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    Studies

Jan.2008,Volume2,No.1(SerialNo.2)JournalofLifeSciences,ISSN1934?7391,USA

    ;Studiesontheeffectsofbio-organicfertilizeronthephysicaland ;chemicalcharacteristicsofsoilandtheyieldofcassava ;LUOXinglu,CENZhongyong,XIEHe-xia,PANYinghua,LIAOCheng,SHAOZ

    hi-fang,CHENHuilin

    ;(AgriculturalCollege,GuangxiUniversity,Nanning530005,China) ;Abstract:Bioorganicfertilizerisanewtypeoffertilizerwhich ;haveadvantagesofbothorganicmanureandfertilizer.This ;studyinvestigatedtheeffectsofbioorganicfertilizeronthe

    ;growthandyieldofcassavaandthesoilfertility.estudywas ;carriedoutintheperiodof2()042oo5andthematerialwas

    ;cassavacultivarFUXUANO1.111ebioorganicfertilizerswere

    ;appliedasbasicfertilizersonfourdifferentlevelsof450kg,hm, ;600kg/hm.750kg/hm.900kg/hminthisexperiment.The ;growthofstemand1eaf,theyieldofearthnutandthestarch ;contentoftuberrootofcassavaandtheunitweight,thehole ;percent,thecontentoforganicmatters,nitrogen,phosphorus ;andpotassium.microbes.theactivityofsoilureaseandinvertase ;wereanalyzedduringtheexperiment.Theresultsshowedthat ;notonlycanthebioorganicfertilizerpromotethegrowthof

    ;cassavastemsandleaves.increasethechlorophyllcontentand ;thephotosynthesisofleaves,improvethephysiological ;metabolismofcassava,andstrengthenphysiologicalfunctionof ;antisenility,promotethetransformationfromphotosynthetic ;organismtotuberrootandincreasetheyieldandstarchcontent ;inthetuberrootofcassava,butalsodecreasethesoilunitweight. ;increasetheholepercentofsoil,promotemicrobeactivityinthe ;soil.increasetheactivityofsoilureaseandinvertase.promote ;theavailabilityofnutrients,increasethecontentoforganic ;matters,availablenitrogen,phosphorusandpotassium,and ;increasetheutilizationrateoffertilizer.Itwasaneffectiveway ;toapplythebio-organicfertilizertoincreasetheyieldandstarch ;contentinthetuberrootofcassava,improvingthephysicaland ;chemicalcharactersofsoilandincreasingthesoilfertility. ;Keywords:bioorganicfertilizer;?cassava;yield;physicaland ;chemicalcharacteristicsofsoiJ’

    ;Guangxiisflmainproductionareaofcassavain

    ;Chinawithannualplantingareaof300,000400,000

    ;hectares.whichcovers60percent1.2ofthenational

    ;Acknowledgments:ThisstudywassupportedbyNatural ;ScienceFundofGangxi(No.GNF0542023).

    ;LUOXinglu(1957),professor;researchfield:cultivating ;andbreedingofcassava.

    ;plantingarea.ItisonekeyindustryinGuangxi. ;However,theextensivecultivation,soilphysicaland ;chemicalpropertiesworseninganddecreasingfertility ;causedbylongtermnofertilization,fewfertilization, ;orsingleuseoffertilizer,havebecomethemainfactors ;[3-5]restrictingtheGuangxicassavaproductionand ;development.Therefore,howtoimprovethecassava ;landsoilphysicalandchemicalpropeaies,keepand ;enhancethesoilfertilityhasbecomeoneimportant ;problemI5-61demandingforresearchandsolutionin ;currentGuangxicassavaproductionanddevelopment. ;Thebio?organicfertilizerisonenewfertilizer ;popularizedandusedinrecentyears,integratingthe ;advantagesoforganicfertilizersandfertilizersasa ;whole,andcontainingmanybeneficial

