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IsraeliIsrael

    Israeli

    IsraeliWaterAchievementsTodayandEnlightenmenttoChina ;SunLei’,

    ;XuLanqing.

    ;1.InstituteofEnvironmentalScienceandEngineering,OceanUniversityofChina,Qingda

    oShandong266100,China;

    ;2.DepartmentofSoilandWaterSciences,FacultyofAgricultural,FoodandEnvironmenta

    lQualitySciences,theHebrewUniversity

    ;ofJerusalem,76100,Israel;

    ;3.LogisticsGroupofOceanUniversityofChina,QingdaoShandong266100,China

    ;Abstract:Despitetheendemicdrought,aridclimateandasso

    ;ciatedlimitedfreshwaterresources,aswellasdifficultgeopolit

    ;icalrealities,Israelcanprovideareliablesupplyofhighquality ;watertoarapidlygrowingpopulation.Theachievementsof ;watersupplyinIsraelcanbesummarizedaswatertechnologies ;(1ikewatertransportationandpurification,desalination,waste

    ;watertreatment,effluentreuse,stormwatercatchment,control ;systems,rainenhancementanddripirrigation,etc.),water ;managementandlegislationaswellaswaterindustry.Inview ;ofthenationalconcernregardingthequalityandquantityofthe ;water,theskills,technologiesandknowhowthatIsraelhasac

    ;cumulatedinwatersupplyandirrigationcangiveusenlighten

    ;mentthatisalsopresentedinthispaper.

    ;Keywords:Israel,China,watertechnology,watermanagement, ;waterindustry

    ;1Currentsituationsofglobalwater

    ;Theestimatedfigureoftheglobalannualsurfacewater ;flowthatispotentiallyavailableforhumanuseis12500km ;peryear(FalkenmarkandRockstrom,2004),and84.5%of ;theannualglobalfreshwaterconsumptionwasusedinag- ;riculturein1995fShiklomanov,l997).Duetotheuneven ;distributionofglobalfreshwater,largeareasoftheglobe ;receivelowrainfallandarewaterdeficient.Regionsexpe

    ;riencingthegreatestshortfal1offreshwateraretheMiddle ;East,largeportionsofAfrica,somepartsofEuropeand ;SoutheastAsia(Poste1.1997).AccordingtotheUnitedNa. ;tionsreportoftheWorldWaterAssessmentProgramme ;fUNESCO.2003),thenumbersofpeoplewhoarelack. ;ingimprovedwatersupplyandimprovedsanitationare ;over1.1billionand2.4billion.Sothehealthriskisrising

    ;bylimitedaccesstopropersewageandsanitation.Andwith ;thepopulationgrowth,thesituationwillonlyworseninthe ;future(FeitelsonandChenoweth2002).

    ;Correspondingauthor:SunLei(1eistln@mailM,if.

    ;72ChineseJouma1ofPopulation.ResourcesandEnvimnment2008Vo1.6No.4

    ;2CurrentwatersituationsInIsrael

    ;Waterisoneofthemostexpensiveandleastavailable ;commoditiesinIsrae1.mostofitsareareceiveslessthan ;200mmofrainfallperyear,andover65%ofthelandis ;definedasadesert.Whereasinsomeofthedesertareas ;groundwatermaybefound.i11mostcasesthisisnon. ;potableorisoflowquailty’unlessdesalinated(Gvirzman,

    ;2002).

    ;Despitewaterscarcity,waterconsumptioninIsraelhasbeen ;ontherise,duetobotharapidgrowthofthecountry’spopu—

    ;lation(2.42.6%peryear)andincreasinglivingstandard ;(ICBS,2001).Betweenl997and200l,percapitawater ;consumptioninurbanareasofIsraelincreasedfrom60to ;83mperyear.Themostrapidincreaseindomesticwater ;consumptionoccurredintheplaceswithrelativelylowwa

    ;terconsumptionlevelsbefore,especiallyinperipheralareas ;ofthecountry.Investmentinpublicinffastructureisalsoon ;therise,resultinginagradualincreaseinwaterconsump

    ;tion.Andthepositiveassociationcanbewitnessedbetween ;waterconsumptionchangeandlocalpercapitaincomes ;(PortnovandMeir,2004).

