T-6 Study Guide
Pre-Stall /Spin check: CHEF + CLEAR
Canopy Loose Items Stowed
Fuel less than 50 lbs imbalance
- 7000’ min of airspace
- clear of clouds
- complete spin (incld recovery) within 4000’ from entry pt - 6000’ AGL (min alt to complete spin) - 13500’ MSL (min alt o begin spin)
- 10000’ MSL (below 10k prohibited due to)
o high propeller stress when RPM below 80%
o PMU keeps prop RPM at 80% above 10k MSL
- any situation where A/C doesn‘t respond immediately and in a normal sense to application of flight controls
- 3 categories
1. Post stall gyrations (may be aggravated by continued pro-stall controls or bad stall recovery)
a. Uncommanded motion about any axis
b. Controls = ineffective
c. AOA ~18 (stalled/near stall)
d. Airspeed = transient/erratic
e. turn needle = random deflections
2. Incipient Spins (kinda like a spin)
a. pitch, roll, yaw oscillations
b. nose fluctuation below horizon
c. yaw rate = increasing
d. turn needle = pegged (fully deflected)
e. AOA = 18 (stalled)
f. Airspeed = increases to ~ 120 KIAS
g. Lasts about 2 turns
3. Steady state spins (after about 3 turns) lose ~4500‘ for a 6 turn spin
a. Sustained yaw rate
b. AOA = pegged (18+)
c. Airspeed = 120-135 KIAS
d. Turn needle = deflected
stSPIRALS (results from not enough rudder or aft stick in pro-spin controls) recover w/ 1 2 steps of
Airspeed = increases
AOA < 18
1. Complete pre-spin checks
2. 15， -50， nose high (30， = corner of glare shield) 3. PCL = idle, apply before shaker/buffet st4. At 1 stall indication, apply slow & smooth back stick and rudder to direction of spin
( Full rudder and full back stick should occur simultaneously
Recovery (start once into incipient spin, wait longer and you get excessive alt loss)
1. PCL = idle
2. Flight controls = neutral
3. altitude = check
a. determine if in a spin (does spinning continue?)
If in a spin:
4. Turn needle = check (plus use outside references to determine spin direction)
5. Rudder = full opposite and hold (until spinning stops) 6. stick = forward (until spinning stops)
7. stick = back (to recover from dive)
Demonstrates aircraft won‘t spin except from an aggravated stall. Need yaw & stall. Yaw from engine torque. No stall = no spin.
1. Pre-stall checks
2. 160 KIAS = 60% pwr
3. 60， nose high, wings level st4. 80 KIAS or 1 stick shaker
5. PCL = IDLE
6. Flight controls = neutral
7. Recover from dive to level flight
Decision to eject is based solely on the pilot. Be able to back up your reasoning.
1. 6000‘ AGL (dash 1 says 6k)
2. 3000‘ AGL (0/0 seat, takes 3000‘ to recover fully from spin)
SPINS (require stall + yaw)
Best entry 15， -20， nose high
Right hand power-on spins take longer to develop
Left Aileron at the stall will prevent right hand spin
FOUR SPIN TYPES
1. Erect sta. Barrel roll entry to a near level attitude after 1 turn
b. Oscillating pitch ~ 60， below horizon
c. 3 turns = near steady state spin
d. 2-3 sec/turn
e. 400‘ - 500‘loss/turn
f. AOA = 18 (pegged)
g. Airspeed ~ 120 KIAS
h. Turn needle = pegged in spin direction
( In spin direction: rot/roll/yaw increases oscillations
( Opp spin direction: oscillations dampen out, spin reaches steady state in all axes
RECOVERY: OCF/spin recovery
( Stick = forward (results increase in pitch and spin rate, requires 50 lbs of force)
( Spinning will stop within 1.5 after applying controls
( Controls neutral when spinning stops
o 500‘ loss/turn
o 1500‘-2000‘ normal dive recovery
( OCF vs. spin recovery can increase # of turns by up to 4
( Neutral control recoveries – spins will stop w/n 2 additional turns
2. Progressive (caused by misapplication of recovery controls)
a. Caused by reversing rudder without releasing backstick pressure
b. Attitude = nose low increases after rudder is reversed
c. Spin = continues for ~1.5-2 turns
d. Airspeed = increases to 175 KIAS
RECOVERY: OCF recovery
3. Aggravated: (caused by misapplication of recovery controls)