    ;microorganisms.Onceapplied,itmayprovidethe ;cropswithnutrient.alsopromotethesoilnutrient ;transformation,increasethesoilavailablenutrient ;content,andbetterthesoilphysicalandchemical ;propertiesandsoilstructure.LUXing-lun,WENG ;Jinzhouandothershavestudied1%81thatthe

    ;bio-organicfertilizeronsugarcaneisobviouslyhelpful ;forstemandleafgrowthandsugaraccumulation,and ;improvingthesoilphysicalandchemicalproperties. ;CAIXinchuandothershavestudiedthatthe

    ;bioorganicfertilizeroncotton,watermelon,wheat, ;balsampear,kidneybean,cucumber,cornandother ;cropsishelpfulforpromotingthestemandleafgrowth ;andimprovingthequality[9-19].ZHANGLianzhong

    ;andothershavestudiedthatthebioorganicfertilizer

    ;hasadsorptioneffectontheheavymetalssotolower ;thehazards[201tothecrops.Cassavaisakindofstarch ;27

    ;

    ;Studiesontheeffectsofbio-organicfertilizeronthephysicalandchemicalcharacteristicsof

    soilandtheyieidOfcaSSa

    ;va————————————————————————————————

    —————————————————————————

    ;——————J……”

    ;crop,sotheharvestedeconomicproductismainlyroot.

    ;Thesoiltightnesshasobviousinfluenceontheroot ;differentiationgrowth,enlargementandstarch ;accumulation.Theloosesoilisgoodforrootgrowth ;andstarchaccumulation,whilethehardenedand ;unventilatedsoilisbadinthesetwoaspects. ;Comparedtoothercrops,cassavaiseasygrowing, ;soforalongtimepeopleregarditasakindoffertile ;crop,doingextensivecultivationmanagement,

    termnofertilization,fewfertilization,orsingle ;long

    ;fertilizerinmanyplaces,whichhavecausedsoil ;physicalandchemicalpropertiesworseningand ;fertilitydecreasingsotobecomethemainfactors121-231 ;restrictingthecassavaproductionanddevelopment. ;Therefore,howtoimprovethecassavalandsoil ;physicalandchemicalproperties,keepandenhancethe ;soilfertilityhasbecomeoneimportantproblem ;demandingforresearchandsolutionincurrent ;Guangxicassavaproductionanddevelopment.The ;bioorganicfertilizerisonenewfertilizerintegrating ;theadvantagesoforganicfertilizersandfertilizersasa ;whole,andcontainingabundantorganicmatters, ;certainrapidlyavailablenitrogen,phosphorus, ;potassiumnutrientandmanybeneficial

    ;microorganisms,soitmayfullydisplaytheadvantages ;oforganicfertilizersbetteringthesoil,overcomethe ;disadvantages【】ofsoilphysicalandchemical

    ;propertiesworsening,soilhardeningandenvironment ;pollutioncausedbysingleuseoffertilizer,also ;quickenthesoilnutrienttransformation,andtimely ;supplythenutrients25?tothecrops.

    ;Throughorganic

    ;fertilizersteston”organismsofdifferentlevels,this

    ;experimentdiscussestheinfluencesofbioorganic

    ;fertilizeronthecassavalandsoilphysicalandchemical ;properties,soilfertility,rootdifferentiationgrowthand ;starchaccumulationsotoprovidebasisofbioorganic

    ;fertilizeronthecassavaapplication.

    ;28

    ;1.Experimentmaterialsandmethods

    ;1.1Experimentdesignandmaterials

    ;Thisexperimentisdoneintheteachingand

    ;researchingfarmofCollegeofAgriculture,Guangxi ;Universityfrom2004till2005.Theexperimentsoil ;hasmoderatefertility,organicmatterscontentof1.38

    ;percent,totalnitrogenO.23percent.totalphosphorus ;0.16percent,totalpotassium0.29percent, ;alkali_hydrolyzablenitrogen71.53mg/kg,rapidly ;availablephosphorus117.11mg/kg,rapidlyavailable ;potassium10.52mg/kg.’

