Process Plant Commissioning

By Derek Watkins,2014-03-15 14:08
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The aim of this handbook is to provide the non-specialist with advice on how to set about the problem of commissioning either a new plant or a modification. A new chapter deals with avoiding problems during commissioning - including: lack of attention to details, particularly to the analysis of data obtained during commissioning; lack of control of sub-contractors. IChemE, the Institution of Chemical Engineers, is the center for chemical, biochemical and process engineering professionals worldwide. We are the heart of the process community, promoting competence and a commitment to sustainable development, advancing the discipline for the benefit of society and supporting the professional development of members

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Note: Appendices are numbered in line with the number of the

    Chapter in which they are referenced;

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    Defining work and responsibility of construction and commissioning by contractor and the



prepare plant/equipment for pre-commissioning/mechanical testing

    LEGEND.: C Client H Contractor V Vendor

    Trades Supervised Inspected Work items & labor by by by

    Ensure adequate safety precautions Phase A-D H H C & H 1. and services available for activities Phase E-G C C C & H in this and ensuring phases

    Install service gland packing in all minor machinery 2. H H H and drivers

    Install service gland packing and lubricate all types of 3. H H H valves.

    Check alignment and lubrication of all minor rotating 4. H H H machinery and drivers

    5. Fill electrical equipment with oil as required H H H

    Block-off or isolate all equipment before line flushing 6. H H H and testing

    Remove bellows-type expansion joints and rupture

    7. discs from pipework etc. before line flushing and H H H


    Remove installed relief valves and any instruments

    liable to damage from lines and vessels if assembly has 8. H H H been made for piping fit-up checks etc. before line

    flushing and testing

    9. Correct any construction errors or omissions H H H

Note: An alternative form of check list can be found in the America Petroleum Institute (API)

    publication API 700.

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    Defining work and responsibility of construction and commissioning by contractor and the



     prepare services; clean and pressure test systems LEGEND: C = Client H = Contractor V = Vendor

    Trades Supervised Inspected Work items & labor by by by

    Pre-commission/prepare for duty utility systems and 1. services, inc. package items, as required for H H C & H

    testing/pre-commissioning plant systems and equipment

    Check electrical installations for power, lighting, and 2. H H C & H instrumentation for operability and safety

    Check for correct rotation of minor rotating machinery 3. H H H drivers and carry out uncoupled run

    Hydraulic and/or pneumatic pressure test equipment to 4. specification requirements to check connections and H H C & H

    joints for pressure tightness

    Clean all lines of loose material by flushing, steaming or 5. H H H blowing

    Hydraulic and/or pneumatic pressure test lines to 6. H H C & H specification requirements

    Apply any special preparation on inside surfaces of 7. H H H Lines as specified

    Set up relief valves on test rig for witness testing and 8. H H C & H subsequently re-install in lines

    9. Install orifice plates after line cleaning and testing H H H

    Remove all loose material and dirt from inside vessels,

    volumes and tanks; check/install internals and packings 10. H H C & H and ‗close-up‘ upon approval of cleanliness and

    inspection of internals

    After completion of line/equipment pressure testing

    remove all swing blinds (slip plates) from lines other . 11. H H than those required for operation purposes and install H

    temporary strainers

    12. Correction of construction errors and omissions H H H

    13. Re-test after corrective work or alteration H H C & H

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    Defining work and responsibility of construction and commissioning by contractor and the



check and prepare major mechanical equipment, instrumentation, and protection systems

    LEGEND: C = Client H = Contractor V = Vendor

    Trades Supervised Inspected Work items & labor by by by

    Carry out any chemical cleaning required, e.g. boiler 1. system, compressor suction pipework and lubricating H & V H C H V

    systems, etc.

    Check alignment and lubrication of all major drivers,

    2. compressors and blowers which have been assembled at H & V H C H V


    Clean and flush lubricating oil and seat oil installations

    3. and circulate oil in all main drivers, compressors and H & V H H


    Check for correct rotation of major drivers and carry out 4. H & V H C H V uncoupled run.

    Carry out short running-in tests with air on reciprocating, 5. compressors to check bearings, rods, governors, safety H & V H C H V

    devices and ancilliary equipment.