a. Caused by releasing backstick pressure but no full opposite rudder
b. Attitude = immediate increase in nose low and roll rate
( Pitch = slightly oscillatory ~ 70， nose low
( Roll rate ~ 280，/sec
c. Can get disorienting
RECOVERY: OCF recovery
4. Inverted: (intentional inverted departures and spins prohibited)
a. Caused by releasing @ 60-90， nose high, Max pwr, and 50 KIAS
b. Torque rolls aircraft left to near inverted, nose level attitude
c. Enters a right spin – 120，/sec after 2 turns
d. Spin flatter than erect spins
e. Slight pitch oscillations ~ 30， nose low
f. Airspeed = 0
g. AOA = 0
h. –1.5G‘s normal
stRECOVERY: PCL – idle during 1 2 turns (should stop spin without use of recovery controls)
Recovers within ? turn after controls applied
CAUTION: engine must be inspected after inverted spins (abnormal
loads on engine)
Configured Spins: Intentional configured spins (other than cruise config.) at IDLE pwr is prohibited
- Power tends to flatten out erect spins st -- at MAX pwr, nose rises well above horizon after 1 turn
1. IDLE pwr, nose pitches down
2. Speed brake has no effect on spin
GPS GUIDE OF LOVE
Modes Dist CDI Range
Enroute 30NM+ from APT ！5NM (2.5nm per dot)
App Arm ;30NM from APT+Appr Loaded ！1NM (0.5nm per dot)
App Act 2NM from FAF+Appr Loaded ！0.3NM (Green) (Ramps down
from 1 to 0.3nm gradually)
Missed App From MAP to MAP holding pt. ！1NM (0.5nm per dot)
Self test indications
TEST FAIL = GPS has failed an internal test and must not be used for navigation.
Check date-correct if required
Check data base expiration-if past date, can‘t use GPS for navigation (1-97)
NRST= Nearest 9 airports based on selected criterion APT 7 = SID/STAR
APT 8 = NP Approaches
Stores 25 Flt Plans (each w/30 WPTs)
Note: Front unit must be on and functioning properly for either unit to be used for navigation. The last input from
either cockpit has priority for system control. (i.e. elec failure) (1-94)
Warning: GPS NP appr, DP and STAR proc are safe for use only when a valid database is loaded.(1-109)
Note: NP Appr/DP/STARs are auto deleted from Flt Plan 0 – 5 min after GPS shutdown. (1-109)
RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring)-process of monitoring and predicting satellite position.
Compares the predicted orbital position to that of the actual position. The GPS WILL notify the pilot if the positions
are in error by displaying a message. If position doesn‘t match ―GPS data should not be used for approach.‖ (1-109)
Approach will become active if:
LEG is selected,
Heading towards the FAF,
FAF or a co-located IAF/FAF is the active waypoint,
GPS confirms adequate integrity monitoring,
RAIM is available @ FAF and MAP.
Indications of an active Approach:
EHSI turns Green
APP ACT appears in lower right corner of EHSI
GPS APPROACH SETUP:
1. Setup RMU first – know where you are going
2. GPS – APT 1 – Select airfield (i.e. KSSF)
3. GPS – APT 8 – Select Approach (GPS 32 or VOR 32)
i. Select IAF
4. Put CRSR over LOAD IN FPL and ENT
5. Put in OBS or Leg mode
OBS or Leg Rules
1. NoPT Approach – Use Leg
2. Radar Vectors – Use the FAF as the active waypoint, Select OBS, dial in the inbound course for course
guidance. Once on final, select LEG
3. Procedure Turn/HILO/Holding – Select OBS while in holding or on outbound leg if IAF/FAF are co-
located. (VOR 32 KSSF) Once inbound, dial up course and select LEG
4. Procedure Turn (IAF/FAF not co-located) – Use OBS until turning inbound at the IAF.
5. ARC/DME- Fly in LEG. IAFs are defined as D220L. D=DME Arc, 220=radial where fix is defined, thL=DME(L=12 letter in alphabet=12DME).
Can we fly GPS „Overlay‟ Approaches?
AF aircraft will NOT fly GPS ‗Overlay‘ appr unless authorized by MAJCOM for training use only. AETC Sup says 18.104.22.168we may fly them for continuation (CT) or student training. 11-202V3 goes on to say they must be flown in DAY VMC.
