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Exploitation

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Exploitation

    Exploitation

    June2008JournalofNortheastAgriculturalUniversityVo1.15No.276.79 ;ExploitationofWildFlowersandtheSustainableDevelopmentof ;FlowersIndustryinChina

    ;HONGLi,PANGSongling.,andZHUOLihuan

    ;CollegeofHorticulture,NortheastAgriculruralUniversity,Harbin150030,China

    ;HarbinChildren’sGarden,Harbin150001,

    ;China

    ;CollegeofLandscapeArchitecture,

    ;NortheastFolestryUniversity,Harbin150040.China ;Abstract:ThisarticleintroducedthenewmethodsOlltheresearchofthewildflowersandpla

    ntsidioplasmicresourccselaborated

    ;theintroductionanddomesticationandexploitationofwildflowersandplantsidioplasmati

    cresourcesandthesustainab1e

    ;developmentofflowersandplantsindustryinChina,andputforwardsomeproposalsonthe

    existingquestionandtheprospectsfor

    ;thedevelopment.

    ;Keywords:wildflowersandplants,developmentandutilization,flowersandplantsindustr

    y,SUStainabledeveloDment

    ;CLCnumber:$322.3Documentcode:AArticleID:10068104(2008)02007604

    ;Introduction

    ;Thewildflowersandplantsarenotonlytheimportant ;constitutionofthediverseecologicalenvironmentand ;naturalvegetation,butalsotheimportantsourceforre ;searchandthecultivationoffl0wersandnewplants ;varietyandusingingarden.Increasingimportance ;hasbeenattachedtowildflowersandpl~ts,becauseof ;theirornamentalvalueandhugeexploitationpotentia1. ;Therefore,reasonabledevelopingthewildflowersand ;plantsresourceshasvitalsignificanceforthesustain ;abledevelopmentofflowersandplantsindustryinChina. ;TheNewTechnologyandMethodon

    ;ResearchWlidFlowersandPlants

    ;IdioplasmaticResources

    ;Identifyofwildflowersandplantsidioplasmic

    ;resources

    ;Molecularmarkertechnique(suchasRAPD,RFLP)

    ;usedfordrawinguptheflowersandplantsvariety

    ;andstrain’sfingerprint,asthetheoreticalbaseofpre

    ;servingidioplasmaticresources,hascertainguiding

    ;senseintheidioplasmaticresourcesidentification. ;TheRAPDasasimple,quickandcheapmolecular ;markertechniqueisbasedoilthePCRtechnology.At ;present,RAPDiswidelyappliedtothewildflowers ;andplantsidioplasmaticresourcesappraisa1.Daiuses ;theRAPDtechniquetoanalyzethcrelationshipof26 ;chrysanthemumgroupsandhistoricaldevelopment ;between7wildchrysanthemumspecies,andauthenti ;catesthecultivateDendranthemaxgrandiflorumbreed ;cr’sstockonmolecularlevelBesidesDendranthem

    ;morifolium,RAPDtechniqueisalsousedforreseatch ;ingtherelationshipandgenealogicalclassification ;inmanyotherplantspecies,

    ;suchasSyringaspp.,

    ;Prunusmume,Paeoniasuffruticosa,Rosa,Nelumbo, ;Meconopsis,Lilium,andsoon_2]_TheRFLPwhichis ;alsothecommonmolecularbiologytechnologyon ;idioplasmaticresourcesresearchmaybeusedtocarry ;onthevarietydistinction,establishmoleculardatabase, ;Received21December2007

    ;oNGLi(1971’),female,Ph?Dcandidate,lecturer,engagedintheresearchofornamentalpl

    antapplication.

    ;Email:yuhongpang@163-c0mT

    ;owhomcorrespondenceshouldbeaddressed.

    ;Email:zhuolihuan@263.net

    ;Emall:xuebaoenglish@neau.edu.ca

    ;

    ;HONGLietai.ExploitationofWildFiowersandtheSustainableDevelopmentofFlowersI

    ndustWinChina77?

    ;andanalyzetherelationshipbetweenthewildspecies ;andthecultivationpopulations.

    ;Ihepreservationmethodofwildflowersand

    ;plantsidioplasmaticresources

    ;Atpresent,therearemainlythreepreservationme

    ;thods;theyarelocationpreservation,fieldcentra

    ;lismpreservationandtheindoorpreservation.Low ;temperatureandtheultra-?lowtemperaturepreserva-? ;tionandtheultradryidioplasmaticpreservationare ;alsotransferredfromthecropsandthevegetablespre

    ;servationtotheflowersandplantsidioplasmaticre

    ;sourcespreservation.

