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Chapter3: Test

    I. Multiple choices

    1. More than one variant, which can realize some morphemes according to the position in a word, are termed . A. phonemesB. allomorphsC.

    morphsD. phones

    2. In the words "recollection, idealistic, and ex-prisoner", "re-, -ion, -ist, -ic, ex-, and -er" are . A. prefixesB. suffixesC. free morphemesD. bound


    3. is that part of the word that carries the fundamental meaning but has to be used in combination with other morphemes to make words. A. Free

    rootB. Bound rootC. Morpheme D. Bound morpheme

    4. Affixes attached to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are known as . A. morphemesB. derivational morphemes C. inflectional

    morphemes D. suffixes

    5. is the basic form of a word, which can't be further analyzed without total loss of identity. A. StemB. RootC. MorphemeD. Affix

    6. A may consist of a single morpheme as in "iron" or of

    two morphemes as in a compound like "handcuff". A. stem, root, root B.

    root, stem, stem C. stem, stem, rootD. root, root, stem

    II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. 1. A word is the smallest unit of a language which stands alone to convey meaning.

     2. Allomorphs usually occur at random, because they are not phonetically conditioned and unpredictable.

    3. We might as well say free morphemes are free roots.

    4. Words made up of only bound morphemes are rare in English. 5. In English, bound roots are either Latin or French.

     III. Fill in the blanks. The first letter of each word is given. 1. The m is to the m what a phoneme to a phone.

    2. One of the variants realizing a morpheme is called a .

    3. Most morphemes are realized by single words like "bird, tree, green", etc, Words of these kinds are called m words.

    4. The allomorphs of the plural morpheme can be realized by z m as

    fish". in "deerdeer", "fish

    5. Morphemes can be classified into f morphemes and b morphemes.

    6. Bound morphemes include b roots and a .

     7. Affixes can be grouped into d and i .

    IV. Define the following terms.

    morpheme, allomorph, bound morpheme, free morpheme, affix, inflectional affix, derivational affix, root, stem

    V. Answer the following questions.

    1. Morphemes are realized by allomorphs. Illustrate this point on the basis of the knowledge obtained from this chapter.

    2. What are the inflectional affixes frequently used in English? Discuss the meaning each of them indicates.

    Key: I. Multiple Choices : 1.B 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.B 6.A 7.D

    II. True or False:1.F 2.F 3.T 4.F 5.F

    III. Fill in the blanks:1. morpheme, morph;2. allomorph;3. monomorphemic;4. zero morph; 5. free, bound;6.bound, affixes;7. derivational, inflectional

    IV. Define terms:1. morpheme: a minimal meaningful unit of a language. 2. allomorph: one of the variants that realize a morpheme. 3. bound morpheme: a morpheme that occurs with at least one other morpheme.4. free morpheme: a morpheme that can stand alone. 5. affix: a morpheme attached to a stem or root. 6. inflectional affix: an affix that indicates grammatical relationships. 7. derivational affix: an affix that forms new words with a stem or root. 8.root: what remains of a word after the removal of all affixes. 9.stem: a form to which affixes of any kind can be added.

    V. Answer the questions:1. For instance, the morpheme of plurality{s}has a number of

    allomorphs in different sound context, e.g. in cats /s/, in bags /z/, in matches /iz/. It can be

    realized by the change of an internal vowel as by zero morph as in “deer—deer, fish—fish”.

    The same is true of the past tense marker {ed}, which is realized by /t/ after a verb

    ending with /p, k/ as in worked, helped; by /d/ after vowels and sounds like/m, n,η, l/ as in tried, warmed and by /id/ after /t, d/ as in wanted, landed, etc. This is also applicable to

affixational morphemes. The prefix {in-} has allomorphs such as / im, ir, il/depending on

    the first sound of the base to which the prefix is added. II. -(e)s plural number ;-(e)s third- person singular present tense ;-(e)d past tense

    -ing progressive aspect ;-er comparative degree ;-est superlative degree ;-'s

    possessive case

    chapter 4: Test

    I. Multiple choices

    1. The new words produced from shortening including clipping and acronyms

    amount to of all the new words. ( A. 30% to 40%;B. 28% to 30%;C. 8% to

    10%;D. 1% to 5% )