If the database is expired can we continue?
We may continue with an expired database, IF the database info for this flight can be verified with current 22.214.171.124FLIP. (i.e. we must compare all the lat longs for the points we are going to use.) We must get the database stupdated at the 1 opportunity and we will not fly GPS approaches. This doesn‘t mean we can‘t fly or use the GPS for SA. We just can‘t use it as our primary navigation source.
126.96.36.199.1.1 says we can not manually enter points for GPS or other approaches. We MUST have a validated
What are the 3 basic categories of GPS systems?
1. Mission enhancement systems
2. Systems meeting FAA requirements for IFR use (Ours!) 5.8.3 3. Portable GPS units (PGUs)
Can you use GPS as your primary navigational source while under IFR? AETC Sup 188.8.131.52YES, if approved by AFI 11-2MDS or lead-command guidance, and our Interim T-6 Vol 3 states 3.8.14exactly that-T-6A aircrews may use GPS as the primary navigational source while flying under IFR.
Can we file to a destination with GPS as the only available approach? You may file to a destination with GPS as the only available NAVAID assuming it meets all the other requirements, 184.108.40.206 however, an Alternate will be required.
What if your Alternate has GPS as the only available NAVAID?
The Alternate can NOT be used, UNLESS (220.127.116.11) the forecast WX (！1hr) permits a VFR descent from an IFR 8.5.4 enroute altitude to a VFR approach and landing.
AFMAN 11-217 V1
Questions on how it all works ref 6.12
Can we fly with only GPS under IFR? 18.104.22.168.7 NO. When using GPS nav under IFR we must have an operational alternate means of navigation.
Are we required to back-up our GPS navigation in IFR? 22.214.171.124.7No again. Since we have RAIM, we are not required to actively monitor the alternate navigation equipment.
That, of course, doesn‘t mean it wouldn‘t be a bad idea.
Can we check the status of GPS satellites? 126.96.36.199Yes, by checking KGPS on the NOTAM webpage.
Interim T-6 Vol
3-3.8.14 The Allied Signal KLN 900 GPS meets FAA TSO C-129A requirements and is approved for IFR use by aircrews. T-6A aircrews may use GPS as the primary navigational source while flying under IFR.
Can we use the GPS to navigate to a radial/DME fix that is not labeled as an intersection, wpt, etc.? Only if we know the lat/longs and designate it as a waypoint. The GPS uses Magnetic Variation. VOR/TCNs use a different slave variation located in the IFR Sup. The differences in the two could be anywhere from exact to far apart. We therefore can not trust it to take us to the exact radial/DME fix. We designate MOAs by inputting lat/longs and creating waypoints.
What are some differences in filing when using the GPS for navigation?
When filing GPS point to point, you must include one NAVAID, intersection, or waypoint in each center you will enter or fly through w/in 200nm of crossing their boundary.
What type of aircraft is the T-6 designated due to the GPS system? GP ch 4 T-6 / G
11-217 Vol 2
Can we use RNAV in the Terminal Area?
Using the GPS as the sole navigation source for RNAV in the terminal area is only permitted if all of the wpts defining the route of flight can be retrieved from the aircraft‘s database. User defined wpts may NOT be use after 1.2.4 the IAF or prior to the termination point of a SID.
What kinds of GPS approaches are there? 1.2.5Overlay and Stand Alone 188.8.131.52Stand Alone approaches are those that do not have any other Navaids in the approach title. Ex GPS RWY 35
Are we a RNAV aircraft? 1.2.7Any aircraft navigating using GPS is considered to be a RNAV-equipped aircraft. (YES, we are.)
What must be check as far as the GPS equipment checks while on the ground, assuming we will be using GPS during this flight?
Check the specific start-up, self-test, database currency, expected integrity for the approach you plan to fly 1.3.1 (RAIM).
Can we fly SIDs using the GPS? 1.3.2 Only if the SID can be retrieved from the database.
Does the GPS provide terrain avoidance? 1.3.2 The pilot is still responsible for terrain and obstacle avoidance as well as any ATC-required climb gradients.
