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English_2

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English_2

    English

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    ;VoL30Sup?JJournalofGuangxiUniversity(PhilosophyandSocialScience)May?J?u2008

    ;EnglishVocabularyandSocialDevelopment

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    ;[?A???8????]H31???T?5???3?eA?????x???e1001k08182(2008)????0223dG03 ;Abstract?eThispapermainlydiscussesthecloserelationshipbetw?srensocialdevelopmentandthedevelopmentofEngdG

    ;lishvocabulary?Jthechangesofitsmeaningk0andthecontinuousappearanceofnewEnglishwordsdUAslanguage?uesdG

    ;peciallyEnglishvocabularydevelopsceaselesslywithsocialdevelopment?upeopleshouldtakesocialfactorsintocondG

    ;siderationintheirstudyofEnglishvocabnlarysoastoachieveaccuracyandpurificationofEnglishlanguage?J

    ;Keywords?eEnglish?uvocabulary?uSocialdevelopment?uChangea

    ;AsakiodofintemationslIanguage-Englishiswidely

    ;usedthroughouttheworldbothonsignificantoccasionsand

    ;inpeopledv5dailylife?JAccordingtorelativeinvestigation,

    ;morethanhalfofthenewspapersandscientificeditorialsare

    ;publishedinEnglish?ueightypercent

    ;offormationstoredin

    ;computersiswritteninEnglishandthreefifthsbroadcasting

    ;stationsareusingEnglisharoundtheglobe?JThemassiveu??

    ;ofEnglishlanguagegivesrisetotremendousdifferenceinudU

    ;singEnglishamongdiverseregions?uwhichsurelyexpands

    ;EnglishvocabularyMP?alargeextent?J

    ;1tiswellknownthathumansocietyhasbeenchanging

    ;anddevelopingitselfincessantlyforthousandsofyears?JAs

    ;themethodofhuman’sexpressingandexchangingideas?uthe

    ;developmentofEnglishlanguageistightlyrelatedtothatof

    ;thehumansociety?Jk0Fromthesociolingusticpointofview?u

    ;weknowthatchangeaiupronunciationandgrammarare

    ;muchslower?Jbutchangesinvocabularyaremuchfaster?Jk0[1] ;Englishvocabularydoesnotchangeinisolation?JOnthecondv ;trary?uitresultsfromthegreatsocialinfluenceonsuchasdU ;pectsashistorical?Jpolitical?ueconomic?ucultural?uscientific?u ;psychologicaletc?JInaword?uEnglishvocabularyisinseparadU ;blefromsocialdevelopment?J

    ;Firstofall?uthedevelopmentofEnglishvocabularyhas ;closeconnectionswiththedevelopmentofEnglishsociety?J ;ThefclrmationofmodemEnglishisalongtermcovering ;hundredsofyears?JBroadlyspeaking?uEnglishhistoryisdi- ;videdintothreeperiodsIOldEnglishPeriod(450??D?J?? ;1100A?JD?J)?JMiddleEnglishPeriod<IIOOA?JD?J??1500A?J ;D?J)andModemEnglishPeriod(1500??D?J??)?JProbingin- ;tothethreeperiods?uwemayeasilynoticethatEnglishlan- ;guage?uespeciallyEnglishvocabularyhasalwaysbeenchan- ;gingowingtosomeimportanthistoricalevents?Jk0Thestudy ;ofthehistoricaldevelopmentoftheEnglishvocabulary ;shouldnotbetreatedseparatelyfromthegrowthoftheEng- ;lishlanguageitselfk0dt??insteadk0itworthmeticulousconsid?? ;erationofhistoricalevents?uwhichhavebroughtaboutfar- ;reachingimpacton