    ;Thisexperimentishandledwith5treatment

    organicfertilizer450kg/hm;(B) ;manners:(A)bio

    ;bioorganicfertilizer600kg/hm;(C)bio-organic ;fertilizer750kg/hm;(D)bioorganicfertilizer900

    ;kg/hm;(CK)nobioorganicfertilizer.(Note:the

    ;followingnameofeverytreatmentmanneris ;respectivelyrepresentedbyA,B,C,D,CK

    ;(comparison)).Arrangedrandomly,thisexperimentis ;repeatedfor3times.Theexperimentareais33mwith ;plantingspecificationof100cmx70cm.The ;bio’organicfertilizerasbasefertilizeristotallyapplied

    ;beforeplantingthecassava.

    ;Thecassavavarietyusedintheexperimentis ;FuXuan01cultivatedbyCassavaTopicTeamof ;GuangxiUniversity.ThebioorganicfertilizerisLida

    organicfertilizerproducedbyGuangxiLida ;Bio

    ;AgricultureDevelopmentCo.,Ltdwithtechnical ;indexesof:organicmatters~_

    ;25percent,

    ;N+P2O5+K20~percent,andeffectiveviablecount ;.

    ;02billion/g.

    ;1.2Cultivationmanagement

    ;SowonMarch19,2004,sowonMarch21,2005. ;60dayslaterdofirstadditionalfertilizerapplyingof ;everyhectarewithurea112.5kg,compoundfertilizer ;(N:P205:K20is15:15:15)150kg,potassiumchloride ;112.5kg.Docultivationridging.120daysafterthe ;sowing,dosecondadditionalfertilizerapplyingof ;everyhectarewithurea75kg,compoundfertilizer(N: ;P205:K2Ois15:15:15)225kg,potassiumchloride150 ;kg.Docultivationridging.

    ;Studiesontheeffectsofbio.organicfertilizeroRthephysicalandchemicalcharacteristicso

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    ;1.3Measuringofsoilphysicalandchemical

    ;propertiesandcassavaagricultureproperties,and

    ;physiological-biochemicalindexes

    ;1.3.1Soilphysicalandchemicalpropeaies

    ;measuring

    ;Inseedlingstage,rootformingstage,root

    ;enlargementstageandtechnicalmaturitystage, ;respectivelymeasurethesoilvolumeweight,porosity, ;soilureaseandconvertingenzymeactivity,soilorganic ;matters,andrapidlyavailablenitrogen,phosphorus, ;potassiumcontent.Forsoilvolumeweightandporosity ;measuring,usespoonsampling;forsoilconverting ;enzymeandsoilureaseactivitymeasuring, ;respectivelyrefertoSoilEnzymeandtheMethodof ;Research1281mainlycomposedbyGUANSongyin

    ;andSoilFertilityResearchMethod[29mainly

    ;composedbyYANChangsheng.Forcontentsofsoil

    ;organicmattersandrapidlyavailablenitrogen, ;phosphorus,potassiummeasuring,refertoAnalysisof ;SoilAgroChemistry.’mainlycomposedbyNanjing

    ;AgriculturalUniversity.

    ;1.3.2Cassavaagriculturepropertiesmeasuring ;Mainlysurveytheseedlingrateofdifferent ;treatmentmanners,alsomeasuretherespectiveplant ;height,stemdiameter,leafareaindexandbiological ;outputinrootformingstage,rootenlargementstage ;andstemmaturitystage.Theplantheightisthe ;measurementvaluefromthegroundtothestalktop ;growingpoint,thestemdiameteristhemeasurement ;valueat50cmhightotheground,theleafareaindexis ;measuredbyCI203leafareameterproducedbyUS ;CIDcompany.Thebiologicaloutputistoselect3 ;plantsineveryarea,takebacktothelaboratoryand ;cleanwithrunningwater,cutthestalksandrootsinto ;smallpieces,dryandweigh.