What is the terminal sensitivity while flying a SID? 1.3.2 CDI = ！1NM (0.5nm per dot)
Since we already check RAIM on the ground for our approach are we required to check it any further? YES, while enroute to the destination, we must check the expected integrity for the planned approach. If integrity 1.3.3will not be available, you should develop an alternate plan for landing or proceed to you alternate. Without AIM 1-1-34RAIM capability, the pilot has no assurance of the accuracy of the GPS position.
Can we fly w/o traditional avionics if we have an operating GPS and current database?
No. USAF aircraft will crosscheck GPS with traditional ground-based Navaids. To do that we must have operating 1.3.3 navigation equipment capable of receiving the ground-based Navaids.
Can we fly a STAR using the GPS? 1.3.4 Yes, assuming the STAR is retrieved from a current database.
What should you do if you get an integrity warning (RAIM) prior to the FAF? 184.108.40.206You should proceed to the MAP via the FAF, perform a missed approach and tell ATC ASAP. AIM 1-1-46 h.4
goes on to say that we should NOT descend to the MDA.
Do we have to compute a VDP for GPS approaches? 220.127.116.11 Yes, we should if they are not already computed, just as you would for a non-precision approach.
What should you do if you get an integrity warning (RAIM) after the FAF? We should transition to the backup approach or proceed to the MAP along the final approach course and execute the 18.104.22.168Missed approach or comply w/ATC instructions. AIM 1-1-46 h.5 says the missed approach should be executed immediately.
Will the GPS automatically sequence to the missed approach waypoint once at the MAP? No, the pilot must manually sequence the GPS equipment to the next wpt. Once this is done the CDI will scale back 1.3.8 to ！1NM (0.5nm per dot).
If you start the missed approach early is obstacle clearance ensured? Just as in non-precision approaches, obstacle clearance for a missed approach will only be ensured if commencing 1.3.8the missed approach from the MAP. So, if you start early, proceed to the MAP via the final approach course then execute the missed approach procedure.
Reference 1-1-37 for GPS approach design criterion.
Other than the GPS unit, where can we get RAIM availability? 1-1-46 g. 2 Flight Service Stations
If RAIM fails what are our options?
( Use another approach system
( Choose another destination 1-1-46 h.2( Delay until RAIM is available
What are the differences in Fly-by waypoints and Fly-over waypoints? Fly-by wpts are used when an aircraft should begin a turn to the next course prior to reaching the wpt. (？)
Fly-over wpts are used when the aircraft must fly over the pt prior to starting a turn. New charts depict these points 1-1-46 i.1 as a circled ？.
If the IAF for a GPS approach is outside 30nm, what will the terminal sensitivity be? 1-1-48. 3 Even if wpts are outside the 30nm ring the terminal sensitivity will still be ！5nm and inside 30nm ！1nm.
CAN I DEPART IFR?
JC Findley, USAF Advanced Instrument School
The most common question I get working at the instrument school is, ―Can I depart this field IFR?‖ To answer this question we really have to look at two different versions of this question. Can I legally depart within Air Force regulatory guidelines and can I safely depart from this airport. While the two are intimately related there is room for some interpretation of the regulations. The safety question is more of a risk management issue once you know exactly
what is involved in a particular IFR departure. In both cases, knowledge is the key. Knowing the intent of the regulation as well as the exact wording can help you determine if you should depart an airfield IFR. Knowing exactly how a particular departure is designed will allow the crew to determine if it is safe for them to use.
The biggest sticking point on both the legal and safety issues is nonstandard takeoff weather minimums or ―see and avoid‖ weather minimums. Let‘s look at the USAF regulatory guidance on the subject.
22.214.171.124. Required Climb Gradient. The PIC will ensure the aircraft meets or exceeds
the published climb gradient for the departure method being used (all engines operating). When no climb gradient is published, the aircraft must be able to climb at 200 feet per nautical mile (3.3%) or greater. Under no circumstances may the PIC plan to depart an airfield IFR using visual obstacle avoidance (“see-and-avoid”) in lieu of
meeting the required climb gradient.
AFI 11-202 V3 states we can not use nonstandard weather minimums in lieu of meeting the specified climb gradient. It also says that if a climb gradient in excess of 200‘/NM is required that it will be published in the nonstandard takeoff minimums and obstacle departure procedures section for that runway. The problem here for Air Force aviators is this; if there is not a climb gradient published then you would think a 200/NM climb should keep you clear of departure obstacles. Nothing could be further from the truth if there are nonstandard weather minimums for the departure runway!