    ;Englishlanguage?J

    ;DuringtheAnglo-SaxonPeriod?unootherthingswas ;muchmoresignificantthantheintroductionofChristianity ;intoBritaimIn597A?JD?J?JaRomanpriestwiththenameof ;AugustinebegantodomissionaryworkinBritain?utherefore ;RomanculturewastransferredintoBritain?JFromthenon?u ;LatinwordshadbeenmakingtheirwayintotheEnglishk0 ;manyofwhichwererelatedtoreligion?JAlthoughIotaof ;themdiedOUtonebyone?utherearestillsomethatsurvivein ;present-dayEnglis|LForexample?unun?upriest?ushrine?u ;temple?umartyr?ucandletdiscipleetc?J

    ;ThetransitionalperioddGdGMiddleEnglishPeriodis ;characterizedbystronginfluenceofFrenchwiththeNorman ;Conquestin1066?JLedbyWilliamtheconqueror?JNormans ;crossedtheEnglishChannel?udefeatedAnglo-Saxonsinthe ;HustinBattleandunitedthewholeBritainintheend?JThis ;historiceventwascalledNormanConquest?uwhichbrought ;abolitmomentousconsequencesandchangedthewhole ;courseofEnglishlanguage?JWiththeFrench-speakingNor- ;IJlansbecomingtherulingclass?uFrenchwasusedforall ;stateaffairsandformostsocialandculturallTMtrters?JConse- ;quently?uFrenchwordswerecomprehensivelyadopted?JIn ;???2?????e????(HeNing?u1980??)?u???u???????????u?L???’?9?????x???????????J

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    ;Thethirdpe??dGdGModemEnglishPeriode?Aends

    ;from1500A?JD?JMPtheprMPentday?JIntlle16thcentury?uthe ;movementofRe?missanMPstres?’don5tud??ngLatinand

    ;Greekclassics?uwhichenrichedEnglishvocabularybyaddiIlg ;L?atin&ndGreekloanvocabulary?JWordslikechaMP?ucrisi8?u ;?)ph8i5?udUclimax?uappendix?uMPmedy?udran??we?qborrowed ;??tthattim??Whafmore?Jfrom??eBritishB0urgMPi5-demo?J ;craticRevolutionin1640?Jc0Ionization8ndtradeonwards?u ;Englishhasborrowedvastquantitiesofwordsfromevery ;kMPwllIar?kuage?u??3aidintheEncyclopediaAmericanI ;k0

    ;TheEngli8hlaI??uagehasvastdebts?Jh1anydictionarysoIne ;80?2oftheentriMPareborMPwed?Jk0MP

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    ;makingEnglishvocabularymoreopulentandactik3?u??These ;newword8derIMPnstratelivinghbits?uMPnditioMP??dnotion8 ;of??wtimMP?JTncingthe??usMPof????enewword5?uk3?? ;mayfir??8everalMPurces?uwhichaddtIIen??berofEngli3h ;??bularytoalargescale?J

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    ;ofh??nhi8toryh??proved??atav??tn??berof?sw ;wordsaresuretobec?medwhennewtechMPlogyi8applie?? ;Inthe19??century?utherew??agr??tekaknpa??ioninthevocab- ;IIlaryof5denceaIldtechMPlogybecau8eoftIlelburgMPi3?J ;d??oct?pdcRek3?uoIution?JWord5likek0s?Keamerk0?Jk0jetlinerdv?u ;??dk0tel??raphk0wereoffspriIIgofthatag??IIlthe20??cMPtu- ;fy?uthereweremany?Ywwordsresultedf????enewb??B- ;chMPinmodemsci??ceaIldtechMPlogy?JFofinsta??e?uk0futu?? ;MPlogyk0?uwhjchmea?Nk0t??leanorprM|ticeofmaJdUiIlgfore?J ;n8??aboutfutu?sdevelopm????inMPie?meaIldtech|?Ylogy ;andtheireffectuponMPcietyk0?u??dk0??c??eterologyk0?u ;which??fe??totIlestudyoflargescalemetMPrologicalpk ;MPr?im?JAsidefromthis?ulargequantitiMPof?7wlyMPined ;wordsappearedMP??edbytheinventionofcomput??andh- ;temeLIntemetissuchagreat?Jmventionthatitconnec??the ;wholeworIdtogether?uspeedupthedevelopmentalstepsof ;hu??50cietyand??kepMPpledvsdailylifemoreMPnvenient ;thanev???JRecently?JmoreandmorefrMPhword8??dabbre- ;via60??MPmeintou??ontheIntemeLForex??ple?uBTW ;3??ndsfor-bythewayk0?JHAG0m?dk0haveaga?Bone-?u ;MYOBreferstok0???qldyo?nownbusinMPs?Jk0F??the??ore?u ;MPmeromanticperMP??havecreatedalotI??wloveMPdes?u ;whichgrantnewmeaningstosomecountriesandcities?J ;Herehave?eHOLLAND(hopeourlovehStsandnever

