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Report of the People's Republic of China on the Development of

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Legal and standards systems relevant to the market economy have been established indevelopmentmorally, in intelligence, physically, and so on.

    29 December 2000

    Distinguished Ms. Carol Bellamy,

     Following-up your letter of March 8, 2000 requesting submission of a National Report on End-Decade Review of the Development of Children in the 1990s.

     The National Working Committee on Children and Women under the State Council of People‟s Republic of China has completed the national report.

     Please find enclosed the Report of the People‟s Republic of China on the Development of Children in the 1990s.

     National Working Committee on Children and Women

     under the State Council of the People‟s Republic of China

Ms. Carol Bellamy

    Executive Director

    UNICEF New York

Report of the People’s Republic of China

    on the Development of Children in the 1990s

    --National Report on the Follow-up to the World Summit for Children

    December 29, 2000

    CONTENTS

    1. Background ................................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 The 1990 World Summit for Children and its follow-up actions ..................................... 1 1.2 Work organizations and monitoring and assessment mechanisms on the development of children in China ....................................................................................................................... 1

    1.3 The 1995 Chinese National Report on Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child .................................................................................................................................... 2

    2. Final Assessment of NPA Achievements.................................................................................. 3 2.1 Organization and preparations of the final assessment .................................................... 3 2.2 Publication of the final assessment report ........................................................................ 3

    3. National Action ........................................................................................................................ 3

    3.1 Incorporating the NPA into the national economic and social development plan ............ 3 3.2 The “first call for children” principle and increasing investment in the undertakings for

    children ..................................................................................................................................... 4

    3.3 Priority in the use of international donations and aid for the survival, protection and development of children............................................................................................................ 6

    3.4 Laws, decrees, policies and regulations formulated in favor of the survival, protection and development of children............................................................................................................ 6

    3.5 NGOs, communities, families and mass media have fully displayed their respective roles

     6

    3.6 Establishing and improving monitoring and assessment mechanisms and regularly

    collecting, analyzing and publishing statistics associated with children ................................... 7 3.7 Arrangements for responding to natural disasters ............................................................... 8

    4. Specific actions ........................................................................................................................ 8

    4.1 Publicity and implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its monitoring ................................................................................................................................. 8

    4.2 Strengthening primary healthcare and basic health services in the fight against children‟s

    diseases. .................................................................................................................................... 8

    ii

    4.3 Adopting all possible measures to raise the nutritional levels of children ...................... 10 4.4 Raising the status of women and girls and ensuring that they enjoy full rights .............. 10 4.5 Ensuring the healthy and safe upbringing of children ...................................................... 12

    4.5.1 The upbringing of orphans and disabled children ................................................. 12

    4.5.2 Protection of street children .................................................................................. 13 4.6 Ensuring early education and popularizing basic education ............................................ 13 4.7 Natural environment protection ....................................................................................... 14

    5. Main experience and problems existing ...................................................................................... 15

    5.1 Main experience ............................................................................................................... 15

    5.1.1 Government‟s attention, formulating plans, establishing organizations, and unified

    implementation................................................................................................................ 15

    5.1.2 Strengthening grassroots service organizations and defining the roles of

    communities .................................................................................................................... 17

    5.1.3 Displaying to the full the roles of mass media in extensive social mobilization .. 17

    5.1.4 Actively developing international cooperation ...................................................... 18 5.2 Difficulties and problems ................................................................................................. 18

    5.2.1 Marked disparity in development among different regions and between urban and

    rural areas ........................................................................................................................ 18

    5.2.2 Challenges facing rural health work ...................................................................... 20

    5.2.3 The work of “popularizing the nine-year compulsory education” remains arduous.

    ......................................................................................................................................... 20

    5.2.4 The task of educational reform is heavy................................................................ 20

    6. Actions for the future .................................................................................................................. 21

    Appendix

    iii

1. Background

    1.1 The 1990 World Summit for Children and its follow-up actions

    In September 1990, the Foreign Minister of the People‟s Republic of China, Mr. Qian Qichen, headed the national delegation which attended the World Summit for Children. In March the following year, the then Vice-Premier of the State Council, Mr. Li Peng, signed on behalf of the Chinese government the two documents, the “World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children” and the “Plan of Action for Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in the 1990s”, making solemn commitments to the international community. China then went on to formulate the “National Programme of Action

    for Child Development in China in the 1990s” (referred to as “NPA” below). After extensive

    discussion and revision, it was officially issued by the State Council in 1992. The NPA covers all the main goals set by the World Summit for Children and the corresponding strategies and measures for implementation in the light of the conditions of China. The line Ministries/Agencies and all the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities as well as prefectures and 99% of the counties, have in turn formulated their own NPAs and plans for implementation.

1.2 Work organizations and monitoring and assessment

    mechanisms on the development of children in China

    The National Working Committee for Children and Women (NWCCW) under the State Council (NWCCW) was established in 1990 to co-ordinate the steps of all related government departments and NGOs in carrying out work for women and children and promoting the development of children, safeguarding their rights and overseeing the implementation of laws and regulations and the NPA concerning the protection of the rights of children. State Councillor Wu Yi heads the organization, which is made up of vice-ministers of 24 government organizations including the State Development Planning Commission, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Co-operation, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Public Health and leaders of five non-governmental organizations, including the All-China Trade Union Council, the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League and the All-China Women‟s Federation.

    At present, the people‟s governments of all the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, all the 385 prefectures and more than 2,000 counties have established their own Women and Children‟s Working Committee, headed by the government leaders of the

    corresponding levels.

    The centre, all provinces, 96% of prefectures and 93% of counties have established their monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for the implementation of the NPA and have introduced an annual reporting system. In 1996, they carried out a detailed intermediate assessment of the implementation of the NPA and the objectives achieved, on the basis of the annual monitoring reports. Through this assessment they reviewed the course of development of Chinese children in the 1990-1995 period

    1

    and gave a comprehensive assessment of the objectives achieved, summed up the major experiences and outstanding problems in children‟s work and set forth the measures for achieving the goals for 2000. The assessment found that there were great disparities between different regions and between urban and rural areas; there were particularly large gaps in healthcare; and information on the situation of children needed to be strengthened. Based on these problems, they put forward such measures as strengthening anti-poverty efforts, improving the environment of poor areas for survival, protection and development of children, strengthening elementary education and healthcare of children with emphasis put on rural areas, and setting up sound monitoring and statistical systems concerning the development of children so as to carry out work more effectively in the following five years.

    1.3 The 1995 Chinese National Report on Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    China took an active part in the formulation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and was a signatory to it in 1990. The Standing Committee of the National People‟s Congress approved the Convention in 1991. On April 1, 1992, the Convention became effective in China. The Chinese government has conscientiously implemented the obligations contained in the Convention and submitted in March 1995 the “First Report of the People‟s Republic of China on the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child” to the UN Human Rights Centre.

    In May 1996, the UN Children‟s Rights Committee reviewed the report and gave a basically affirmative conclusion on the efforts made by China in implementing the Convention, such as considerable progress in formulating and implementing the laws and management regulations associated with the rights of the child, lowering the mortality rate of infants and children under five, and raising the school enrolment of children. It took note of the difficulties in addressing children‟s

    problems and filed a list of 40 questions such as the conditions of children in welfare institutions, the