MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE KYIV NATIONAL LINGUISTIC UNIVERSITY
for the first year students
speciality “Management of organizations”
Correspondence and Night Department
The English Language Department
the Institute of Economics and Law
Author: Stavtseva V.F.
Choose the most suitable word given for each blank.
Keeping fit and staying healthy have, not surprisingly, become a growing industry. _____ (1) apart from the amount of money spent each year on doctors‟ _____ (2) and approved medical treatment, huge sums are now spent on health foods and ____ (3) of various kinds, from vitamins pills to mineral water, not to mention health clubs and keep-fit _____ (4) and videos. We are more concerned than ever, it seems, ______(5) the water we drink and the air we breathe, and are smoking less, though not yet drinking less alcohol. This does not appear to mean that ____ (6) and sneezes have been banished, or that we can all expect to live to a hundred.
To give a personal example, one of my friends, who is a keep-fit _____ (7), a non-smoker and teetotaler, and who is very ______ (8) about what he eats, is at present languishing in bed with a wrist in _____ (9) and a badly sprained ankle. Part of his healthy ______ (10) is to play squash every day after work, and that ___ (11) for the ankle. He also cycles everywhere, and if you have ever tried to cycle through the rush-hour traffic with sprained ankle, you will understand ______ (12) he acquired the broken wrist.
For _____ (13), it seems, is not just a matter of a good ____ (14) and plenty of exercise. Too much exercise can be harmful, as many joggers have discovered. Eating the right food can easily become an obsession, as can overworking, which you might have to do so as to be able to afford your _____ (15) of the squash club, your mountain bike, your health food, and a few holidays in peaceful and healthy places.
1. a) poles b) far c) quite d) so
2. a) prescriptions b) surgeries c) hospitals d) payments
3. a)medications b) cures c) drugs d) remedies
4. a) books b) television c) advice d) enthusiasts
5. a) than b) about c) for d) hence
6. a) colds b) coughs c) flu d) fevers
7. a) fanatic b) follower c) fad d) person
8. a) interested b) varied c) detailed d) particular
9. a) crutches b) plaster c) treatment d) danger
10. a) living b) lifetime c) lifestyle d) liveliness
11. a) is b) caters c) depends d) accounts
12. a) how b) that c) whenever d) thus
13. a) fit b) this c) health d) all
14. a) diet b) eating c) menu d) recipe
15. a) share b) visit c) membership d) subscription
This is the story of someone’s short illness. Put the sentences in the right order.
a. The following morning I still didn‟t feel any better, so I went down to the surgery.
b. When I woke up on Tuesday I felt sick and dizzy.
c. It cleared up the sore throat very quickly.
d. I was shivering one minute and sweating the next.
e. I started feeling ill on Monday evening. I had a bit of temperature, so I took an aspirin and had an
f. When I saw the doctor I explained my symptoms.
g. I took the prescription to the chemist, where I got an antibiotic.
h. He examined me, and said I had the flu and a sore throat.
i. I took things easy, and by the weekend I had completely recovered.
j. He gave me a prescription for the sore throat, and said that I should go to bed for a few days. k. I had some toast, but I was sick immediately, so I went back to bed. I had a fever.
Read the text. Choose the correct answer A, B, C, or D.
Money is used for buying or selling, for measuring value and for storing wealth. Almost very society now has a money economy based on coins and paper bills of one kinds or another. However, this has now always been true. In primitive societies a system of barter was used. Barter was a system of direct exchange of goods. Somebody could exchange a sheep, for example, for anything in the marketplace that they considered to be of equal value. Barter, however, was a very unsatisfactory system, because people‟s precise needs seldom coincided. People needed more practical system of exchange, and various money systems developed based on goods which the members of a society recognized as having value. Cattle, grain, teeth, shells, feathers, skulls, salt, elephant tusks, and tobacco have all been used. Precious metals gradually took over because, when made into coins, they were portable, durable, recognizable, and divisible into large and smaller units of value. A coin is a piece of metal, usually discshaped, which bears lettering, designs or numbers showing its value. Until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, coins were given monetary worth based on the exact amount of metal contained in them, but most modern coins are based on face value – the value that governments choose to give
them, irrespective of the actual metal content. Most governments now issue paper money in the form of bills, which are really “promises to pay”. Paper money is obviously easier to handle and much convenient in the modern world. Checks and credit cards are being used increasingly, and it is possible to imagine a world where “money” in the form of coins and paper currency will no longer be used.
a) What is modern money economy based on? d. By the picture on the coin.
a. Barter deals. 6.In what form do most governments issue paper
b. Coins and paper bills. money now?
c. Exchange of goods. a. In the form of dollars.
d. Precious metals. b. In the form of bills.
