DOC

Protection

By Alicia Adams,2014-07-24 01:47
13 views 0
ProtectionProtec

    Protection

Jan.2008,Volume2,No.1(SerialNo.2)Journ~ofLifeSciences,ISSN1934.7391,USA

    ;Protectionandutilizationoftropicalcropgermplasmresources ;CHENYe-yuan,YINJun,PLIQiong,LIUYonghua,HEYun

    ;(TropicalCropsGeneticResourceInstitute,DanzhouHainan571737,China) ;Abstract:Theworkofworldcropgermplasmresourcesare ;increasinglyemergingthedevelopingtrendofglobalizationin ;collectionscope,systematizationinresourcesmanagement, ;modernizationinexistingequipments,standardizationin ;technicalspecificationandinformationizationinsharedservice. ;Thispapergivesyouanintroductiononcurrentsituationof ;distributionoftropicalcropgermplasmresources,insitu

    ;conservation,collectionandpreservation,evaluationand ;appraisalandinnovationandutilizationinchina;analysison ;existingkeyproblemsinprotectionandutilizationofChina’s

    ;tropicalcropgermplasmresources;proposalofcomplementary ;studyandcollectionandconstructionofgeographical ;informationbase;reasonablylayoutofplantationandupgrade ;andpreservationofequipments;developmentandresearchof ;relatedtechnicalstandardsandcarryoutofsystemevaluation

    ;andappraisal;improvementofsharemechanismandefficiency; ;innovationandbreakthroughinkeypoints;andtalentstraining ;andmaintenanceofworkcontinuance,etc.Basingonthese,the ;proposalofprotectionandutilizationofChina’stropicalcrop

    ;germplasmresourcesarefurtherstrengthened.

    ;Keywords:tropicalcrop;germplasmresources;protectionand ;utilization;existingproblems;relatedsuggestion ;1.DistributionofChina’stropicalcrop

    ;germplasmresources

    ;Cropgermplasmresourcesarealsocalledcrop

    ;varietyresources,geneticresourcesandgeneresources. ;Itexistsineveryvariety(series),type,wildgermplasm ;andcognateplant,andisgeneticsourceofcrop

    ;improvement….China’scropgermplasmresourcesis

    ;distributedinprovincesofHainan,Guangdong,

    ;Guangxi,Yunnan,SouthofHunan,SichuanandSouth ;Acknowledgements:ThisstudywassupportedbytheNational ;FacilitiesandInformationInfrastructureforScienceand ;Technology(No.2003DIA3NO22),(No.2OO4DKA3O42O),(No. ;2oo5DKA2looo1.

    ;CHENYeyuan(1962),Bachelor,professo~researchfileds: ;collection.conservation,identification,evaluationand ;utilizationoftropicalfruitgermplasmresources. ;72

    ;rivervalleyareaofGuizhou,totally480,000km, ;whichincluding267townsandcities(excluded ;TaiwanProvince).accountingfor5%ofwholeChina’s

    ;landarea,thereare36nationalitieslivinginthisarea, ;totally160millionpeople.Owingtodiversified ;geography,differentclimatesexistinthisarea;and ;abundantlight,heatandwaterresourcesformeda ;completedecologicalenvironment;aswellasplentyof ;plants,whichaccountsforonethirdofwholeChina’s

    ;plantvarieties.Thisareahasfeaturesofbiodiversity ;andirreplaceableofdistributionregion.In2006,the ;plantingareaoftropicalcropofChinawasabout7.8 ;millionhectares,thetotaloutputwas140milliontons, ;andthetotalproductionvaluewas12.5billionRMB. ;Tropicalcrophasbecomeanimportantanduniquepart ;ofChineseagricultureeconomy,thus,themeaningof ;tropicalcropdevelopmentisgreat,andprospectis ;expansive.However,thesustainabledevelopmentof ;tropicalcropisdependingonindepth,systematicand

    ;effectiveutilizationtoacertaindegree.

