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the government of the United Kingdom

By Derek Mills,2014-09-22 16:40
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The Monarchy

    1. It is the oldest institution of government.

    2. Elizabeth ? is descended from King Egbert(埃格伯特国王)(who

    . united England under his rule in 829

    3. Its power was derived from divine right of kings!君权神授,.

    th4. In the 17 century, a civil war between Roundheads led by Oliver

    Cromwell(克伦威尔) and royalists broke out. The Roundheads

    succeeded in 1642 and ruled for 18 years before the monarchy was

    restored.

    5. Because the absolute power was strongly opposed by many feudal

    barons and the Church, King John made a charter--- Magna Carta in

    1215 which placed some limits on the kings ability to abuse his royal

    power.

The Parliament

    th1.The Great Council(leading, wealthy barons)13 century(The Great

    Council{leading, wealthy barons(the House of Lords), representatives of counties, cities and towns(the House of Commons)}today, they are

    collectively called the Parliament.

    2.(要求获得发言权)In 1407, Henry IV decreed that all money grants

    should be considered and approved by the Commons before being considered by the Lords, a formula which is almost the same today. The

    thCommons also acquired law-making powers by 15 century.

    3. In 1688, William became the King and in 1689 Parliament passed the

    Bill of Rights which ensured that the King would never be able to ignore Parliament.

    The Birth of the Prime Minister and Cabinet

    1. Sir Robert Walpole(沃波尔) was the first prime minister of the UK.

    2. To ensure good relations between Crown and Parliament, the king or

    queen met regularly with a group of important Parliamentarians, a

    group which became known as the Cabinet.

    3. In 1832, when a system for choosing the House of Commons by

    popular election replaced the monarch’s job of appointing

    representatives, the modern political system was born.

    4. Members of the Parliament (MPs) assembled themselves into groups

    which eventually would become political parties, organized groups

    which presented their policies and ideas to the electorate(全体选民)

    for approval. The leader of the party that won the election becomes

    Prime Minister.

The British Government Today

    1. Britain is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy.

2. India doesnt recognize the Queen as their head of state.

    3. As a representative of the Crown, called the Governor-General(总督),

    is present in such constitution monarchies to fulfill the role of the

    monarch(君主).

The Constitution

    1. Israel and Britain are the only two countries without written

    constitutions of the sort which most countries have.

    2. Statute law(成文法), common laws!普通法, and conventions!惯

    例, consist of British constitution.

Parliament

    1. Parliament has a number of functions. First of all, it passes laws.

    Another important one is that it provides the means of carrying on the

    work of government by voting for taxation. Its other roles are to

    scrutinize(细察) government policy, administration and expenditure

    and to debate the major issues of the day.

    2. Parliament is supreme in the British state. It can make or change laws,

    change or overturn established conventions or even prolong its own

    life without consulting the electorate.

    3. Strictly speaking, the Parliament today consists of the Queen, the

    House of Lords and the House of Commons. These three institutions

    must all agree to pass any given legislation.

    4. The last refusal of the Queen was in 1707.

The Role of the Monarchy Today

    1. The role of the monarchy today is primarily to symbolize the tradition

    and unity of the British state.

    2. The Queens other roles are: head of the executive, an integral!不可缺

    少的,part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, commander in chief

    of the armed forces and supreme governor of the Church of

    England.

    3. The Queen indeed led an exemplary life; however, her children have

    been criticized for poor behavior.

    4. The Queen is also a confidante to the Prime Minister. Every Tuesday,

    the Prime Minister attends the Queen privately at Buckingham Palace.

    And the Queens long experience and political neutrality make her a

    good source of informed observation.

    The House of Lords and the House of Commons

    1. The Lords consists of the Lords Spiritual(神职议员)(who are the

    Archbishops(大主教) and the most prominent bishops(主教) of the

    Church of England; and the Lords Temporal(世俗议员). Lords usually

    called peers, are not elected and are not considered to represent

    anyone besides themselves. They sit in the Lords either because they

    have inherited the seat from their forefathers (peer ages can only be

    passed through the male line) or because they have been appointed by

    the sovereign, at the suggestion of the Prime Minister(提名).(1958

    身贵族爵位法) They latter are called life peers.

    2. In Parliament the peers speak and vote as individuals, not as

    representatives of the greater interests of the country, except some

    who are civic-minded (关心公益的)They do not receive salaries and

    many do not attend Parliament at all.

    3. The House of Lords is seen as being both sexist and elitist and it is not

    effective and modern.

    4. The House of Commons consists of about 651 MPs elected by the

    people to represent them. The number caries a little with the changes

    of the population. MPs are only allowed to sit for the lifetime of the

    parliament. (可连任数次)

    5. MPs receive a salary about 31000 a year and allowance.

    6. The House of Commons is the real center of British political life.

    7. The Cabinet carries out the functions of policy-making, the

    coordination of government departments and the supreme control of

    government.

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