2.What system was used in primitive society? c. In the form of karbovantsy.
a. Exchange of cattle was used in d. In the form of pounds.
primitive society? 7.What kinds of money are being used increasingly?
b. Barter system. a. Bills.
c. Exchange of salt gold and silver. b. Dollars.
d. System of coins. c. Disc-shaped coins.
3.Why was barter a very unsatisfactory system d. Checks.
of exchange? 8. What is the system of direct exchange of goods
a. Because the society recognized shells called?
as having some value. a. Market.
b. It was not easy to exchange a sheep for b. Selling.
a cow. c. Barter.
c. Cattle couldn‟t be divided into smaller d. Buying.
units of value. 9.What can we measure value with?
d. Because people‟s needs seldom a. Money.
coincided. b. Precious metals.
4.Why did precious metals gradually take over? c. Checks.
a. When made into coins they were d. Elephant tusks.
portable, durable, divisible. 10. What is face value of the coin?
b. Because goods became cheaper. a. The value of the coin which depends upon
c. Because coins were disc-shaped. the portrait on it.
d. Because the numbers on coins showed b. The value based on the amount of metal in
their value. the coin.
5.How was monetary worth given to coins? c. The coin is made of gold which is worth
a. By the amount of salt that could be one dollar.
bought by a coin. d. The value that government chooses to give
b. By their shape. a coin.
c. By the amount of mental contained in
Complete the article. Use the correct passive form of the verb in brackets.
Designs on making our roads safer
Would you travel by plane if a total of 50,000 people were killed in plane crashes every day? Probably not. It‟s difficult to believe it, but that‟s how many people 1)…(kill) on the European Union‟s roads every year. That‟s the same as a jumbo jet crashing every seventeen hours, killing everybody on board. Since the European Community 2)…(found) in the 1950s, over two million 3)…(kill) in road accidents. In the same period, more that forty million 4)…(injure). That‟s more than the total population of Spain, or the combined population of Portugal, Belgium, and the Netherlands. But fortunately the news is not all bad and in recent years, big improvements 5)…(make), particularly in Britain and the US.
As a result of stricter regulations which 6)…(introduce) in the US at the beginning of the 1990, the number of road deaths 7)…(reduce) from a peak of 57,000 in 1969 to 39,00 in 1992. In Britain, road casualties in 1992 were the lowest since records 8)…(start) in 1922. That‟s a significant decrease
because road traffic has increased several hundred times during that period.
According to the European Transport Safety Council, car safety standards in Europe are 20 years behind the times. The ETSC wants very strict safety regulations which will force manufactures to design much safer cars. „If stricter regulations 9)…(introduce), car producers 10)…(force) to make safety their priority‟, said a Safety Council spokesman. „This is the only way that Europe‟s terrible figure of nearly 1000 road deaths every week 11)…(reduce).‟
Complete the blanks with a / an , the or Ø.
Ø Enzo Ferrari‟s death in August 1988 was 1)….. sad occasion. However, it did release 2)….. Ferrari from 3)….. grip of his idiosyncratic ways and enabled 4)….. firm to move into 5)….. new era.
6)….. appointment of Luca di Montezemolo in December 1991 was 7)….. beginning of 8)…... series of 9)….. changes. his aim was to invest in 10)….. research and 11)….. development and to bridge 12)….. gap between 13)….. racing and production car businesses. He also introduced 14)….. sponsorship, although 15)….. constructor still has fewer names on its cars than 16)….. other teams. 17)….. CEO is steering 18)….. narrow course between modernizing 19)….. company while trying to avoid diluting 20) mystique that makes 21)….. marque so great.
A letter of complaint
Complete this letter using all, some, any, no or none.
Dear Mr. Andrews,
I am sending this letter by registered mail as 1)….. of my previous correspondence has received a reply.
You will recall from our agreement of January 3 this year that 2)….. delay in the delivery of 3)….. word from your plant manager that the components we ordered 4)….. three weeks ago have been sent.
I would be grateful if you would take 5)….. the necessary steps to ensure that these components are received without 6)….. further delay otherwise we will have 7)….. option but to enforce the penalty
clause in the contract.
