 258, In the first paragraph, the third sentence should read, ―In the command-line

    interface, the default privileged EXEC mode prompt is Switch#.

Page 259 In Example 7-7, the fifth command should read:

     ALSWitch(config line)#line vty 0 15

Page 264 In Example 7-14, in the second and third commands, there should be a space in

    “VLAN 1” between the “VLAN” and the “1”.

Page 264 In Example 7-15, in the first command, there should be a space in

    “FastEthernet 0/2” between the “FastEthernet” and “0/2”.

    Page 267 In the ―1900/2950 Password Recovery‖ section, the ―Lab Activity‖ description

    should read, ―In this lab, the student will reset the console password and

    recover access to the switch.”

Chapter 8 (p. 273)

    Spanning Tree Protocol

    Page 273 In the fifth paragraph, the second sentence should read, ―Achieving 100 percent

    uptime is perhaps impossible but securing a 99.99 percent uptime is a goal that

    many organizations set.‖

    Page 273 In the fifth paragraph, the third sentence should read, ―This is interpreted to mean

    one hour of downtime, on average, for every 4,000 days, or approximately 5.25

    minutes of downtime per year.‖

Page 281 Delete the second paragraph.

    Page 281 In the third paragraph, the first and second sentences should read, ―Switches flood

    traffic out all ports, except the port on which the traffic arrived, when the

    traffic is sent to a destination that is not yet known. Broadcast and multicast

    traffic is also forwarded out every port, except the port on which the traffic


    Page 283 In the fourth paragraph, the first and second sentences should read, ―When a

    switch first starts up, it assumes it is the root switch and sends BPDUs that

    contain the switch MAC address in both the root and sender BID. These

    BPDUs are considered inferior because they are generated from the

    designated switch that has lost its link to the root bridge. The designated

    switch transmits the BPDUs with the information that it is now the root

    bridge as well as the designated bridge.”

Chapter 9 (303)

    Virtual LANs

    Page 307 In the second bullet, the fourth sentence should read, ―As a device enters the

    network, it queries a database on the VLAN Configuration Server for VLAN


    Page 308 In the third paragraph, the second sentence should read, ―The management VLAN

    is always VLAN 1 and may not be deleted. At least one port must be in

    VLAN 1 in order to manage the switch remotely. All other ports on the

    switch may be reassigned to alternate VLANs.”

    Page 315 In the fourth paragraph, delete the second sentence.

Page 318 In Table 9-1, delete the third row (―802.10‖).

Chapter 10 (p. 333)

    VLAN Trunking Protocol

Page 346 In Figure 10-10, remove the first line above all three tables, which references “1,

    2, 3, and 4.”

Page 354 In the fifth paragraph, the first sentence should read, ―When a router needs to

    make a connection to a remote host, it checks its routing table to determine if a

    known path exists.‖

Page 358 In the second paragraph, the third sentence should read, ―For example, if

    subinterface FastEthernet 0/0.1 has an IP address of, then,, and are the IP addresses of devices attached

    to subinterface FastEthernet 0/0.1.‖

    rdCCNA 3 and 4 Companion Guide, 3 Edition

    ISBN: 1-58713-113-7

    Cisco Press


CCNA 4 (Chapters 11-16)

    Page 487 In Table 13-3, in the ―Problem Solution‖ column, in the first row, delete the entire

    last sentence for Solution #3, which reads, ―If they are, disable manual


Page 491 In Table 13-4, in the ―Command‖ column, the first command should read, “ppp

    compress stac.”

Page 520 In the first paragraph, in ―Step 2,‖ delete the last sentence, which is “In Europe,

    the service provider typically supplies the NT1.”

    Page 599 The first sentence of the third paragraph should read, ―Microsoft has developed

    Windows .NET Server with the ability to provide a secure and reliable system to

    run enterprise-level web and FTP sites to compete with the Linux, UNIX, and

    Novell’s One NET.”

CD-ROM ID 3315: ―B and C‖ are correct answers. ―C‖ should read:

    The switch fully receives all bits in the frame before forwarding. The switch

    performs the address table lookup as soon as the destination address field in the

    header is received.

    ID 3324: Delete this entirely.

    ID 3341: Delete this entirely.

    ID 3345: ―A and C‖ are the only correct answers; D is incorrect.

     ID 3351: "A switch in VTP transparent mode can create, modify, and delete

    VLANs from its configuration" is false.

    ID 4202: ―A and C‖ are both correct answers.

    ID 4897: ―B and D‖ are both correct answers.

    ID 4938: ―A, C, and D‖ are all correct answers; only ―B‖ is incorrect.

     ID 4961: A. Server‖ is the only correct answer; all of the other answers are


    ID 4969: Answer is false.

     ID 4981: ―A‖ is the only correct answer.

    ID 5034: Delete this entirely.

    ID 5064: ―An EIGRP route in a passive state is not a route being used by EIGRP

    to route traffic" is false.

    ID 5082: Answer is ―C. Dialer-list.‖

    ID 5330: ―C‖ is the only correct answer.

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