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Milk

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Milk

    Milk

2008???*24?hSCIENCE&TECHNOLOGYINFORMATION

    ;BreedsN ;First

    ;month

    ;Second ;month

    ;Third

    ;month

    ;Forth

    ;month

    ;Fifth

    ;month

    ;Sixthmonth

    ;Seventh ;month

    ;Eighth ;month

    ;Ninthmonth

    ;Tenth

    ;month

    ;Milking ;days

    ;Milk

    ;yield

    ;Daily

    ;yield

    ;Local

    ;F1

    ;F2

    ;F3

    ;F2*F2

    ;F3*F3

    ;15

    ;15

    ;13

    ;10

    ;14

    ;59.22?? ;17.11

    ;172.29?? ;61.34

    ;184.93?? ;59.09

    ;264.78?? ;46.61

    ;295.24?? ;51.11

    ;139.36?? ;55.53

    ;332.29?? ;78.91

    ;388.35?? ;69.39

    ;481.42?? ;111.02 ;483.12?? ;103.0

    ;76.64?? ;21.03

    ;246.14?? ;71.1

    ;332.87?? ;62.27

    ;433.28?? ;91.37

    ;509.96?? ;119.96 ;52.26

    ;??19.30 ;209.21?? ;19.39

    ;295.89?? ;41.44

    ;385.14?? ;88.07

    ;456.28?? ;99.33

    ;20.9

    ;??

    ;7.77

    ;123.07?? ;53.34

    ;203.42??

;37.72

    ;264.78?? ;70.09

    ;268.40?? ;68.84

    ;98.46??17.76

    ;166.44??29.98

    ;216.64??57.74

    ;214.72??73.44

    ;49.26

    ;??

    ;10.3

    ;129.45 ;??

    ;29.86

    ;168.49 ;??

    ;38.9

    ;187.88 ;??

    ;39.91

    ;92.47?? ;22.06

    ;120.35?? ;30.41

    ;134.20?? ;30.72

    ;55.48??17.37

    ;72.21??17.28

    ;80.52??19.03

    ;53.68?? ;13.32

    ;150.2

    ;201.1

    ;264.1

    ;286.6

    ;305

    ;348.4

    ;1231

    ;1849

    ;2407

    ;2684

    ;2.32

    ;6.12

;7.00

    ;8.40

    ;8.80

    ;MilkProductioninTibet

    ;QiumeiJiTsamYouZhangQiang

    ;(TibetLivestockResearchInstitute,TibetAcademyofAgricultureandAnimalScience,Lhasa,850009)

    ;7YAbstract7FThispaperdescribesmilkproductionandlivestockproductioninTibet.Someinformationofmarketdemandhasalsobeenpresented.

    ;TherehasbeenverylittleinformationpublishedinTibetanjournalsonproductionandnutrit

    ionofcattle.Thisreviewprovidesabriefintroductionto

    ;feedingsystemsandfeedingresources.Manystudiesonmilkproductionhavebeendoneinisolation,anddonotgobeyondthebasicandpractical

    ;level.ComparedwithdairycattleresearchinotherpartsofChina,largegapsinknowledgest

    illexistincattleproductionscience,particularlyrelated ;tonutrition,andsystemsapproachesforthedevelopmentofadairyindustry. ;7YKeywords7FMilkProduction;Feedingsystem;Tibet

    ;1.Introduction

    ;MilkproductsplayanimportantroleforlocalpeopleinTibet,due ;tothelowtemperatureandtheharshconditioninthehighlands.Butteris ;oneoftheproductsformingthemainenergysourcesinthedietoflocal ;people,andbutterteaisthemaindrinkinthetypicalTibetanfoodstyle. ;InTibet,milkisproducedfromyak,cattle,sheepandgoats.Themodeof ;milkconsumptionisdifferentindifferentareas.Forexample,milkis ;processedtobutteranddrycheeseinpastureandagro-pasturemixed ;areas,andfreshmilkissoldtomarketinurbanandnearbyareas. ;Milkproductionhasincreasedsignificantlyduringthelast25years ;(Fig.1).Yearlytotalmilkyieldwas251,300tonnes,262,000tonnes, ;269,800tonnesin2003,2004and2005andreached276,100tonnesin ;2006anincreaseof7,000tonnesthanlastyear[4]

    ;.

