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    Studies

Jan.2008,Volume2,No.1(SerialNo.2)JournalofLifeSciences,ISSN1934?7391,USA

    ;Studiesontheeffectsofbio-organicfertilizeronthephysicaland ;chemicalcharacteristicsofsoilandtheyieldofcassava ;LUOXinglu,CENZhongyong,XIEHe-xia,PANYinghua,LIAOCheng,SHAOZ

    hi-fang,CHENHuilin

    ;(AgriculturalCollege,GuangxiUniversity,Nanning530005,China) ;Abstract:Bioorganicfertilizerisanewtypeoffertilizerwhich ;haveadvantagesofbothorganicmanureandfertilizer.This ;studyinvestigatedtheeffectsofbioorganicfertilizeronthe

    ;growthandyieldofcassavaandthesoilfertility.estudywas ;carriedoutintheperiodof2()042oo5andthematerialwas

    ;cassavacultivarFUXUANO1.111ebioorganicfertilizerswere

    ;appliedasbasicfertilizersonfourdifferentlevelsof450kg,hm, ;600kg/hm.750kg/hm.900kg/hminthisexperiment.The ;growthofstemand1eaf,theyieldofearthnutandthestarch ;contentoftuberrootofcassavaandtheunitweight,thehole ;percent,thecontentoforganicmatters,nitrogen,phosphorus ;andpotassium.microbes.theactivityofsoilureaseandinvertase ;wereanalyzedduringtheexperiment.Theresultsshowedthat ;notonlycanthebioorganicfertilizerpromotethegrowthof

    ;cassavastemsandleaves.increasethechlorophyllcontentand ;thephotosynthesisofleaves,improvethephysiological ;metabolismofcassava,andstrengthenphysiologicalfunctionof ;antisenility,promotethetransformationfromphotosynthetic ;organismtotuberrootandincreasetheyieldandstarchcontent ;inthetuberrootofcassava,butalsodecreasethesoilunitweight. ;increasetheholepercentofsoil,promotemicrobeactivityinthe ;soil.increasetheactivityofsoilureaseandinvertase.promote ;theavailabilityofnutrients,increasethecontentoforganic ;matters,availablenitrogen,phosphorusandpotassium,and ;increasetheutilizationrateoffertilizer.Itwasaneffectiveway ;toapplythebio-organicfertilizertoincreasetheyieldandstarch ;contentinthetuberrootofcassava,improvingthephysicaland ;chemicalcharactersofsoilandincreasingthesoilfertility. ;Keywords:bioorganicfertilizer;?cassava;yield;physicaland ;chemicalcharacteristicsofsoiJ’

    ;Guangxiisflmainproductionareaofcassavain

    ;Chinawithannualplantingareaof300,000400,000

    ;hectares.whichcovers60percent1.2ofthenational

    ;Acknowledgments:ThisstudywassupportedbyNatural ;ScienceFundofGangxi(No.GNF0542023).

    ;LUOXinglu(1957),professor;researchfield:cultivating ;andbreedingofcassava.

    ;plantingarea.ItisonekeyindustryinGuangxi. ;However,theextensivecultivation,soilphysicaland ;chemicalpropertiesworseninganddecreasingfertility ;causedbylongtermnofertilization,fewfertilization, ;orsingleuseoffertilizer,havebecomethemainfactors ;[3-5]restrictingtheGuangxicassavaproductionand ;development.Therefore,howtoimprovethecassava ;landsoilphysicalandchemicalpropeaies,keepand ;enhancethesoilfertilityhasbecomeoneimportant ;problemI5-61demandingforresearchandsolutionin ;currentGuangxicassavaproductionanddevelopment. ;Thebio?organicfertilizerisonenewfertilizer ;popularizedandusedinrecentyears,integratingthe ;advantagesoforganicfertilizersandfertilizersasa ;whole,andcontainingmanybeneficial

    ;microorganisms.Onceapplied,itmayprovidethe ;cropswithnutrient.alsopromotethesoilnutrient ;transformation,increasethesoilavailablenutrient ;content,andbetterthesoilphysicalandchemical ;propertiesandsoilstructure.LUXing-lun,WENG ;Jinzhouandothershavestudied1%81thatthe