    ;3AchievementsinIsrae1waterfields

    ;Despitestheendemicdrought,aridclimateandassoci

    ;atedlimitedfreshwaterresources.aswellasdicultgeo

    ;politicalrealities,Israelcanprovideareliablesupplyof ;highqualitywatertoarapidlygrowingpopulation,which ;isregardedasthe’impossibledream’.Theachievements

    ;ofwatersupplyifllsraelcanbesummarizedaswatertech

    ;nologies(1ikewatertransportationandpurification,desali- ;nation,wastewatertreatment,efnuentreuse,stormwater ;catchment.controlsystems,rainenhancementanddripir_ ;rigation,etc.),watermanagementandlegislationandwater ;industry

    ;3.1Advancedandexperiencedwatertechnologiesin ;IsraeI

    ;3.1.1Qualifiedwatertransportation

    ;TheNationalWaterCarrierdeliversfleshwaterfromthe ;north.withitsfairlyabundantrainfaIandwatersourcesto

    ;thedrysouth,whichisatechnicalchallengethattraverses

    ;awiderangeofterrainsandcomprisesanetworkofaque- ;ducts,tunnels,reservoirsandpumpingstations.TheNa

    ;tionalCarrierdeliversabout400millionmofwatereach ;year.Thewaterpumpsfrom209metersbelowsealevelon ;thenorthwestshoreoftheSeaofGalilee(freshwaterlake) ;tOl50metersabovesealevelandthentotheEshkolsite. ;wherethewaterundergoestreatmentbeforecontinuing ;southward.

    ;ThecentralfiltrationplantatEshkolsitewasbuiltata ;costofmorethanUS$lO0million.andhasanannualfilter- ;ingcapacityofmorethan500millionm,whichisthelarg- ;estplantofitskindinIsrae1.andoneofthelargestinthe ;world.Theplantisagloballeaderintermsofefficiency, ;waterqualitytargetsandthequantityofwaterithandles.It ;ensuresthatIsraeliresidentswillobtainevenhigherquality ;waterviatheNationalWaterCarrier.Thecentralfiltration ;plantcallproducethehighestqualityofwater-below1NTU ;(nephelometricturbidityunit)andmaximizewateroutput ;throughrecyclingandtreatmentoftheplantitselfgenerated ;wastewaterandsludge.

    ;3.1.2Desalinationplantstomakeupwatershortages ;ThetotalsurfacewaterofIsraelis30%oftheGalilee ;Regionplus70%oftheundergroundaquifersoftheliRoral ;andofthekarsticzone.totaling160Ol700Mmperyear.

    ;However,thetotalconsumptionshouldreach2940Mm ;peryearin2040(Moatty,2001).Andtheremainingvol

    ;umewillbesuppliedbywayoflarge-scaledesalinationof ;seawater.Thedesalinationofseawaterconstitutesaunique ;solutionforIsraelandtheregiontoensurecompensation ;forthisshortageofwaterresourcesandsatisfythedemand. ;Israelhasinauguratedtwooftheworld’slargestwater

    ;desalinationplantsontheMediterraneancoast.TheAsh. ;dodseawaterdesalinationplantwillbeoneofthemost ;advancedintheworldandwillproduce100million111of ;waterperyear.Theplantwillproducehighqualitywater,

    ;whichwillbesuppliedtoIsraeliresidentsviaprimaryna

    ;tionalwatersystems.Theplantisscheduledtocomeonline ;in2011.