    ;Verificationwithsimpleequipmentwhichiseasily ;operated,spacesaving,avoidsinterferenceofgenera

    ;tion,pestandclimaticfactor,hasalreadybeensuc

    ;cessfullyusedintissueandcellconservationofMalus ;pumila,PyrSspp.,Prunusarmeniaca,Prunuspseu

    ;docerasus,PiceaasperataandsoonI.Thismethod

    ;isusedtopreservestemapexofFragariaananassa, ;Menthahaplocalyx,then17and200pieceprimersare ;usedtocarryontheRAPDanalysis.Theresultisthe ;sameasthemateria1whichhasnotbeensaved.The ;experimentindicatesthatthematerialdon’thavethe

    ;hereditarychange,whichexplainsthatthematerial ;preservedbyglasstransitionultralowtemperaturehas

    ;goodhereditarystability.Liueta1.researchtheultra

    ;lowtemperaturepreservationwith26varietiesof ;Prunusn?11n?epollenandtestthepollengermination ;rateandseedsetpropagationcoefficientafterpollen

    ;ed,atthesametime,comparetheeffectsofthreepre ;servationmethodswhichareliquidnitrogen(196~C), ;thefreezingroom(20.C)andthecoldcloset(oC).

    ;Theresultindicatesthattheliquidnitrogenpreservation ;isthebestmethodforlongtermpreservationof

    ;Prunusn?11n?epollenatpresent

    ;Introductionand

    ;Exploitationof

    ;Domesticationsand

    ;W-ldFlowersand

    ;PlantsIdioplasmaticResources

    ;In21stcentury,basedonprotection,respectingthe ;scientificprinciple,makingfullyuseofwildplant ;germlessgene,cultivatingandgrowingnewfuchsine ;areimportantforenrichinggardenlandscapeincities, ;whichimprovethegradeandlevelofgardengreening. ;Inrecentyears,ourcountry’sintroductionanddo—

    ;mesticationworkmainlyfocusontheintroductionof ;exclusivespecies,introducingalargenumberofvege

    ;tationtypesandflowervarietieswhichhavegood ;gardenperspectiveofapplication.Simultaneously,we ;alsoresearchonbiologycharacteristic,ecologyhabit, ;thetechnologyofpropagationandplantandother ;aspectsofintroductionplants.Atpresent,BeijingBo

    ;tanicalGardenresearchesontheexclusivecategory ;introduction,forexample,LiliumandSpiraea;Wuhan ;BotanicalGardenresearchesonintroductionofwater

    ;inhabitingplant;theintroductionofIrishasmainly ;beenresearchedbyHangzhou,WuhanandNanjing; ;AcademiaSilicaandBeijingBotanicalGardenhave

    ;researchedontheintroductionofLycoris;Academia ;SilicaandWuhanPlantResearchInstitutehavecarry ;ontheintroductionofAsarum;ShanghaiandXinjiang ;Kelamayiresearchonperennialflowers’introduction;

    ;AcademiaSilicaBotanica1ResearchInstituteresearch

    ;estheintroductionandpropagationofwildferns,and ;soon.Moreresearchesfocusonsinglespecie,for ;example,Chinesepocketorchid,Pulsatillachinensis ;root,andsoonJieta1.introduceafinevarietyin ;recentyearsintheHuhhotarea.Thevarietiesare ;Weigelafloridacv.RedPrince,thebrocadebeltand ;other15kindsofnewsuperiorviewflowers, ;theview

    ;leaf,theviewfruit,theviewwatchingshrubvariety ;andthemainornamenta1characteristic.whichare ;selectedtoutilizeintheInnerMongolianmidwest

    ;citiesbotanicalgarden[.Guoetal.introduceafine ;varietyofwildflowersandplantsfromtheXinjiang ;TianshanandAltaimountainousarea,cultivateman

    ;uallyandselecthighwatchingvalueandstrongre

    ;sistanttype.Theycanbereproducedmassivelyand ;appliedtoafforest,beautifyingthecityandcountry

    ;side[11].Lieta1.basedontheinvestigationandstudV. ;enumeratednewvarietiesofwildflowerandplantsand ;theirdistributionandthemaintypespeciesinJiangxi, ;httD:EpublJsh.neau.edu.crl

    ;

    ;?

    ;7g?JournalofNortheastAgriculturalUniversity,b1.15No.22008

    ;whichhavetheexploitationvalue,atthesametime, ;approachedthewayofdevelopingwildflowering ;plants[.

    ;Haneta1.screenJilinProvincewildearly

    ;springherbflowersandplantsresources,sortingout ;27kindswhichcanbeappliedfrom6familiesl3].But

    ;themassivewildresourcesarealsoremainedtobe ;furtherintroduced.

    ;Sincethe1980s,thewildplantsdevelopmentand ;utilizationofChinadevelopedgreatlybothindegree ;andinextent.

    ;Firstly,correctchoosingthesourcearea,wildflowers ;andplants’ecologicalandbiologicalcharacteristicis

    ;thekeyofintroductionanddomestication.TheXi’an

    ;BotanicalGardensuccessivelyutilizedPyracantha

    ;fortuneana,Ophiopogonjaponicus,Rosahugonis, ;PinusarmandiiFranch.andother21kindsofwild ;decorativeplants[141.AccordingtoHuang’sinvestiga—

    ;tion,sofar,PrunusxblirehasbeintroducedintoChina ;above3000000.Thesevarietiesdisplaytheformidable ;vitalityandwidespreadcompatibilitywiththeenviron

    ;ment,speciallycanendurethelowtemperaturebelow

    . ;20~C?