    Carry out short running-in tests with air (where suitable)

    on all main centrifugal blowers and compressors to ensure 6. H & V H C H V satisfactory mechanical operation when a works test has

    not been carried out.

    Carry out short running-in tests on pumps with water 7. H & V H C H V (where suitable) to ensure satisfactory operation.

    Check action of instruments, continuity of thermocouple

    8. connections and instrument circuits. Check control valves H & V H C H V

    are correct for direction of flow and action on air failure.

    9. Test instruments and loop-check control circuits H & V H C H V

    10. Test electrical controls and plant protection systems. H H C&H

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Defining work and responsibility of construction and commissioning by contractor and the



     final preparation for start-up LEGEND C = Client H = Contractor V = Vendor

    Supervised Trades & Inspected Work items by labor by by

    Check provisions for fire-fighting, safety equipment and I. H C C & H communications

    2. Check that utility systems are fully pre commissione H C C & H 3. Calibrate instruments H & C H C & H

    Check that orifice plates and permanent blinds are 4. H H H installed

    Charge catalyst(s) in accordance with recommended H 5. C C & H procedures comm

    Carry out any chemical pretreatment of process vessels H 6. H C & H required, e.g. gas absorption plant vanadation comm

    Dry out refractory linings other than when included in 7. H C H plant start-up procedures

    8. Dry out and purge lines and equipment H C H 9. Test for leak-tightness of plant/systems (standing test) H H C & H 10. Remove, clean and replace temporary strainers H C H 11. Check drainage systems clear and ‗liquid seals filled H H H 12. Check completeness of battery limit connections H H H & H

    Check battery limits disposal systems are complete and 13. C C C ready for function

    Check relief systems to flare or blow-down to see no 14. H H H blockages

    15. Adjust pipe supports for expansion and loading strains H H H 16. Correct construction errors and repairs H H C & H

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Defining work and responsibility of construction and commissioning by contractor and the



change with Feedstock, etc., start-up plant and operate

    LEGEND: C = Client H = Contractor V = Vendor

    Supervised Trades & Work items by labour by

    Put utility systems into service in readiness for plant start-up,

    I. ensuring that any necessary chemical dosing procedure is H C


    Charge feedstock/fuel and other systems fed from outside 2. H C battery limits, consistent with appropriate safety precautions

    Commence start-up procedures including any necessary

    refractory dry-out, catalyst conditioning, etc. and proceed to 3. H & C C bring plant online in accordance with Operating Manual and

    any supplementary instructions

    Check supports of all hot and cold lines and adjust for 4. H C expansion strains

    5. Tighten hot joints H C

    Optimise operating adjustments; agree procedures for plant 6. H C performance test(s)

    Maintenance1 routine cleaning and normal adjustments to 7. C C plant

    8. Complete lagging and painting H H 9. Complete minor construction details H H

    Record any modifications carried out during commissioning 10. H - and annotate drawings/diagrams accordingly

    11. Clean up site H H

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Reservation check list


    When carrying out plant reservations checks,

    the following list of possible faults should be looked for

    Tick When Checked

    Screwed plugs in pipes, only permissible on air, water, nitrogen under 100 psi, 1‘/2‖ 1 NB and below

    2 Faulty welding 3 Correct joints 4 Odd sized bolts 5 Black bolts in cold joints 6 Faulty pipeline supports 7 Pipe not resting on supports 8 Are expansion slippers safe? (eg) Will they push off structure when line is hot? 9 Check spring hanger settings 10 Faulty spring hangers 11 Low point drains fitted where necessary, and high point vents 12 Lagging missing damaged, loose etc 13 Vent and drain blanks fitted here. necessary

    ―Weep holes‖ in Relief Valve exhaust lines, only on Non hydrocarbon or atmosphere 14 RVs

    15 Have all slip plates been removed and spec plates turned? 16 Spring Hangers Have restraining pins been removed? 17 Make sure pipework is up to the P&I diagram specification

    Necking off Hazard is there any equipment, or small bore pipe projection that can 18 be accidentally broken off?