    ;3.1.3Wastewatertreatmentandeffluentreuse

    ;Withtheunparalleledexperience,know.how,technolo- ;giesandinnovativeprocessesforthemanagement,opera- ;tionandtreatmentofalltypesofwaterresources.likesur- ;facewater,undergroundwater,brackishwater,seawaterand ;effluents.Israelconstantlysearchesforsolutionstoincrease

    ;thewatersupply.0neofthesesolutionsiswastewater ;treatmentandemuentreuseforagriculture.Israelaimsat ;improvingthelevelofthereclaimedwaterquality,thereby ;broadeningitsapplicationasanalternativewatersource.In ;2005,350millionmofeffluentswerereusedinIsraelfor ;agriculturer75%ofthetotalrawsewage)thatisoneofthe ;highestratesintheworld.

    ;Let’staketheDanRegionWastewaterTreatmentPlant

    ;(Shafdan)asanexample:theShafdantreats130millionm ;ofwastewaterannuallywhichservesapopulationoftwo ;millionandisresponsibleforone.thirdofthetotalwaste. ;watertreatmentinIsraelandisabackuptotheaquifers. ;TheeffluentsfromtheShafdanaredeliveredtoinfiltration ;fieldsinthesandswheretheyarerechargedintotheaquifer ;byalternativeregimeoffloodinganddrying.Asthewater ;seepsthroughtheground,itundergoesphysical,biological ;andchemicalprocessesthatsignificantlyimprovethewater ;quality.TheundergroundwaterwhichstaysintheCoastal ;Aquiferalsoservesasaseasonalandmulti.annua1storage ;forlargequantitiesofwater,whichisusedforirrigation. ;Thehighqualityofthetreatedwastewatersuitsallagricul- ;turecrops,withnorestriction,atnorisktopublichealth. ;3.1.4Stormwatercatchment

    ;Floodwateristheexcessiverainfalloveradrainagebasin ;thatdoesnotseepintotheground.soanadditionalpotential ;waterresourceistheurbanrunoft.Theconceptunderlying ;theconstructionoffloodwatercatchmentiStheutilization ;ofwaterthatflowsnaturallytowardstheseaortowards ;areaswheregroundwatercannotbeexploited,resulting ;intheIOSSofthewater.Aquiferscanworkasthenatura1 ;catchmenttorechargerainwaterintoaquifersandenrichthe ;groundwaterbothintermsofquantityandqualisincethe ;ChineseJournalofPopulation,ResourcesandEnvironment2008Vo1.6No.473

    ;qualityoffloodwaterisusuallybetterthanthequalityofthe ;groundwater,andtheseepagethroughtheearthissimilar ;tofilteringprocess.Israeli’ssolutionistostorethewater

    ;intheaquiferswhichcanholdwaterforshortperiodswith ;almostunlimitedvolume.

    ;Aseveincreasingbuilt.upandpavedareascovermore ;soil.1argerquantitiesofmnoffarelost.Anumberofrecent- ;lycompletedmasterplansforsettlementsinthearidsouth ;ofthecountry(Rahamimov.1997)haveintroducednew ;conceptsforwaterconservationandaquiferreplenishment. ;Theseincluderetainingrainwaterinroofsandgardens.and

    ;promotingitspercolationintothesoil.Suchastrategyhasa ;twofoldadvantage--promotinguseofotherwiselostwater, ;whileminimizingrunoffdamages.Althoughseeminglya ;simplesolution.itisneverthelessonethatneedsverycare- ;fuldesignandsafetymargins.Meanwhile,Israelalsobuilds ;andoperatesplantsforeffectiveandproperexploitation ;offloodwaters.Thewateriscollectedinreservoirs.where ;someofitispenetratingintothegroundforlaterpumping ;inwellsduringsummer,andsomeofitiscombineddirectly ;withenationalwatersystem.