    ;bio-organicfertilizeronsugarcaneisobviouslyhelpful ;forstemandleafgrowthandsugaraccumulation,and ;improvingthesoilphysicalandchemicalproperties. ;CAIXinchuandothershavestudiedthatthe

    ;bioorganicfertilizeroncotton,watermelon,wheat, ;balsampear,kidneybean,cucumber,cornandother ;cropsishelpfulforpromotingthestemandleafgrowth ;andimprovingthequality[9-19].ZHANGLianzhong

    ;andothershavestudiedthatthebioorganicfertilizer

    ;hasadsorptioneffectontheheavymetalssotolower ;thehazards[201tothecrops.Cassavaisakindofstarch ;27

    ;

    ;Studiesontheeffectsofbio-organicfertilizeronthephysicalandchemicalcharacteristicsof

    soilandtheyieidOfcaSSa

    ;va————————————————————————————————

    —————————————————————————

    ;——————J……”

    ;crop,sotheharvestedeconomicproductismainlyroot.

    ;Thesoiltightnesshasobviousinfluenceontheroot ;differentiationgrowth,enlargementandstarch ;accumulation.Theloosesoilisgoodforrootgrowth ;andstarchaccumulation,whilethehardenedand ;unventilatedsoilisbadinthesetwoaspects. ;Comparedtoothercrops,cassavaiseasygrowing, ;soforalongtimepeopleregarditasakindoffertile ;crop,doingextensivecultivationmanagement,

    termnofertilization,fewfertilization,orsingle ;long

    ;fertilizerinmanyplaces,whichhavecausedsoil ;physicalandchemicalpropertiesworseningand ;fertilitydecreasingsotobecomethemainfactors121-231 ;restrictingthecassavaproductionanddevelopment. ;Therefore,howtoimprovethecassavalandsoil ;physicalandchemicalproperties,keepandenhancethe ;soilfertilityhasbecomeoneimportantproblem ;demandingforresearchandsolutionincurrent ;Guangxicassavaproductionanddevelopment.The ;bioorganicfertilizerisonenewfertilizerintegrating ;theadvantagesoforganicfertilizersandfertilizersasa ;whole,andcontainingabundantorganicmatters, ;certainrapidlyavailablenitrogen,phosphorus, ;potassiumnutrientandmanybeneficial

    ;microorganisms,soitmayfullydisplaytheadvantages ;oforganicfertilizersbetteringthesoil,overcomethe ;disadvantages【】ofsoilphysicalandchemical

    ;propertiesworsening,soilhardeningandenvironment ;pollutioncausedbysingleuseoffertilizer,also ;quickenthesoilnutrienttransformation,andtimely ;supplythenutrients25?tothecrops.

    ;Throughorganic

    ;fertilizersteston”organismsofdifferentlevels,this

    ;experimentdiscussestheinfluencesofbioorganic

    ;fertilizeronthecassavalandsoilphysicalandchemical ;properties,soilfertility,rootdifferentiationgrowthand ;starchaccumulationsotoprovidebasisofbioorganic

    ;fertilizeronthecassavaapplication.

    ;28

    ;1.Experimentmaterialsandmethods

    ;1.1Experimentdesignandmaterials

    ;Thisexperimentisdoneintheteachingand

    ;researchingfarmofCollegeofAgriculture,Guangxi ;Universityfrom2004till2005.Theexperimentsoil ;hasmoderatefertility,organicmatterscontentof1.38

    ;percent,totalnitrogenO.23percent.totalphosphorus ;0.16percent,totalpotassium0.29percent, ;alkali_hydrolyzablenitrogen71.53mg/kg,rapidly ;availablephosphorus117.11mg/kg,rapidlyavailable ;potassium10.52mg/kg.’

    ;Thisexperimentishandledwith5treatment

    organicfertilizer450kg/hm;(B) ;manners:(A)bio

    ;bioorganicfertilizer600kg/hm;(C)bio-organic ;fertilizer750kg/hm;(D)bioorganicfertilizer900

    ;kg/hm;(CK)nobioorganicfertilizer.(Note:the

    ;followingnameofeverytreatmentmanneris ;respectivelyrepresentedbyA,B,C,D,CK

    ;(comparison)).Arrangedrandomly,thisexperimentis ;repeatedfor3times.Theexperimentareais33mwith ;plantingspecificationof100cmx70cm.The ;bio’organicfertilizerasbasefertilizeristotallyapplied

    ;beforeplantingthecassava.