    ;XinjiangKelamayiBotanicalGardenScien

    ;tificResearchInstitutescreens17kindsof37varieties ;fromtheintroduction42kindsof66varieties,breeds ;300000inthreeyears,andpromotes2.5hm2[161. ;Next,throughthecrossbreedingmethodtouse ;wildflowersandplantsidioplasmaticresourcesto ;enhancethecommodityflowersaMplantsqualityis ;themainwaytoutilizewildflowersandplants.Our ;countrybegantoutilizeLiliumin1979,ShanghaiBo- ;tanicalGardenResearchInstituteandShanghaiBo

    ;tanicalGardenhavecarriedonLiliumhybridization ;breeding,anddesignedmanyhybridizationgroupsfor ;Liliumregale,L.amoenum,L.1ongifloum,L.vididai ;var.unicolor,L.sulphureum,L.henryi,L.dauricum, ;L.pumilum,andsoon,allofthemhaveobtainedthe ;hybrids.KunmingInstituteofBotany,ChineseAcademy ;ofSciencesutilizingtheLiliumwhithininthegroup ;hassuccessfullymadetheinter-specieshybridization ;ofL.sargentiae,.davidii,L.neplen,andsoon[17.

    ;Moreover,besidesthatwildflowersandplantshave ;ornamentalvalue,theyalsohavemedicinalpurposes ;E-mail:xuebaoenglish@neau.edu.cB

    ;andmanykindsofapplicationvalue.Edible,thetextile ;fiber,thetanningmaterial,theessentialoil,thefat, ;thenectarsource,thefeed,thesolidsand,theinsect ;disinfestations,andsoon,whichhavebeendeveloped ;indegrees.Forexample,Chrysanthemumindiumis ;thehighqualityhoneyplant;Chinesegentianisthe ;medicinalplant;cuckoomaywithdrawtheessential ;oil;knotfragranceistheimportantfiberplants. ;TheDevelopmentandUtilizationof

    ;WildFlowersandFlowersIndustry

    ;chinaisrichinwildflowersresources.honoredas ;“motheroftheworldbotanicalgarden”,”theworld

    ;flowersandplantstreasurehouse”,wildflowersidio—

    ;plasmaticresourcesarethematerialbaseoftheSUS-

    ;tainabledevelopmentofChineseflowersandplants ;industry.Comparedwiththecurrentcultivatedvariety, ;somewildflowersandplantshavethespecialorna

    ;mentalvalue,thehugedevelopmentpotentialandthe ;marketprospect.

    ;Theflowersindustry’ssustainabledevelopment

    ;dependsontheflowersandplants’industrialpro—

    ;duction.Weshouldoptimizetheproductionstructure, ;standardizemanagementandoperation,improvethe ;flowersandplantsproductquality,enhancesocial ;efficiencyandtheeconomicefficiency,meetpeople’s

    ;materia1andcultura1needs.maintaintheindustria1 ;structureconcordanceinordertorealizethesustain- ;abledevelopmentofflowersandplantsindustry.There

    ;fore,therichflowersandplantsidioplasmaticresourc

    ;cshaveprovidedstablegeneticinformationforthein- ;troductionanddomesticationandthecrossbreeding, ;andalsobuiltthesolidfoundationforthesustainable ;developmentofflowersandplantsindustry. ;ExistingQuestionandSuggestion

    ;Existingquestions

    ;(1)ThesustainabledevelopmentofChineseflower ;industryhasmanyrestrictionfactors,forexample,the ;systemisnotperfect,theachievementistransformed ;

    ;HONGLieta1.ExploitationofWildFlowersandtheSustainableDevelopmentofFlowersI

    ndustryinChina?79?

    ;slowly,thedevelopmentisslowlyandunbalance,the ;productionisblind,andsoon.

    ;(2)ResearchonChinauniqueoradvantageouswild ;flowersandplantsresourcesisnotindepth,andlacks

    ;ofinternationallycompetitiveness.

    ;(3)FewfocusesonironkeyChineseuniquepre

    ;ciousflowersandplantsresources.Theintroduction ;anddomesticationscaleissmall,andfewsuccessful ;introductionvarietieshavebeenspreadedandapplied, ;fewcanbeprovidedforcommercializedcultivation. ;Suggestion

    ;(1)Tocreategoodconditionforrealizingthesustain

    ;abledevelopmentofChineseflowersandplantsindus

    ;trythroughdevelopmentofscienceandtechnology. ;(2)Toutilizewildflowersandplantsresourcessci

    ;entifically,calculatedly,OrganizatiOnally,realizing ;therestorationofwildflowersandplantsresources,

    ;maintainingtheecologicalbalance,andprotectingthe ;biologicalsustainabledevelopment.

    ;(3)Forsomewildflowersandplantswithimportant ;applicationvalue,weshouldcarryonthemolecular ;levelidentificationatgenotype,andadoptthesuitable ;breedingmethodtoestablishidioplasmaticgenebank. ;(4)Toadoptmultipurposecomprehensivedeve

    ;lopmentway,exploringthewildflowersandplants ;resourcesapplicationpositively.

    ;References

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