    ;3.1.5Commandcontrolandwaterqualitymonitoring ;systems

    ;TheoperationofIsrael’swatersupplysystemsisbased

    ;onsophisticated,computerizedremote-controlsystems, ;whichensurethereliability,availability,safetyandhigh ;qualityofthewatersupply.Thecomplexmonitoringsys

    ;temscansavemanpowerandenergyandreducewaterloss. ;ThewatertestsinIsraelcanevaluatewaterandsew, ;ageaccordingtoapproximately200chemicalandphysical ;parameterscheckingforalargevarietyoforganic,bacterio- ;logicalandmicroscopicsubstances.

    ;3.1.6Rainenhancement

    ;Israelisagloballeaderinrainenhancement.Anaver

    ;ageof13-18%rainfallenhancementcanbeobtainedinthe ;northpartofIsraelannually.

    ;3.I7Lowpressureirrigationmakeseverydropcount ;Israelownspioneeredlow??pressuredripirrigationtech?- ;nologies,whichisthemostefficientmethodofirrigation ;whenitcomestowatersaving.Theexperiencedadvantages ;inthisfieldcanbesummarizedasfollows.

    ;Dripirrigationlateralsarealwaysburiedatadepthof ;74ChineseJournalofPopulation,ResourcesandEnvironment2008Voi.6No4

    ;50cm.Theburiedsystemisprotectedagainstinfiltration ;bytinyrootsaroundtheareaofthedrippers,thematerialof ;whichcanpreventsproutingnearby.

    ;Uniformlydischargeofwaterfromeveryddpperfired ;ontothelateralpipe,whichcanberealizedevenonmoder- ;atelyslopingterrain.

    ;Thedevelopmentofcompensateddrippersenablesuni

    ;formirrigationonsteeperslopesandtheabilitytoextend ;lateralswithdrippersovergreaterdistances.

    ;Fertilizerscanalsobesuppliedtotheplanttogetherwith ;thewaterthroughthedrippers.Waterandfertilizersare ;delivereddirectlytotherootsystemratherthantothetotal

    ;areaofthefield,therebyeconomizingonbothwaterand ;fertilizers.

    ;Itisalsopossibletousesalineorbrackishwaterindrip ;irrigationsystems.Thisisduetothefactthatdripirrigation ;causesthesaltstobecontinuouslywashedawayfromthe ;rootsystem,avoidingsaltaccumulationintheimmediate ;proximityoftheroots.

    ;Dripirrigationproductscanalsobeusefulinweteli- ;matestorapidlyincreasethegrowthoftreesandoutputof ;timber

    ;3.2WatermanagementandleglslaUon

    ;3.2.1Watermanagement

    ;Withthenotion’morewaterformorepeople’.Israel

    ;provideswaterforover7millionpeople,despitebeingin ;oneoftheworld’smostaridregions.Thewatersupplysys—

    ;teminIsraelincorporateswaterresources.surfacewater, ;aquifersanddesalinationwateraswellasregionalwaterfa. ;cilities,whichenablesreliablesupply,mobility,operational ;flexibilityandcentralizedmonitoringandcontrolindiffer- ;entdirectionsasrequired.

    ;Traditionalskillssuchasplanning,management,ef- ;ficiencyandpayingmeticulousattentiontoinfrastructure ;maintenancehaveallowedthecountrytooptimizeitslimit. ;edwaterresources.Infrastructureeciencyandthecutting.

    ;edgeinnovativetechnologieshaveenabledIsraeltomake ;relativelyscarcewaterresourcesserveanevergrowing

    ;population.ThefactthatIsraelhasbeenabletosuccessfully ;manageitsverylimitedwaterresourcestomeettheneeds ;ofafastgrowingandincreasinglyaffluentpopulationhas ;beenatriumphofplanningandorganization.

    ;3.2.2Watersecurityandwaterprotection

    ;Israelhasextensiveexperienceinguardingitswater ;resourcesfromgrowingglobalthreats,andcomprehensive ;watersecuritystrategyhasbeendevelopedwiththegoalof ;mi’nimi’zi’ngthedamagefromaccidentalcontaminationof

    ;watersuppliesandterroristactivity.