    ;Thecassavavarietyusedintheexperimentis ;FuXuan01cultivatedbyCassavaTopicTeamof ;GuangxiUniversity.ThebioorganicfertilizerisLida

    organicfertilizerproducedbyGuangxiLida ;Bio

    ;AgricultureDevelopmentCo.,Ltdwithtechnical ;indexesof:organicmatters~_

    ;25percent,

    ;N+P2O5+K20~percent,andeffectiveviablecount ;.

    ;02billion/g.

    ;1.2Cultivationmanagement

    ;SowonMarch19,2004,sowonMarch21,2005. ;60dayslaterdofirstadditionalfertilizerapplyingof ;everyhectarewithurea112.5kg,compoundfertilizer ;(N:P205:K20is15:15:15)150kg,potassiumchloride ;112.5kg.Docultivationridging.120daysafterthe ;sowing,dosecondadditionalfertilizerapplyingof ;everyhectarewithurea75kg,compoundfertilizer(N: ;P205:K2Ois15:15:15)225kg,potassiumchloride150 ;kg.Docultivationridging.

    ;Studiesontheeffectsofbio.organicfertilizeroRthephysicalandchemicalcharacteristicso

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    ;1.3Measuringofsoilphysicalandchemical

    ;propertiesandcassavaagricultureproperties,and

    ;physiological-biochemicalindexes

    ;1.3.1Soilphysicalandchemicalpropeaies

    ;measuring

    ;Inseedlingstage,rootformingstage,root

    ;enlargementstageandtechnicalmaturitystage, ;respectivelymeasurethesoilvolumeweight,porosity, ;soilureaseandconvertingenzymeactivity,soilorganic ;matters,andrapidlyavailablenitrogen,phosphorus, ;potassiumcontent.Forsoilvolumeweightandporosity ;measuring,usespoonsampling;forsoilconverting ;enzymeandsoilureaseactivitymeasuring, ;respectivelyrefertoSoilEnzymeandtheMethodof ;Research1281mainlycomposedbyGUANSongyin

    ;andSoilFertilityResearchMethod[29mainly

    ;composedbyYANChangsheng.Forcontentsofsoil

    ;organicmattersandrapidlyavailablenitrogen, ;phosphorus,potassiummeasuring,refertoAnalysisof ;SoilAgroChemistry.’mainlycomposedbyNanjing

    ;AgriculturalUniversity.

    ;1.3.2Cassavaagriculturepropertiesmeasuring ;Mainlysurveytheseedlingrateofdifferent ;treatmentmanners,alsomeasuretherespectiveplant ;height,stemdiameter,leafareaindexandbiological ;outputinrootformingstage,rootenlargementstage ;andstemmaturitystage.Theplantheightisthe ;measurementvaluefromthegroundtothestalktop ;growingpoint,thestemdiameteristhemeasurement ;valueat50cmhightotheground,theleafareaindexis ;measuredbyCI203leafareameterproducedbyUS ;CIDcompany.Thebiologicaloutputistoselect3 ;plantsineveryarea,takebacktothelaboratoryand ;cleanwithrunningwater,cutthestalksandrootsinto ;smallpieces,dryandweigh.

    ;1.3.3Cassavaphysiologicalbiochemicalindexes

    ;measuring

    ;Forchlorophyllcontentmeasuring,usemixture ;methodofacetoneandethylalcoho1.Selectflesh ;cassavaleaves,removethemedianvein,andcutinto ;thinstrips.Weighfleshleavesabout0.1g,putintothe ;coveredvolumetricflask.addin10mlmixedextractof ;acetoneandethylalcoho1.coverup.Extractindark ;undertheroomtemperature,tillthematerialsiswhite, ;24hlater.Takethesupernatantfluidtomeasurethe ;absorbencyunderwavelengthof663nmand645nm, ;andcalculatethechlorophyllcontentinaccordance ;withthefollowingformula:

    ;Chlorophyllcontent(mg.g)=

    ;(8.04A663+20.29A645)xV(m1)/1000W(g)

    ;Intheaboveformula:A663andA645respectively ;standsfortheabsorbencydegreeofthechlorophyll ;extractunderthewavelengthof663nmand645nm,V ;standsfortheextractvolume.Wstandsforthemater