    ;Sincetheendof70soflastcentury,Chinahad ;paidverymuchattentiononprotectionandutilization ;oftropicalcropgermplasmresources.Furthermore,the ;tropicalcropgermplasmresourcesresearchhavebeen ;involvedifitosomeimportantspecificprojectsbythe ;MinistryofScienceandTechnologyofChinaandthe ;MinistryofAgricultureofChinaassub-themes,suchas ;SeventhFiveYearStateKeyR&DProject.National ;ScienceandTechnologyInfrastructureProjectand ;AgriculturalBio-ResourcesProtectionandUtilization ;Project.Thedevelopmentofprojecthaspushedoverall ;developmentofsurvey,collection,conservation, ;evaluation,appraisalandresearchofinnovationand ;Protectionandutilizationoftropicalcropgermplasmresources ;unitization,whichhasprovidedsoundresources ;suppo~forthedevelopmentoftropicalcropindustry. ;2.Survey,collection,arrangementand

    ;conservationoftropicalcropgermplasm

    ;resoiirceS

    ;2.1Surveyandcollectionofgermplasm

;resources

    ;Since1978,Chinahasorganizedmanyspecific ;projectsconcerningtropicalcropgermplasm(Table1). ;Thescienceandtechnologyandrelateddepartments ;intropicaIareaalsohaveca~iedoutdifferentsized ;surveyandcollectionofresources.Thesurveyon ;existedresourcesintropicalareahasbeenbasically ;donenow.Throughthissurvey,thereareover30,000

    ebeen ;kindsoftropicalgermplasmresourceshav

    ;collectedandbasicallystudied.Inthese30,000 ;varieties,thereare25,000onlyexistedintropicalarea, ;theyareincludingbanana,lychee,mango,pineapple, ;carambola,longan,wampeeandothertropicalfruit ;trees;stylosanthes,kinggrass,brachiariagrassand ;othertropicalpasturegrass;heliconiaaurantiaca, ;gerberajamesoniibolusandothertropicalflowers; ;coffee,pepper,cocoa,commonbluebeardherb,tea ;andothertropicalspicydrinkcrop;coconut,oilpalm ;andotherwoodyoleiferousplants;specialvegetable, ;cassava,sugarcaneandothercashcrop;aswellas ;alpiniaoxyphylla,arecaandothersouthbotanicaland ;economicforest.Thecollectedtypesofresources ;includewildspecies,wildrelatives,localvariety, ;geneticdiversity,breedoftypeandgeneticmaterial, ;etc.Also,therearesomeworkscameout,suchas ;Chinafruitlychee/longan/Ioquat,hainanligneous ;feedingplantsdirectory,hainanfeedingplants, ;tropicalfeedingplantsresources,surveyofplants ;germplasmresourcesofhainanislandandwildorchid ;illustratedhandbookofhainanisland,ect. ;Table1Basicinformationonsurveyandcollectionoftropicalcropgermplasmresourcesin

    China

    ;2.2Conservationofgermplasmresources

    ;Tropicalcropgermplasmresourcesmainlyadopt ;insituconservation.exsituconservationandinvitro

    ;conservation.Throughtheconstructionofnatural ;reserve,plantation,seedbaseandinvitrobasehave

    ;beenstrengthened,theconservationefficiencyof ;tropicalcropresourceshavebeengreatlyimproved, ;thus,thetropicalcropgermplasmresources ;conservationsystemhasbeenbasicallyestablished ;basingonnaturalreserve,plantation,seedbaseand ;invitrobaseandwithtechnicalspecificationsupport. ;2.2.1InsitucOnservation

;In-situconservationisthatgermplasm

    ;multiplicationandconservationofplantsarein ;originalecologicalenvironment,mainlyvia ;constructionofnaturalreserveorparktoprotectwild ;andrelativeplants.Allprovincesintropicalareahave ;naturalreserves,forexamplein2004,Hainan ;provincetotallyestablished72naturalreserves,2.68 ;million.hectares,6ofthemarenationallevel,22of ;themareprovinciallevel,and44ofthemareurban ;eve1.Thesenaturalreservesaredistributedinfive ;greatnaturalforests,theyareWuzhimountain, ;Diaoluomountain,Jianfengmountain,Limu) ;mountainandBawangmountain,over85%oftropical ;plantshavebeenconserved121.UptoDecember2006, ;inYunanprovince,theForestDepartmentwas ;governing13nationalnaturalreserves,36provincial ;73

    ;P

    ;

    ;rotectionandut

    ;

    ;ilizationoftropicalcropgermplasmresources ;levelones,72urbanlevelonesand24town.1evelones ;,

    ;mostofthesereservesaredistributedintropicaland ;subtropicalarea.Youcanseethepresent

    ;conservationoftheseplantsresourcesonTable2. ;2.2.2Exsituconservation

    ;ExsituconservationiSthatgermplasmresources ;areconservedinoutsideofnaturalellvironment. ;and