Choose between the past simple and present perfect. The first one has been done for you. Stella McCartney, Paul McCartney‟s daughter, joined / has joined the troubled Paris fashion house
Chloe barely a year ago. It took / has taken her just one year to reserve its fortunes. Previously Chloe was / has been virtually invisible as a major force in the world of fashion. But almost single-handedly she transformed / has transformed Chloe into the most talked about fashion brand in the world. She increased / has increased sales fivefold. Paris didn’t see / hasn’t seen anything like it since the young
Yves St Laurent took / has taken the city by storm 30 years ago.
When she was / has been appointed it was / has been clear she knew / has known what she had / has had
to do. „I want to bridge the gap between the consumer and the press. At the moment fashion is just sort of stuck in the middle‟.
So far, Stella stuck / has stuck to her philosophy of avoiding outrageous and uncommercial catwalk creations. She kept / has kept to the simple philosophy of designing clothes that she or her friends would want to wear. As her best friends are Kate Moss, Naomi Campbell and Yasmin Le Bon, it also brings her big publicity.
Read the letter below. Put it in the correct order.
a) I already have some appointments on 14 and 15 April, and would like to meet you some time on Wednesday 16, perhaps in the morning if that is convenient.
b) Dear Mrs Venitto
c) I hope that we can come to an agreement. I look forward to meeting you next week.
d) I would be very grateful if you could leave a message at my hotel, letting me know what time would suit you.
e) As I mentioned on the telephone last week, I am staying at the International Hotel in Via Romana, between 14 and 17 April. I am arriving on Monday at 12.30 and leaving on Thursday at 9.15.
f) Yours sincerely
g) At that meeting I would like to discuss the percentage discount on large orders, and delivery times.
Match the function (1-14) with the way they can be expressed (a-n).
1. opening a meeting a) Let‟s move on to the next item on the agenda.
2. stating the purpose of meeting b) Perhaps Mrs. Beck can tell us something
3. beginning the discussion about…
4. moving on to another topic c) So, what we‟ve decided today is to…
5. checking everyone agrees d) Shall we make a start?
6. concluding the meeting e) Thank you for coming and for coming and for
7. summarizing decisions taken your contributions.
8. calling on a speaker f) Is that to everybody‟s satisfaction?
9. interrupting someone g) We‟re here today to talk about…
10. making a point strongly h) I‟d like you in turn to give your pints of view.
11. asking for clarification i) Sorry, I don‟t quite follow you. Could you be
12. agreeing more specific?
13. disagreeing j) I‟m not entirely sure that…
14. expressing a doubt k) That suits me fine.
l) I‟m afraid I can‟t go along with that.
m) I do think it‟s important to…
n) If I could just come in here.
Ursula is telling her visitors about where the company is located. Fill in the spaces in the sentences below.
factories head office local agents local offices office
plant regional headquarters research and development centers
training centers warehouses
Our 1) head office is in London. This is where most of our senior managers work. We also have four 2)…..: in Singapore, serving Asia; in Boston, Massachusetts, serving the whole of North America; in Buenos Aires for South America; and in Zurich, for Europe, Africa and the Middle East. We have 3)…… in seventeen other countries, and in countries where we do not have our own people we usually have 4)…… . Of course, we make a wide range of products but recently we have closed some 5)…… and reduced the number of products being made at others. However, distribution is still as possible and we have 6)……, depots and distribution centres in almost every country in which we operate.
We have also closed some of the smaller 7)…… and moved many of our best scientists and
technicians to two major centers in France and the United States.
We think that staff development is essential to our present and future success and we run more than 5,000 courses for our employees in the fifty 8)….. which we have across the world.
Well, that‟s all I want to say about our presence worldwide. Now, if you would like to follow me, first of all I‟ll show you my 9)….. and then we‟ll start the tour of the 10)….. .
a You work in the Technical Support Office Westcom Electronics. You have
received these e-mails. What would you write in reply?
To: Support, Western Electronics Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
From: Alejandro Martinez Address: email@example.com
Please can you send me technical specifications of your MX454 computer storage system.
You have a website (www.western.com) which has this information. You can also b send it by post if you have his postal address.
To: Support, Western Electronics Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
From: Adriana Lima Address: email@example.com
I am interested in your voice recognition system. Please can you send me details of your prices and packages.
You can attach a list of services agents to your reply.