    ;1.3.3Cassavaphysiologicalbiochemicalindexes

    ;measuring

    ;Forchlorophyllcontentmeasuring,usemixture ;methodofacetoneandethylalcoho1.Selectflesh ;cassavaleaves,removethemedianvein,andcutinto ;thinstrips.Weighfleshleavesabout0.1g,putintothe ;coveredvolumetricflask.addin10mlmixedextractof ;acetoneandethylalcoho1.coverup.Extractindark ;undertheroomtemperature,tillthematerialsiswhite, ;24hlater.Takethesupernatantfluidtomeasurethe ;absorbencyunderwavelengthof663nmand645nm, ;andcalculatethechlorophyllcontentinaccordance ;withthefollowingformula:

    ;Chlorophyllcontent(mg.g)=

    ;(8.04A663+20.29A645)xV(m1)/1000W(g)

    ;Intheaboveformula:A663andA645respectively ;standsfortheabsorbencydegreeofthechlorophyll ;extractunderthewavelengthof663nmand645nm,V ;standsfortheextractvolume.Wstandsforthematerial ;weight.

    ;Forphotosyntheticintensitymeasuring,use

    redphotosyntheticmeasuringsystem ;LI64o0infra

    ;producedbyUSLCoRcompany;fornet

    ;photosyntheticrateofthecassava+4leafmeasuring. ;useartificiallightsource.

    ;1.3.4Cassavarootstarchcontentmeasuring ;Forrootstarchcontentmeasuring,useBa(OH)z ;precipitationmethod.Weighabout2.03.0gairdried

    ;samplewhichhaspassed60meshedsieve,pourinto ;the10omlvolumetricflask.addinabout40mldistilled ;waterputinwaterbathOf8O?andheatfor30minutes.

    ;dosomeshaking.Aftercooling.addin20mlsaturated ;Ba(OH)2solution,shakefor2minutes,addin95 ;percentalcoholtillthescale,maketheviscosityof ;solutionalcoholreach4050percentsotoquickenthe

    ;precipitationandpreventtheenzymeactivitieswhich ;willturnthestarchintosugarandaffecttheresult. ;Thenshakethevolumetricflask,putasidefor15 ;minutestosettledowntheprecipitation,absorbthe ;clearliquid20m1inthetriangularflask.addin3drops ;ofphenolphthaleinindicator,titrateusing1Nstandard ;HC1.RecordtheusedHC1mlnumberasa.Take4ml ;saturatedBa(OH)2solution,titrateusinglNstandard ;HCl,RecordtheusedHClmInumberasb.

    ;Starchcontent(%)=(ba)NHcl×0.324×

    ;5/sampledryweight(g)×100%.

    ;29

    ;Studiesontheeffectsofbio-organicfertilizeronthephysicalandchemicalcharacteristicsof

    soilandtheyieldofcassava

    ;2.Experimentresultandanalysis

    ;2.1Theinfluenceofbio-organicfertilizeron ;soilphysicalandchemicalnature

    ;2.1.1Theinfluenceofbioorganicfertilizeron

    ;soilvolumeweightandporosity

    ;FromTable1,wemayknowthattheapplied

    ;bioorganicfertilizeroncassavahasobviousinfluence ;onthesoilvolumeweightandporosity.Forall ;treatmentmannerswithbioorganicfertilizer,thesoil

    ;volumeweightislowerthanthecomparison,whilethe

    ;porosityishigherthanthecomparison.Theexperiment ;resultsOf2004and2005arealmostsame.Sothe ;applicationofbioorganicfertilizercouldreducethe ;soilvolumeweightsandraisethesoilporosity.The ;reductionofsoilvolumeweightprobablyresultsfrom ;thebioorganicfertilizerwithorganicmatters,which ;couldbringdownthesoilvolumeweightandupliftthe ;porosityafterappliedintothesoil.Asarootcrop,the ;rootgrowthandenlargementhavedecisiveeffecton ;thecassavaoutputforming,alsohaveclose ;relationshipswiththesoilvolumeweightandair ;permeability.Solidsoil,excessivevolumeweightand ;badpermeabilitywillrestraintherootgrowthand ;enlargement.Applyingbioorganicfertilizersoto