Let‘s look at the TERPs guidance that the FAA uses to build nonstandard weather minimums.
1208. REQUIRED CEILING AND VISIBILITY MINIMUMS. Procedures requiring a climb
gradient in excess of 200’/NM shall also specify a ceiling and visibility to be used as an
alternative for aircraft incapable of achieving the gradient. The ceiling value shall be the 100’ increment above the controlling obstacle or above the altitude required over a specified point from which a 40:1 gradient will clear the obstacle. Ceilings of 200’ or less
shall not be specified. The visibility shall be at least one mile.
The TERPs manual states that if a climb gradient in excess of 200‘/NM is required for a given IFR departure that the specialist will also provide nonstandard weather minimums so that aircraft
incapable of meeting the climb gradient will have an alternative way of departing. If the FAA followed it‘s own guidance, 11-202 paragraph XXX would stand-alone. Aircrews could simply
determine if their aircraft could make the required climb gradient for a given departure and whether they could legally use the departure. Unfortunately, the FAA often ―forgets‖ to put the excess climb gradient in the nonstandard takeoff minimums section and just gives us nonstandard weather minimums to use. An important thing to keep in mind is that if a 200/NM climb would keep us clear of obstacles there would not be nonstandard takeoff weather published for that particular runway.
Let me explain the inherent dangers of using nonstandard weather minimums to take off in IMC. The TERPs manual states that one mile is the minimum visibility for the ―See and avoid‖ criteria. There is no mandate for the TERPster to give you a visibility greater than that even if the controlling obstacle is significantly further than a mile from the runway. Also, there is absolutely no provision for a clear area that an aircraft could climb at 200/NM while visually avoiding any obstacles. There are often runways with only nonstandard weather minimums published with obstacles that are further from the DER than the required ―see and avoid‖ visibility. There are also numerous runways with only ―see and avoid‖ weather minimums that have obstacles that can not be avoided while climbing at 200‘/NM if you cross the DER at the
required 35‘ AGL.
Nonstandard takeoff minimums, (both nonstandard takeoff minimums and higher than standard climb gradients), apply to ALL departures from the affected runway with only one exception. * This includes diverse departures if no obstacle DP exists for the runway or the obstacle DP if there is one. It also applies to DPs, * (formerly known as SIDs) and radar departures from that runway. There is no current regulatory guidance that states that you must apply the nonstandard takeoff minimums to radar departures. However, think about it, there is no way a radar vector could keep you clear of the close in, (within two miles of the DER), obstacles that tend to generate nonstandard takeoff minimums. You have to be at 400‘ AGL before you turn on a
vector. If you cross the DER at 35‘ AGL and climb at 200‘/NM you are almost two miles past the DER when you get to 400‘. You have already flown over the close in obstacles before you
are even legal/safe to turn to the vectored heading!
We have established that Air Force pilots can not use nonstandard takeoff weather minimums, AKA ―see and avoid‖ minimums, in lieu of a published climb gradient. I have also shown you that the FAA should always publish a higher than standard climb gradient if there is ―see and
avoid‖ weather published. I have also stated that the FAA often ―omits‖ the higher than standard climb gradient from the nonstandard takeoff minimums section even though it is necessary to avoid the terrain. All of this brings us back to the original question and tittle; ―Can I depart
The question really comes down to two issues; does the departure require the use of see and avoid, and if it does not can I make any required climb gradient?
All nonstandard takeoff minimums are runway specific. If the runway you plan to depart from has a nonstandard weather minimum published you MUST also have a climb gradient published that you can use in lieu of that nonstandard weather minimum. ** If you do not, you can not depart IFR from that runway. * You can not do a diverse departure, obstacle DP, DP or radar departure from that runway.
If there is not a nonstandard weather minimum listed for the departure runway you may depart IFR and climb at 200‘/NM on departure. If there is an obstacle DP you must use it or depart via
radar vector or other DP. If there is not an obstacle DP then you may use a diverse departure, DP or radar vector to depart.
If there is a nonstandard weather minimum and it has a climb gradient that may be used in lieu of the weather you may depart IFR as long as your aircraft can meet or exceed the published gradient. If there is an obstacle DP you must use it or depart via radar vector or other DP while maintaining at least the published gradient. If there is not an obstacle DP then you may use a diverse departure, DP or radar vector to depart while maintaining at least the published gradient.