    2. is defined as the formation of words by adding word-forming or

    derivational affixes to stem. This process is also known as . (A. derivation, affixation; B. affixation, derivation ;C. derivative, affixation;D. affixation,

    derivative )

    3."De-, dis-, un- ," in "de-compose, disunite, unwrap", are called . A.

    pejorative prefixesB. negative prefixes C. reservative prefixes D.

    miscellaneous prefixes

    4. "Hyper-, macro-, mini-, sub-, super-, ultra-", belong to . A. prefixes of orientation B. prefixes of attitude C. prefixes of degree or sizeD. prefixes of time and order

    5. belong to pejorative prefixes. A. anti-, contra-, counter-, pro- B. auto-,

    neo-, pan-, vice- C. de-, dis-, un-D. mal-, mis-, pseudo-

    6. "Pan-European" means . A. for Europe B. against Europe C. the

    whole of Europe D. former Europe

    7."Profiteer, engineer, priestess, kitchenette, booklet " are called . A.

    concrete deverbal nounsB. concrete denominal nounsC. abstract denominal nouns D. abstract deverbal nouns

    8. "Productivity, happiness, largeness" fall into the group of . A.

    Deverbal nounsB. Denominal nouns C. De-adjective nouns D. De-adverb nouns

    9. belong to deverbal suffixes. A. -able, -ive B. -ly, -wardC. -ate,

    -en D. -ful, -less,

     10. When we use "a green hand " to mean "an inexperienced person", "a black horse" to mean "an unexpected winner", we should read them as .

    A. a green 'hand, a 'black horse B. a 'green hand, a 'black horse

    C. a green 'hand, a black 'horse D. a 'green hand, a black 'horse

    11. Sometimes, the meaning of a compound can be inferred from its separate elements, for example, .

    A. hot dogB. red meatC. flower pot D. fat head

    12. The following can be changed into plural forms by adding inflectional -s

    . A. brother-in-lawB. threeyear-oldC. directly to their ends, except

    major general D. new-born

    13. The meanings of many compounds and derivatives are the total of the

     combined. A. morphsB. allomorphsC. rootsD. morphemes

    14. Which group of the following are the noun compounds acceptable in English?

    A. breakout, downfall, intake, downslide ;

    B. outbreak, three-leg, outcry, breakthrough

    C. runaway, hangover, going-over, upbringing

    D. stockholder, brainstorming, deadline, easy-going

    15. Which group of the following are the adjective compounds acceptable in

     English ?

    A. far-reachng, forth-coming, air-conditioning, on -going.; B. ten-story, five-leg, moon-walk, wading bind;

    C. deaf-mute, bitter-sweet, one-eyed, air-conditioned

     D. proof-reading, mass production, warweary, stone-hearted 16. Which of the following statements is false?

    A. Conversion refers to the use of words of one class as that of a different class;

    B. Words mainly involved in conversion are nouns, verbs and adverbs; C. Partial conversion and full conversion are concerned with adjectives when converted to nouns;

    D. The conversion between nouns and verbs may involve a change of stress. 17. Which group of the following is partially converted when used as nouns? A. poor, young, affluent, drunk B. poor, corrupt, rich, affluent C. poor, newly-wed, drinkable, white D. white, final, native, liberal 18.“Omnibus, earthquake, discotheque” are replaced by “bus, quake, disco” respectively in the way of .

    A. conversion B. clipping C. acronym D. backformation 19. Which group of the following are acronyms?


    20. The most productive means of word-formation in modern English are the following except .

    A. compounding B. affixationC. acronymD. conversion

    II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. 1. A rule of word-formation is usually identical with a syntactic rule. 2.Word-formation rules themselves are not fixed but undergo changes to a certain extent.

    3. Affixes like “-th”are very productive in current English.

    4. The chief function of prefixes is to change the word class of the stems.

     5. The primary function of suffixes is to change the meaning of the stem.

     6. Compounds are words formed by combining affixes and stems.

     7. “-age, -al, -ance, -ation, -ence”in “linkage, dismissal, attendance, protection, existence” can produce largely concrete nouns by being added to verb stems. 8. The meaning of a compound is usually the combination of stems. 9. The free phrase has the primary stress on the first element and the secondary stress, if any, on the second.

    10. In both compounds and free phrases the adjective element can take inflectional suffixes.

     11. Conversion is only a change of grammatical function of a lexical item with no loss of its different range of meaning originally conveyed. 12. A fully converted noun from an adjective has all the features of nouns except taking an indefinite article or, -(e)s to indicate singular or plural number.