    ;reducethesoilvolumeweight,increasetheporosity ;andimprovethepermeabilityisimportantfor ;enhancingtherootgrowthandenlargement. ;Table1Theeffectsofbio-organicfertifizeronthesoilbulkdensityandholespercentofsoilU

    nitweight:g,crn3,Hole:%

    ;2Oo42005

    ;eedlingTuberTubergrowthRipe

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    ;welghtwelghtwelghtweightweightweightweightweignt ;A1.2350.3lI3249.6Il3947.71.4847.31.285O.8l-3649.61.4247.61.4546.3

    ;Bl-2l52.11.2950-31.3649.31.4248.31.2352.6l3250.31.3849.81.4148.5

    ;C1.1854.21.2752.61.3750.41-3949.61.1554.31.2850.8l-3250-31.3649.7

    D1.1554.61.253.41.2851.6J.3750.71.1l54.91.2452.61.2951.81.2650.6 ;

    ;EfCK)1.3648.71.4246.81.4745.81.4944.51-3248.31.4346.71.4845.61.5644.2

    ;Note:ThenumbersintheTablelwereaveragesofthreerepeatsintheexperiments,thesamea

    sthelater

    ;2.1.2Theinfluenceofbioorganicfertilizeron

    ;thesoilureaseactivityandconvertingenzymeactivity ;Table2showsthatthebioorganicfertilizerhas

    ;obviousinfluenceonthesoilureaseandconverting ;enzymeactivity.Foralltreatmentmannerswith ;bioorganicfertilizer,inallgrowthstages,thesoil ;ureaseandconvertingenzymeactivityarehigherthan ;thecomparison.Theexperimentresultsof2004and ;2005arealmostsame.Thebioorganicfertilizercould

    ;upliftthesoilureaseandconvertingenzymeactivity, ;probablybecausethatthebio-organicfertilizerhas ;manykindsofbeneficialmicroorganismbacteriology. ;Thiscouldactivateandenhancethesoilureaseand ;convertingenzymeactivity.

    ;Table2Theeffectsofbio-organicfertilizerontheureaseandinvertaseactivityofsoilUrease

    :mg/100g,Invene~:mgg

    ;20042005

    ;Seed?ngTuberformati.nTubergrowthRipeseed?ng ;n

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    ;Studiesontheeffectsofbio-organicfertilizeronthephysicalandchemicalcharacteristicsof

    soilandtheyieldofcassava

    ;Table5Theeffectsofbio?organicfertilizeronthegrowthofcassavastemsandleave(cm) ;2O042005

    ;TreatmentTuberformationTubergrowthRipeTuberformationTubergrowthRipe ;PHSDLAIPHSDLAIPHSDLAlPHSDLAlPHSDLAlPHSDL

    ;A1532.462.882062.924.O22363.832.161642.563.012l53.024.232364.152-36 ;B1622.5l2.962242.984.562483.922.361682.6I3.1222l3.144.422484.362.43 ;C1682.583.0923l3.054.832624.022.51l7l2.833.242363.354.652534.582.74 ;D1752.833.162423.264.962734.3l2.68l782.943.532513.484.872854.833.05 ;E(CK)1462.162.321952.783.952083.562.041462.142.942032.864.12l43.842.04 ;2.3Theinfluenceofbio.organicfertilizeron

    ;thecassavaleafchlorophyllcontentand

    ;photosynthesisrate

    ;2-3.1Theinfluenceofbioorganicfertilizeron

    ;theleafchlorophyllcontent

    ;Inallgrowthstages.thetreatmentmannerswith

    ;bio-organicfertilizerhavechlorophyllcontenthigher

    ;thanthecomparison,especiallyinthemiddleandlater

    ;stages.Theexperime?

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