    ;dies)?JLIBYA(10veisbesutiful?Jyoualso)?JNEPAL(never ;everpartasIovex)?uandFRANCE(friendshipsremainand ;nevercanend)?JThisnew?ufunnywayofexplainingexisting ;wordsindicatethatwiththedevelopmentofhurrmnsociety ;andtIIeincreaseofpeoplesexchanges?uEnglishvocabularyis ;becomingmoreandmoreopulentandactiveinitsuse?J ;Second?upoliticsandeconomyisanotherresourceofnew ;word?JAlthoughthespeedyprogressofthescienceandtech- ;nologypushhumansocietyforwardswiftly?uitbringsabout ;so?msideeffectsaswelLTheunbalarsceofpoliticsandecon- ;omyamongdifferentcountriesisa

    ;prominentone?JFromthe

    ;historicalpointofview?Jpolitiesandeconomyarealways ;closelyconnectedwitheachother?JSometimes?Jtherelation ;betweenthemisproperlydealtwithandtheoppositecol?rn- ;triesor

    ;groupsmco-existswelLInconsequence

    ;oftK???J

    ;manypoliticaloreconomicorganizationsareestablished ;withinsrelativelylargeorsmallregion?JThemostfamous ;examplesareOPEC(OrganizationofthepetroleumExpor- ;ringCountries)??APECo(Asian-PacificEconomicCoopers- ;tionOrganiaation)?JUNEXco(UnitedNationEducational?J ;ScientificandCulturslOrganiztion)k0WTO(c?kridTradeOit’-

    ;ganiaation)?uWH0(WorldHealthOrganization)?JInre_ ;verse?uif1tomeproblemsbetweencountriescannotbegetrid ;ofsuccessfully?Jthesituationwillbedeteriorated?Jconflicts ;evenwarsmaybreakoutandwordsindicatinginternational ;strugglesor

    ;carryingatintofmilitaryarebored?JForexam-

    ;pie?JwecallUSAk0superpowerk0becauseitcanenforceits ;willuponthemostpowerfulStates?JChinabelongstodvthe ;ThirdWbrld

    ;1

    ;foritremainss

    ;developingcountryinmany

    ;aspects?JTheMiddleEastaresisregardedasthek0hotspotk0 ;forwarsandconflictsareneverstoppedforalongtime?JIn ;addition?Jwehaveaseriesofprotestwordslikek0sit-ink0?Jk0 ;live-ink0?uk0die-ink0?uk0work-ink0?Jk0pray-ink0?Jwhichdescribe ;waysofprotestagainstracediscrimination?J

    ;Last??changesofscienceandtechnology?Jpoliticalande- ;conomycontributetochangesinotherfieldsofsociallife?u ;whichcausethefrequentappearance

    ;ofnewwordsandcau-

    ;tioususeofEnglishwords?JForexample?Jthewomen’sliber-

    ;ationandstrugglesforracialequality?J

    ;Sexismhasalwaysbeeneffectingthedevelopmentof ;Englishvncabulary?JInmodernsociety?uwiththeincrease ;awarenessofsexequalityandwomen’sright?umoreandmore