    ;3.2.3Legislations

    ;InIsrael,differentcountrywidecampaignshavebeen ;undertakentopromotetheconservationofwaterresources: ;cottonplantationswerealmosttotallybannedsomeI5 ;yearsago,strictrestrictionshavebeenimposedonprivate ;swimmingpools,andwateringlawnsduringdayhourshas ;beenforbidden(KnessetIsrael,2002).Occasionalcutsin ;waterallocationsforagriculturewerealsoannouncedfIsrael

;MinistryofAgriculture,2003).

    ;3.3Scienceisthefirstproductivity-waterIndustryin ;IsraeI

    ;Israelhasalwaysbeenafertilesourceofinnovative ;watertechnologies,withtheaimsatdoublingthevalueof ;exportsofIsrael’swatertechnologyproductsandsolutions ;andattractingoverseasinvestment,nurturingR&Dwith ;internationalpartnersandenablingapproximately70Israeli

    upstoleveragetheiradvantagesandbecomemajor ;start

    ;playersintheUS$450billionannualglobalwatermarket. ;Fromthegovernmentpointofview,IsraelExportand ;InternationalCooperationInstitute.Israel’sMinistryOfIn.

    ;dustry,11radeandLaborandForeignTradeAdministration ;joinhandstopromotetheexportofIsrael’sadvancedwater

    ;andenvironmentalsolutions.

    ;Fromscientificpointofview,theacademicinstitutesin ;lsraelprovidedetailsaboutcoursesanddegreesinwater ;technologies.andIsrael’suniversitiesalsoproviderich

    ;rootsfortechnologystart.upstotransforlTlinnovativeideas ;intomarketableproducts.

    ;Fromthewaterindustryorganizationpointofview, ;IsraelNEW11ech(NovelEfficientWaterTechnologies)is ;Israel’snationalprogramforpromotingthecountry’swater

    ;industryanddeepeningcooperationwithmultinationalbod? ;ies.MASHAVisthecenterforinternationa1cooperationof ;Israel’sMinistryofForeignAffairs,whichprovidescourses

    ;andconsultanciesincooperationwithrelevantgovernment ;ministries,aswellasuniversities.researchinstitutionsand ;professionalbodies,especiallyinagricultureandwater ;issues.WiththepromotionandassistanceoftheIsraeli ;government,waterindustryorganizationsandscientificin

    ;stitutes,expectanincreaseof28%inIsrael’swatertechnol-

    ;ogyexportsfrom2007.

    ;4EnlightenmentforChina

    ;4.1CurrentwatersItl-atlonlnChina

    ;4.1.1Watershortage

    ;Fig.1showspercapitawaterresourcesinChinabetween ;1950and2050,basedontheassumptionthattotalwater ;resourceswillremainconstantinthefuture.Falkenmark ;StressIndicator(FSI1wasusedinthisfiguretoclassifythe ;degreeofwatershortagebasedonpercapitaliquidwater ;resourceavailability(surfacewaterfloworgroundwater ;recharge).ChinaapproachesbutremainsabovetheFSI ;thresholdof1700m’peryearasitspopulationlevelsoff.

    ;Classificationofthedegreeofwatersecurityofagiven ;countrymaybedoneinavarietyofways.However,dueto ;theinequalityofwaterdistributioninChina,thenational ;averagecannotbetoooptimistic,asapproximatelyhalfof ;thepopulationisinthenorthpartofChina,whereonly20% ;ofnationalwaterresourcesarefound.Thus,intheNorth ;partofChina,thepercapitaresourceswouldbeonly40% ;ofthoseshowninFig.1,andwoulddroptoalowvalueof ;770m3peryear,fallingwellbelowtheFSIthreshold(Jury ;andVaux,2007).

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    ;rig.1PercapitawaterresourcesofChinabetween1950and2050 ;Chinese?

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