    19 Are small branches, ie drains, sufficiently clear of pipe supports? 20 Do drain lines run to underground drains? They should not flow over paved areas 21 Flanges lagged up [Type text]

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     Jobs to be done before chemicals or hydrocarbons can be safely brought into Action Sign Date the plant

    1 Complete all necessary reservations 2 Nitrogen purge systems prepared and leak tested 3 Blowdown system ―live‖ 4 Oil/Water separator in commission 5 New perimeter fence erected, with ―Dematched Area‖ notices 6 Dematching hut in position and gateman available 7 Brief all construction people on consequence of plant becoming a ―Dematched Area‖

    8 Fire Alarm I/C and all positions tested 9 Compressed air sets in position 10 Fire extinguishers in position 11 Eye wash bottles in position 12 Personnel showers in position and checked 13 Fire hoses in position 14 Fire main I/C and check that hoses fit hydrants 15 Drench water sprays tested 16 Fire steam hoses in position and check they connect securely 17 Fire permits in use 18 Flush drains to prove them free from obstructions 19 Plant areas clean (fire hazards removed rags, paper, wood etc) 20 Cheek plant lighting 21 Remove contractors buildings, tarpaulins etc 22 Remove non-flameproof equipment 23 Nominate shift fire teams and arrange practice alarm 24 List all possible welding jobs get most done beforehand 25 Check that welding sets pass Works elec. insp. 26 Check gas detectors 27 Obtain ―Means of Escape‖ certificate 28 Check that segregation plates can be easily removed 29 Inform Fire Station 30 Invite Safety Department to inspect and pass comment 31 Carry out thorough search for matches 32 Make sure that neighboring plants know how this affects them 33 Inform services (affect their drains) 34 Inform Factory Inspector and Alkali Inspector 35 Inform local authorities 36 Inform Records section Final Check by Plant Managers


    Date :

    Time :

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APPENDIX 3.3 Safety assessment

Plant: Title: Reg No.:

Underline those factors which have been changed by the proposal.

    trips and alarms Process conditions Environmental conditions

    temperature liquid effluent static electricity pressure lightning protection flow noise radioactivity level rate of corrosion composition rate of erosion Engineering hardware

    toxicity isolation for maintenance and design

    flash point mechanical-electrical reaction conditions line diagram fire protection of cables

     wiring diagram handrails

    plant layout ladders Operating methods

    start-up design pressure platforms routine operation design temperature walkways shutdown materials of construction tripping hazard abnormal operation loads on, or strength of: access for preparation for maintenance foundations operation

    emergency operation structures maintenance layout and positioning of vessels vehicles

    controls & instruments pipework/supports plant

     bellows fire fighting

    temporary or permanent: underground/overhead: Engineering methods

    trip and alarm testing pipework/supports/ services maintenance procedures bellows equipment restriction plates valves

    portable equipment slip - plates


    instrumentations and Safety equipment

    fire fighting and control systems

    detection systems

    means of escape

    safety equipment for


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    Within the categories listed below, does the Yes or Problems and Action Signed & proposal No recommended date Relief and hlowdown

    1 Introduce or alter any potential cause of

    over/under pressuring (or raising or lowering the temperature in) the system or part of it?

    2 Introduce a risk of creating a vacuum in the system or part of it?

    3 In any way affect equipment already installed for the purpose of preventing or minimissing over or under pressure?

    Area classification

    4 Introduce or alter the location of potential leaks of flammable material?

    5 Alter the chemical composition or the physical properties of the process material?

    6 Introduce new or alter existing electrical equipment?

    Safety equipment

    7 Require the provision of additional safety equipment?

    8 Affect existing safety equipment? Operation and design

    9 Introduce new or alter existing hardware? 10 Require consideration of the relevant Codes of Practice and Specifications?

    11 Affect the process or equipment upstream or downstream of the change?

    12 Affect safe access for personnel and equipment, safe places of work and safe layout?

    13 Require revision of equipment inspection frequencies?

    14 Affect any existing trip or alarm system or require additional trip or alarm protection?

    15 Affect the reaction stability or controllability of the process?

    16 Affect existing operating or maintenace procedures or require new procedures?

    17 Alter the composition of. or means of disposal of effluent?

    18 Alter noise level?

    Safety Assessor Date

Checked by Plant Manager Checked by Engineer

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