    ;Fig.1.ChangesinmilkproductionovertimeinTibet

    ;2.Currentindustrystructure

    ;2.1CurrentproductionsystemsCattlearemainlydistributedinthe ;Agro-pastoralmixed,Agro-forestry-pastoralmixedandcropdominated ;productionsystemzonesinTibet(Fig.2).Theoriginalcattle(localTibetan ;cattle)supportrelativelylowlevelsofmilkandmeatproduction,butmilk ;productionfromcrossbredsishigherthanthatoflocalcattle[3] ;(Table1).

    ;Farmsusuallyraise3-5headofcattle,with10-12headonlargerfarms. ;Atpresent,crossbreds(localcattle??SimmentalorHolstein)arethe ;principalbreedsintheseareas,withlocalcattlemorecommoninremote ;areas.

    ;Fig.2ProductionSystemszoneinTibet[1]

    ;Inthepastoralareas,themainanimalsusedformilkproductionare ;yakandsheep.Theyakisusedasamulti-purposeanimal,themain ;productbeingmeat,withmilkproductionbeinglimitedbylowgenetic ;potential.Yaksusuallycalveonlyonceeachtwoyears,butwhen ;nutritionisgood,theymaycalveannually.Thereisalmostnoartificial ;inseminationalthoughthereisayakfrozensemenstationinTibet.Sheep ;,yT

    ;dailymilkyieldpeaksabout0.3kg.

    ;Thefirstcattlefrozensemenstation(Linzhibreedsstation)wasbuilt ;in1986.ThestationintroducedfrozensemenfromBeijing,Chengduand ;Lanzhouforvariousbreedsandpromotedcrossbreedingbyartificial ;insemination,thetechniquesubsequentlyextendingtomostofthecattle ;raisingzone.Thelocalcattleusuallycalvebienniallyortwiceperthree ;y,y

    ;Table1Monthlymilkproductionofcattle(Mean??SDkg/mth) ;l??*?&???;l?

    ;3

    ;alsohavemulti-purposeusebutthemilkproductionisverlow.heearswhilethecrossbreeds

    calveannuall.

    ;49

    ;2008???*24?hSCIENCE&TECHNOLOGYINFORMATION

    ;!F1:Firstgenerationofcrossbreedsbetweenlocalcattlewith ;SimmentalorHolstein.

    ;Table3CompositionofmilkofJialiyak

    ;*A,B,C,Dallaremixedsample[7]

    ;2.3DemandStatisticaldatabasedonlocalresidentsshowsthatthe ;percapitamilkproductionishighestintheLhokaandNyingtri ;prefectures[4]

    ;(Fig.4)-121.5kg/person/yearand135.8kg/person/year ;respectively.Thisequateswithapercapitabutterproductionofabout ;4.86kg/person/yearand5.43/person/year(calculatedusing4%offat ;contentinmilk).TheaverageproductionforTibetisabout4.1kg/person/ ;year[4]

    ;,thisamountisrelativelylowcomparedtotheconsumptionbylocal ;people.AsurveyofbutterconsumptionperhouseholdinLhasacity, ;showedpercapitabutterconsumptionisabout1.0kg/mth,or12kgper ;year.Therearelargegapsbetweensupplyanddemandthroughoutthe ;region.Asaresult,largeamountofbutterhastobeimportedfrom ;Qinghai,GansuandSichan,whichrepresentsabouthalfamountsoldin ;,ff,

    ;,y,y

    ;inpastoralareas,withpercapitameatproductsabout130-150kg/person/ ;year.

    ;Thepercapitaanimalproductsdescribedabovearebasedonlocal

;population.Butthereisanincreasingfloatingpopulation,inparticularly

    ;incitiesandlargertowns.AccordingtosurveybyTibetAutonomous

    ;RegionBureauofStatisticsin2005,thefloatingpopulation(residentin

    ;Tibetforlongtime)wasabout180,000,anditwillsharplyincreaseafter

    ;2006whenLhasaisconnectedtorailway.Thereforetherewillbean

    ;increaseindemandforbothmilkandmeatinfuture. ;Fig.4Annualpercapitaproductionofmilkandmeatatprefecture