     13. Generally, conjunctions, modals, finite verbs, prepositions can’t be converted to nouns.

     14. Although blends and backformed words have already achieved popularity in English, they are not advisable to be used frequently in formal writing. III. Fill in the blanks, the first letter of each word is given. 1. Affixation falls into two subclasses: p and s .

    2. The most productive means of word formation are a ,c and c .

     3. Bi-, m , semi-,t ,u fall into the category of number prefixes.

    4. Suffixes can be grouped into n suffixes, v suffixes, a suffixes, etc

    on a grammatical basis.

    5. Nouns formed by adding suffixes to the end of verbs are called d nouns;

    nouns. and to the end of nouns, d

    6. C is the formation of new words by joining two or more stems. 7. A compound is a lexical unit consisting of more than one stem and functioning both g and s as a single word.

    8. Compounds can be written solid(silkworm), h (honey-bee) and o (tear


    9. The limited number of verb compounds are created either through c or

    b .

    10. words do not change in morphological structure but in function, which is known as f s .

    11. Conversion is a derivational process in which an item is adapted or converted to a new word class without the addition of an affix. Hence the name

    . z

    12. Almost all m verbs can be used as nouns, which are semantically

    related to the original verbs in various ways.

    13. Words formed by combining parts of two words or a word plus a part of

    or p words. another word are called b

    14. Words formed by joining the initial letters of names of social and political organization or special noun phrases and technical terms are called i or

    a .

    15. B is the opposite process of suffixation.

     IV. Substitutions

    (1) use blends to substitute for the following:

    motor hotel, formula translator, slum suburb, medical care, teleprinter exchange, automobile camp, book automobile, lunar astronaut. (2) Write down what the following acronyms stand for:

     WHO, AIDS, sonar, G-man ,BASIC ,NATO ,OPEC, TOEFL.

    V. Define the following terms

    affixation, derivation, perfection, suffixation, compounding, conversion, blending, clipping, acronyms, back-formation.

    VI. Answer the following questions:

    1. Name the nine groups of prefixes on a semantic basis and exemplify them. 2.How compounds differ from free phrases? Give examples to dwell on this point.

    3.What is the difference between partial and full conversion. Explain them with examples.

    4. Both back-formation and back-clipping are ways of making words by removing the endings of words. Explain their differences.

    ?. Pick out the words which used to be proper nouns and explain the meaning related to their origins.

    1.We have decided that it is impossible to cheat when that Argus-eyed professor gives an exam.

    2.The number of mirrors in the average home suggests that there is a little narcissism in each of us.

     3.The terrorists have embarked on a scheme to sabotage as many factories in the common market countries as possible.

     4.This Shylock demands 10 percent per week on all loans, and he has the enforcers to guarantee payment.

    I. Multiple Choices:1.C 2.B 3.C 4.C 5.D 6.C 7.B 8.C 9.A 10.B 11.C 12.A 13.D 14.C 15.C 16.B 17.B 18.B 19.B 20.C

    II. True or False:

    1.F 2.T 3.F 4.F 5.F 6.F 7.F 8.F 9.F 10.F 11.F 12.F 13.F 14.T III. Fill in the blanks:1.prefixafion, suffixation ;2.affixation, compounding, conversion 3.multi-, tri-, uni-;4.noun, verb, adjective 5.deverbal, denominate 6.compounding 7.grammatically, semantically 8. hyphenated, open 9.conversion, back formation 10.functional shift 12.monomorphemic 13.blends, portmanteau 14.initialisms, acronyms15.Backformation

    VI. substitutions:(1)motel, FORTRAN, slurb, medicate, telex, autocamp, bookmobile lunarnaut . (2)World Health Organization, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, sound navigation ranging, Grovernment man ,beginner’s all-purpose symbolic instruction code,

    the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Test of English as a Foreign Language.

    VI. Pick out the words which used to be proper nouns and explain the meaning related to their origins. 1. Argus-eyed Argus (a giant who has one

    hundred eyes) 2. narcissism Narcisus (a beautiful youth who falls in

    love with his reflection) 3. Sabotage sabots 4. Shylock Shylock (a

    heartless and demanding merchant of Venice)

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