    ;itsobjectsareliveplants,seedandorgan,etc.Live ;plantsCanbeconservedinbotanicafgarden.arboretum. ;plantationandotherplantingenvironment;seedcanbe ;conservedinseedbase;planttissueandOrancan

    ;conservedjnexsitubaseviatissuecultureand

    ;cryopreservation.Atpresent,5nationaltropicalcrop ;plantationshavebeenestablishedinChina,andthere ;areoverl0,000samplesTable3).Inaddition,the ;provincesintropicalareaalsohavesometeachingand ;scienceandresearchinstitutes,schools,centersand ;stations,aswellasbotanicalgardenandlocal ;plantationsestablished(Table4).Themainplantations ;intropicalareaaretropicalfruittreesgermplasm

    ;plantation,tropicalpasturegrassgermplasmplantation, ;cassavagermplasmplantation,tropicalflowerand ;economicplantsgermplasmplantation,coconut ;germplasmresourcesplantation,tropicalvegetable ;germplasmplantation,southsubtropicalcrop ;germplasmresourcesplantation,tropicalpestresistant ;cropandgermplasmplantation,bananad1I(

    ;germplasmplantation,alltheseplantationsare ;establishedbychineseacademyoftropicalagricultural ;sciences;also,thegermplasmplantationsofall ;provincialagriculturalacademiesanduniversitiesin ;tropicalarea,TropicalCropScienceandResearch ;InstituteofYunnanProvinceandSubtropicalCrop ;InstituteofGuangxiProvince,andthoseof ;stateownedfarm,plantingfarmandgermchitfarm. ;Allthesegermplasmplantationsareconservingplenty ;oftropicalcropgermplasmresources(Table5)and ;providingresourcessupportfordevelopmentof ;tropicalcropindustry,meanwhile,itsetsupasound ;foundationfortropicalcropresourcesresearch.. ;74

    ;Protectionandutilizationoftropicalcropgermplasmresources

    ;Table4Conservationofpartofbotanicalgardens3

    ;Table5Conservationofgerm#asulplantationresourcesintropicalarea

    ;Varietyof

    ;resourCeS

    ;Numberof

    ;COnservatlon

    ;Conservedby

    ;Latex

    ;Banana

    ;l016O

    ;360

    ;Tr0pialfit2179

    ;trees

    ;Tropicalpasture2037

    ;grass

    ;Tropical1780

    ;flowers

    ;Trop

    ;.

    ;ical1970

    ;economiccrop

    ;Southmedicine1552

;Special

    ;vegetable

    ;Dryrice

    ;Cornand

    ;soybean

    ;Sugarcane

    ;2965

    ;430o

    ;1900

    ;60

    ;LatexDepartmentofChineseAcademyofTropicalAgriculturalSciences,Yunnan ;InstituteofTmpicalCrop

    ;TropicalCropVarietyResourcesInstituteofChineseAcademyofTropical ;AgriculturalSciences,FruitTreesInstituteofGuangdongAgricultureAcademy ;TropicalCropVarietyResourcesInstituteofChineseAcademyofTropical ;AgriculturalSciences.SouthSubtropicalCropInstitute,GardeningSchooofSouth

    ;ChinaAgriculturalUniversity,GardeningInstituteofGuangxiAgricultural ;Academy,GuangxiSubtropicalCropInstitute,FruitTreesInstituteofHainan ;AgriculturalAcademy,YunnanTropicalCropAcademy.

    ;TropicalCropVarietyResourcesInstituteofChineseAcademyofTropical ;AgriculturalSciences.TropicalandSubtropica1EconomicCropInstituteofYunnan ;AgriculturalAcademy.

    ;TropicalCropVarietyResourcesInstituteofChineseAcademyofTmpical ;AgriculturalSciences.YunnanTropicalCropAcademy,LiangshanzhouSubtropical ;CropInstituteofSichuanProvince,TropicalandSubtropicalEconomicCrop ;InstituteofYunnanAgriculturalAcademy.

    ;TropicalCropVarietyResourcesInstituteofChineseAcademyofTropical ;AgriculturalSciences,BananaDrinkInstitute,SouthSubtropicalCropInstitute, ;CoconutInstitute,DehongTropicalAgriculturalSciencesInstituteofYunnan ;Province,GuangxiCornInstitute.