    ;levelin2006

    ;F5f

    ;SampleN

    ;water

    ;(%)

    ;Protein(%)

    ;Fat

    ;(%)

    ;lactose

    ;(%)

    ;A2282.745.236.904.20

    ;B1684.794.346.603.29

    ;C983.284.507.703.56

    ;D1284.135.955.803.20

    ;Average83.745.016.753.56

    ;BreedsNJanFebMarAprilMayJunJulyAugSepOct ;Mean

    ;fatcontent

    ;Localcattle15

    ;4.15

    ;??0.11

    ;4.13

    ;??0.14

    ;4.11

    ;??0.14

    ;4.14

    ;??0.13

    ;4.17

    ;??0.15

    ;4.12

    ;F115

    ;3.67

    ;??0.22

    ;3.61

    ;??0.27

    ;3.60

    ;??0.60

;3.63

    ;??0.27 ;3.62

    ;??0.29 ;3.66

    ;??0.33 ;3.69

    ;??0.41 ;3.62

    ;F211

    ;3.65

    ;??0.32 ;3.63

    ;??0.37 ;3.63

    ;??0.33 ;3.65

    ;??0.36 ;3.64

    ;??0.36 ;3.67

    ;??0.39 ;3.71

    ;??0.44 ;3.71

    ;??0.45 ;3.65

    ;F314

    ;3.71

    ;??0.31 ;3.70

    ;??0.35 ;3.74

    ;??0.38 ;3.77

    ;??0.43 ;3.81

    ;??0.33 ;3.81

    ;??0.37 ;3.80

    ;??0.48 ;3.83

    ;??0.51

;3.77

    ;Fixed

    ;crossbr-eds

    ;13

    ;3.88

    ;??0.55

    ;3.81

    ;??0.51

    ;3.94

    ;??0.44

    ;3.97

    ;??0.47

    ;4.01

    ;??0.43

    ;4.04

    ;??0.54

    ;4.11

    ;??0.61

    ;4.07

    ;??0.62

    ;4.10

    ;??0.57

    ;4.11

    ;??0.55

    ;4.03

    ;2.2CurrentindustryoutputAccordingto2006Tibetstatistical ;resultindicatedthat,thetotaldomesticanimalwas24.38millionhead ;comprises10.66millionsheep,6.37milliongoats,4.92millionyaks,1.2 ;millioncattle,0.32millionpigs,and0.52millionhorses,donkeys,and ;mules.Totaloutputofmeat(beef,muttonandpork)was227,000tonnes, ;milkwas276,100tonnes,with78.12%oftotalmilkproducedfromyaks ;andcattle.However,numberoflivestockinyear-endreached24.38 ;millionheadin2006,increased230,000headthan2005(TibetStatistical ;Yearbook,2007).Moreover,totaloutputoflivestockproductionhadthe ;remarkablegrowth.Eachkindofmeatoutputachieved227,000tonnes, ;milkwas276,100tonnesin2006,andgrew5.46%,andgrew2.25% ;comparedtothelastyear.

    ;Cattleareraisedmostlyinagro-pastoralandagro-forest-pastoral ;mixedregion.Fourprefectures(Shigatse,Lhoka,NyingtriandLhasa)are ;themaincattleproductionzones.Thepopulationoftheareaisabout ;320,000peoplewhomainlyundertakeagriculture.Theothertwo ;prefectures(NakquandNgari)arepastoralareas,themainlivestock ;beingyaks,cashmeregoats,sheepandhorses.

    ;Thecapacitytosellmilkdependsonthefarmcsslocation,accessto

    ;market,andthedemandformilkproducts.Littlemilkissoldfromthe ;farmslocatedinremoteareasduetolimitationoftransport.Muchofthe ;milkmarketedisfromfarmslocatednearcitiesortowns.Farms ;producingmilkfromcattleusethemilkmostlyformeetingthe ;requirementforbutterbythehousehold,withtheremainderbeingsold. ;Sotherearefewspecialistmilkproducersalthoughthereisatrendfor ;farmsclosetoLhasacitytospecialiseorproducemilkforsale. ;Generally,milkandmeatproductionhassteadilyincreased[4] ;(Fig.1and

    ;3)overtime,andthechangeinpercapitaproductionhasfollowedthe ;sametrendastotalproductionovertime.

