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Charter of the United Nations

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Charter of the United Nations

    Charter of the United Nations

     June 26, 1945

     Table of Contents

    ; Introduction

    ; Preamble

    ; Chapter I. Purposes and principles, articles 1-2

    ; Chapter II. Membership, articles 3-6

    ; Chapter III. Organs, articles 7-8

    ; Chapter IV. The General Assembly, articles 9-22

    ; Chapter V. The Security Council, articles 23-32

    ; Chapter VI. Pacific settlement of disputes, articles 33-38

    ; Chapter VII. Action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, and acts of

    aggression, articles 39-51

    ; Chapter VIII. Regional arrangements, articles 52-54

    ; Chapter IX. International economic and social co-operation, articles 55-60 ; Chapter X. The Economic and Social Council, articles 61-72

    ; Chapter XI. Declaration regarding non-self-governing territories, articles 73-74 ; Chapter XII. International trusteeship system, articles 75-85

    ; Chapter XIII. The Trusteeship Council, articles 86-91

    ; Chapter XIV. The International Court of Justice, articles 92-96

    ; Chapter XV. The Secretariat, articles 97-101

    ; Chapter XVI. Miscellaneous provisions, articles 102-105

    ; Chapter XVII. Transitional security arrangements, articles 106-107 ; Chapter XVIII. Amendments, articles 108-109

    ; Chapter XIX. Ratification and signature, articles 110-111

    ; Declarations of acceptance of the obligations contained in the Charter of the United

    Nations (Admission of States to membership in the United Nations in accordance with

    Article 4 of the Charter, currently 185 Member States).

    WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED to save

    succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, AND FOR THESE ENDS to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good

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    neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, HAVE RESOLED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.

    CHAPTER I

    PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES

    Article 1

    The Purposes of the United Nations are:

    1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;

    2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;

    3. To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and

    4. To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.

    Article 2

    The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following Principles.

    1. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.

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    2. All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter.

    3. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and. justice, are not endangered.

    4. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.

    5. All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.

    6. The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.

    7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter VII.

    CHAPTER II

    MEMBERSHIP

    Article 3

    The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, sign the present Charter and ratify it in accordance with Article 110.

    Article 4

    1. Membership in the United Nations is open to a other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these

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obligations.

    2. The admission of any such state to membership in the Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

    Article 5

    A Member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council.

    Article 6

    A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be' expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

    CHAPTER III

    NS ORGA

    Article 7

    1. There are established as the principal organs of the United Nations: a General Assembly, a Security Council, an Economic and Social Council, a Trusteeship Council, an International Court of Justice, and a Secretariat.

    2. Such subsidiary organs as may be found necessary may be established in accordance with the present Charter.

    Article 8

    The United Nations shall place no restrictions on the eligibility of men and women to participate in any capacity and under conditions of equality in its principal and subsidiary organs.

    CHAPTER IV

    THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

    Composition

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Article 9

    1. The General Assembly shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations.

    2. Each Member shall have not more than five representatives in the General Assembly.

    Functions and Powers

    Article 10

    The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article

    , may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the 12

    Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters. Article 11

    1. The General Assembly may consider the general principles of co-operation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments, and may make recommendations with regard to such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to both.

    2. The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of inter- national peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is not a Member of the United Nations in accordance with Article 35,

    paragraph 2, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make

    recommendations with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both. Any such question on which action is necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly either before or after discussion.

    3. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations which are likely to endanger international peace and security.

    4. The powers of the General Assembly set forth in this Article shall not limit the general scope of Article 10.

    Article 12

    1. While the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it in the present Charter, the General

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    Assembly shall not make any recommendation with regard to that dispute or situation unless the Security Council so requests.

    2. The Secretary-General, with the consent of the Security Council, shall notify the General Assembly at each session of any matters relative to the maintenance of international peace and security which are being dealt with by the Security Council and similarly notify the General Assembly, or the Members of the United Nations if the General Assembly is not in session, immediately the Security Council ceases to deal with such matters. Article 13

    1. The General Assembly shall initiate studies and make recommendations for the purpose of:

    a. promoting international co-operation in the political field and encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification; b. promoting international co-operation in the economic, social, cultural, educational, and health fields, an assisting in the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.

    2. The further responsibilities, functions and powers of the General with respect to matters mentioned in paragraph ) above are set forth in Chapters IX

    and X.

    Article 14

    Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the General Assembly may

    recommend measures for the peaceful adjustment of any situation, regardless of origin, which it deems likely to impair the general welfare or friendly relations among nations, including situations resulting from a violation of the provisions of the present Charter setting forth the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.

    Article 15

    1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider annual and special reports from the Security Council; these reports shall include an account of the measures that the Security Council has decided upon or taken to main- tain international peace and security.

    2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider reports from the other organs of the United Nations.

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Article 16

    The General Assembly shall perform such functions with respect to the international trusteeship system as are assigned to it under Chapters XII and

    XIII, including the approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not designated as strategic.

    Article 17

    1. The General Assembly shall consider and approve the budget of the Organization.

    2. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by the Members as apportioned by the General Assembly.

    3. The Assembly shall consider and approve any financial and budgetary arrangements with specialize agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall

    examine the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned.

    Voting

    Article 18

    1. Each member of the General Assembly shall have one vote.

    2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two- thirds majority of the members present and voting. These questions shall include: recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security, the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the election of the members of the Economic and Social Council, the election of members of the Trusteeship Council in accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 86, the admission of new Members to the United Nations, the suspension of the rights and privileges of membership, the expulsion of Members, questions relating to the operation of the trusteeship system, and budgetary questions.

    3. Decisions on other questions, including the determination of additional categories of questions to be decided by a two-thirds majority, shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting.

    Article 19

    A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in the payment of its financial contributions to the Organization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the

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    contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. The General Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a Member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the of the Member. Procedure

    Article 20

    The General Assembly shall meet in regular annual sessions and in such special sessions as occasion may require. Special sessions shall be convoked by the Secretary-General at the request of the Security Council or of a majority of the Members of the United Nations.

    Article 21

    The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure. It shall elect its President for each session.

    Article 22

    The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

    CHAPTER V

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL

    Composition

    Article 23

    1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members of the United Nations. The Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist , the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America shall be permanent members of the Security Council. The General Assembly shall elect ten other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent members of the Security Council, due regard being specially paid, in the first in- stance to the contribution of Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of inter- national peace and security and to the other purposes of the Organization, and also to equitable geographical distribution.

    2. The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first election of the non- permanent members after the increase of the membership of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen, two of the four additional members shall be chosen for a term of one year. A retiring member shall not be eligible for immediate re-election.

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    3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative. Functions and Powers

    Article 24

    1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf.

    2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and XII.

    3. The Security Council shall submit annual and, when necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its consideration.

    Article 25

    The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter. Article 26

    In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted to the Members of the United-Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments.

    Voting

    Article 27

    1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote.

    2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members.

    3. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members; provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under

    paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.

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Procedure

    Article 28

    1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be able to function continuously. Each member of the Security Council shall for this purpose be represented at times at the seat of the Organization.

    2. The Security Council shall hold meetings at which each of its members may, if it so desires, be represented by a member of the government or by some other specially designated representative.

    3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places other than the seat of the Organization as in its judgment will best facilitate its work. Article 29

    The Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

    Article 30

    The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President.

    Article 31

    Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member are specially affected.

    Article 32

    Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council or any state which is not a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute under consideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to participate, without vote, in the discussion relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall any down such conditions as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of the United Nations. CHAPTER VI

    PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

    Article 33

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