    ;womenarestrugglingupforwomen’sliberatiomThus?Jsome

    ;wordsusedbeforeandcontainingsshadeofsexismshould ;beabandonedforgoodanda11?JInourspeechandwritings?u ;weshouldusek0ancestordyratherthank0forefatherk0Ik0member ;oftheclergydtinsteadofk0clergymank0dUdyreporterk0ork0jour- ;nalistk0ratherthank0newsmank0?Jk0Chairpersondyispreferred ;whenwementionspersonwhopresidesatameeting?JMore- ;over?usayirigapersonisadywonlanlawyerk0ork0awomanten- ;hisplayerk0alsoimpliesthatsheisan

    ;exceptiontotherule?J

    ;Thesameappliestotermslikek0malenursek0anddycareer ;girlk0?Jk0Femininelogicdyillustratesthemostnegativelybiased

    ;useofthemodifiertacticsinceitimplieslackoflogic?JSirnidG ;larly?Jbiasedtermslikek0mannishk0k0womanishdyk0effemi?J ;hatek0shouldalsobeabandoned?J

    ;Asforracialism?uahhoughracialismstillreIihainsinA- ;mericansociety?utheUSlegislationhasstipulatedinexplicit ;termsthatracialismisillegaLSo?uinpeople’sdailyinterac-

    ;tionandcommunicationk0itisessentialtoavoidusingsome ;wordswhichhaveatintofracialism?JForthisresson?Jeu- ;phernismisdulyappliedinsomeparticularsituations?JFor ;instance?Jdymuhiculturalk0isusedinsteadofk0multi-racisldtIk0 ;civildisturhancesk0isusedinstesdofdtraceriotsk0?Janddyracial ;pridek0isusedfork0racismk0?Jk0Negrok0referstothedescenddG ;antsofblackslaveswhoweremongeredfromtheAfricato ;theAmerica??thusitisaderogatorywordandshouldbeused ;withcaution?uandk0niggerk0?Jk0coloreddyarealloffensivewords ;whichshouldnotbeusedoften?JOnthecontrary?ubecause ;thestruggleexhort8dyblackisbesutffulk0andk0blackpowerk0?J ;aserik0esofworldlikek0blackEnglishk0?Jk0blackhistoryk0?Jk0 ;blacknationalismk0?uk0blackstudiesdycometothetrend?uwhich ;Iddssolemnitytothewordk0blackk0?J

    ;Thispaperhasemphasizedtheintimaterelationshipbe- ;tweenEnglishvocshularyandsocialdevelopmentfromthree ;aspectsIthedevelopmentofEnglishvocabularyisparalleled ;withthatofthesociety!themeaningofEnglishvocabulary ;changesbecauseoffactorsarisingfromthesocialdevelop- ;ment!alargenumberofnewEnglishvocabularycomeinto ;beinginmoderntimeswiththedevelopmentofhumansocie- ;ty?JW1latshouldbepointedOUtisthat?4partofthesociety?u ;hngusgewillbedevelopingceaselesslyintheIongcourseof ;humansociety?usowilltheEnglishvocabulary?JThusitisesdG ;sentialforustotakesocialfactorsintoconsiderationinthe ;studyofEnglishvocabulary?ucor??ea’nthechangesinallas-

    ;pectsofthewholesociety?Jandusethemcautiouslyso?hto ;achieveaccuracyandpurificationofEnglishlanguage?J ;[1]

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    ;???????J???????Y???g??[M]?J???uz???_?4?????X?z?u ;2001?J116?J

    ;?d?????J???????????Y??????[M]?J?i???e?i???V?(?4 ;?????X?z?u1986?J4?J

    ;?d?????J???????????Y??????[M]?J?i???e?i???V?(?4 ;?????X?z?u1986?JS?J

    ;?d?????J???????????Y??????[M]?J?i???e?i???V?(?4 ;?????X?z?J1986?J267?J

    ;???????u?????h?J???????Y?????S[M]?J?L??t?L???x?? ;???????X?z?J1997?J258?J

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