    ;TropicalCropVarietyResourcesInstituteofChineseAcademyofTrOpical ;AgriculturalSciences,FujianTropicalCropScienceInstitute,Tropicaland ;SubtropicalEconomicCroplnstituteofYunnanAgriculturalAcademy. ;TropicalCropVarietyResourcesInstituteofChineseAcademyofTmpical ;AgriculturalSciences.TropicalandSubtropicalEconomicCropInstituteofYunnan ;AgriculturalAcademy.

    ;TropicalCropVarietyResourcesInstituteofChineseAcademyofTropical ;AgriculturalSciences.

    ;TropicalCropVarietyResourcesInstitute

    ;AgriculturalSciences,GuangxiCornInstitute

    ;TropicalCropVarietyResourcesInstitute

    ;AzriculturaISciences.

    ;ofChineseAcademyofTropical

    ;ofChineseAcademyofTropical

null

    ;lncludesugarcane,cocoa,pepper,centrosema ;pubescensbenth,elaeagnusconfertaroxb,leopard, ;radixmillettiaspeciosa,monstera,villousamomum, ;alpiniaoxyphyllaMiq,morindaofficinalis,Sisal, ;maguey,dahuangniaobanana,heliconiarostrataruiz ;&pavon,kalanchoeblossfeldiana,pottedplanted ;dendrobii,vandateres,Japanesestemonaroot,Lacy ;treephilodendron,dracaenadraco,nepenthes, ;vermoniapatula,polysciasguilfoylei,dioscorea ;zingberensis,banana,cayennepineapple,tillandsia ;cyanea,aechmeafasciata,neoregelia,tilandsisa ;flabellate,pottedplantedanthuriumandraeanum, ;eulophiaflava(Lindley)Hooker,anotahainanensis ;(rolfe)schltr,synsepalumdulcificum,gerbera ;jamesonii,alpiniapurpurata,etlingeraelatior,calathea ;roseopicta,aspleniumnidus,eryngiumfoetidum, ;aspleniumnidus,andcratyliaargenteabenth. ;CurrentLiquidnitrogencryopreservation ;(196~C)istheonlyfeasibleandstablemethodof ;conservingplantgermplasmresources.Owingto ;therearemanydifferentcryopreservationmaterials, ;76

    ;suchasplantseed,farina,stemapex,stem.apex ;meristem,embryoid,cellline,protoplastandstem ;fragment,andequipmentsaresimpleandeconomical ;whichhelpinresearchtoacertaindegree.F0r ;example,stemapexandstemapexmeristemofcocoa, ;orangeandbananacanbewellcryopreserved,but ;now,therearemanytropicalplantscannotbestudied. ;3.Appraisalandevaluationoftropical

    ;cropgermplasmresources

    ;3.1Standarddevelopmentofappraisaland

    ;evaluationtechnology

    ;Forstandardizingandsystemizingevaluationof ;collectedandconservedtropicalcropgermplasm ;resources,itisnecessarytosetuprelevanttechnical ;standards.Atpresent,thedepictionstandard,quality ;controlstandardanddatastandardof6varieties ;(tropicalfruittrees,economiccrop,pasturegrass, ;flowers,specialvegetablesandsouthChinamedicinal ;plants),60speciesand180resourceshavebeensetup; ;relatedworkshavebeenpublished(Table6);the ;technicalspecificationsofpestresistanceof41 ;tropicalcropshavebeendeveloped(Table7);and

;tropicalcropresourcesresistancetechnology

    ;specifications(sugarcanesalttoleranceanddrought ;resistance,stylosanthessalttolerance,brachiaria ;droughtresistance,avocadowaterloggingresistance,

    ;cashewcoldresistance,dendrobiumnobilecold

    ;resistance,pimientoheattoleranceandokracold

    ;tolerance)havebeensetup.CurrentlyinChina,this ;systemisthemostauthorizedappraisaltooloftropical ;cropgermplasmresources,andbasicallyestablished ;technicalsystemofdescriptionandevaluation

    ;standard.Also,thissystemcanprovidetechnical

    ;insuranceforintegrationofwholeChina’stropical

    ;cropgermplasmresources,standardizationof

    ;collection,arrangementandconservation,

    ;informationizationandmodemization.

    ;Protectionandutilizationoftropicalcropgermplasmresources ;Table6Thepublishedworks

    ;1.Descriptionspecificationsoftropicalandsubtropicalfruittreesgermplasmresources

    ;2.Dataandqualitycontrolstandardsoftropicalandsubtropicalfruittreesgermplasmresour

    ces

    ;3.Descriptionspecificationsoftropicaleconomiccropgermplasmresources ;4.Dataandqualitycontrolstanda?

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com