    ;Fig.3Percapitaproductionofmilkandmeatovertime

    ;Thelimiteddataonmilkcompositionofcattlearepresentedin ;Table2

    ;[3]

    ;.Thefatcontentishigherinlocalcattlewithlowmilkyield,and ;lowerincrossbredswithhigherproduction.Thecompositionofyakmilk ;isshowninTable3[5]

    ;.

    ;Table2Averagemonthlyfatcontentinmilkofdifferentbreedsofcattle(%) ;l??*?&???;l?

    ;35

    ;themarket.Hencemilkproductionallsshortodemand.However ;comparedwithmilkmeatproductionisrelativelabundantparticularlig.Productionomilka

    ndmeatovertime

    ;0

    ;2008???*24?hSCIENCE&TECHNOLOGYINFORMATION

    ;NormalnameScientificnameCrudeProteinCrudeFatCrudeFiber ;Barley*Hordeumvulgare11.691.9624.81

    ;Localpea*Pisumsativum25.872.7623.02

    ;Rape*

    ;Brasscia

    ;campestris

    ;23.644.4116.40

    ;Maizesilage***6.812.3621.54

    ;WheatStraw*2.352.2028.52

    ;Ryegrass*Loliumperrnene11.613.6922.78

    ;WildOat*Avenafatua15.862.3132.64

    ;Whiteclover*Trifoliumrepens23.311.8418.85

    ;Cocksfoot*Dactylisglomerata10.033.1430.87

    ;Stipa**Stipapurpurea12.152.8930.55

    ;ShortKobresia**20.425.0018.68

    ;ThickKobreisa**Kobresiarobusta9.412.5336.17

    ;Carex**Carexmoorcroftii13.694.1724.05

;Mountain

    ;Kobresia**

    ;17.344.4320.06

    ;Warmwood*

    ;Artemisia

    ;duthreuil-dc-

    ;rchinsii

    ;15.467.8718.85

    ;GrasslandtypeProteinFatFiberAshDigestibility

    ;AlpineFrigidSteppe12.493.4525.7010.6167.4

    ;AlpineFrigidSteppemeadow11.583.2727.9110.9667.0 ;AlpineFrigidMeadow13.903.6527.818.9464.8

    ;Kobresia.tibeticameadow8.562.3032.964.7655.7

    ;Crude

    ;Protein

    ;Crude

    ;Fat

    ;Ash

    ;Crude

    ;Fiber

    ;CaMgKNaNH3

    ;6.812.369.8921.540.320.160.810.10.53

    ;2.4CattlebreedingandveterinarysupportfortheindustryThe ;TibetLivestockResearchInstitute(TLRI)hasmadeasignificant ;contributiontotechnologyinputforthemilkproductionsector.Inthe ;1970css,breedersfromTLRIintroducedSimmentalandHolsteinbulls ;frommainlandChinaforcrossbreedingwithlocalcattletoimprovemilk ;production.Thefirstgenerationofthecrossbredshadhighermilk ;production,althoughtherewasalargevariationbetweenanimals. ;Throughtheuseoffrozensemen,crossbreedinghasbeenwidelyadopted ;inmostagriculturalmixedareassince1986.Thirty-sevencountylevel ;cattlebreedingnetworkshavebeenestablishedinTibetinthelast20 ;years.Twogenotypes,HolsteinandSimmentalhavebeenselectedfor ;crossbreeding.TheF1generationisgenerallyfastgrowing,early ;maturing,hashighermilkyieldcomparedtolocalcattle,andbetter ;adaptedtotheenvironmentcomparedtopureHolsteinandSimmental. ;TheyearlymilkyieldofF1,F2,F3andfixedcrossbredsare1230.7kg, ;1849.3kg,2407.1kgand2684kgrespectively(Table1).Comparedtomilk ;yieldoflocalcattle,thisshowsanincreasingof253.65%,431.4%, ;591.7%and671.26%respectively.

    ;Onequartermillioncrossbreedshavebeendistributedto52counties ;andthisaccountfor89.7%ofthecattleraisingcountiesinTibet.There ;areanimalservicestationsinmostcounties,andtechniciansinthe ;stationhavesupportbulls,aswellasveterinaryandAIservicesforfarms.

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