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Effects_12

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Effects_12Effect

    Effects

Jan.2008,Volume2,No.1(SerialNo.2)JournalofLifeSciences,ISSN1934?7391,USA

    ;Effectsoftransgenicpoplarclone741withinsectresistanceonstructure ;anddiversityofarthropodcommunity

    ;GAOBao-jial12GAOSuhong3LIUJun-xia1YANGMinsheng1.

    ;LIANGYinquan1

    ;.

    ;WANGJin.moo1

    ;f,_AgricultureUniversityofHebei,Baoding071000,China;2.HebeiNorthUniversity,Zh

    ang)iakou075000,China;

    ;3.HebeiNormalUniversityofScienceandTechnology,Qinhuangdao066600,China)

    ;Abstract:Arthropodcommunitystructureanddiversitywere ;investigatedintransgenicinsectresistanthybridpoplar741

    ;fieldtrialplots,whichhadfiveisogeniccloneswithtwogenes ;(Bt.toxinCryIAcandarrowheadproteinaseinhibitorAPI])

    ;incomparisontocontrolplots.Transgenicpoplarcloneswere ;investigatedaccordingtotheirinsectresistance(highand ;mediumresistantclones),beingsystematicallyprobedinto ;varyinglevelswithfeedingtestsbefore.Investigationswere ;carriedoutduringthreeyears(2002,2003and2005).Theresults ;indicatedthatamongthebasalspecies,transgenicplantsin ;generalhadloweramountsofphytophagousinsects,andan ;increasedquantityofneutralarthropodssuchassaprophyticand ;strollingspecies.Amongthetopandintermediatespeciesin ;transgenicvariants,thequantityofpredatorynaturalenemies ;wasincreased,whiletheamountofparasitoidoneswasslightly ;reduced.Thearthropodcommunitycharacteristicindiceswere ;analyzedfromdifferentaspectsinthethreevariants.Itwas ;discoveredthat,notonlythecharacteristicindicesofthewhole ;arthropodcommunity,butalsothecharacteristicindicesofthe ;subcommunities(suchasnaturalenemy,pestandneutral ;arthropods)andthefunctionalgroupscategorizedbytheir ;feedingpattems,showedahigherdiversityandevennessanda ;lowerdominancyconcentrationindicesinthehighresistantand

    ;mediumresistantplotscomparedwiththecontro1.Transgenic ;poplar741showedimprovedecologicaleffectsbothinpartial ;andtotalaspects.Itcouldbeconcludedthatcompositionand ;structureofthearthropodcommunityinplotswithtransgenic ;insectres_

    ;istantpoplarwereturnedtobemorereasonableandits

;diversityandstabilitywasenhanced.

    ;Keywords:transgenicpoplar;arthropod;communitystructure; ;ecologicalriskassessment;biodiversity

    ;1.Introduction

    ;Sincethetransgenicinsectresistantplantshave

    ;beengraduallyandextensivelycultivatedinecological

    ),Ph.D.,professor;researchfields: ;GAOBao-jia(1958

    ;ecologyandcontrolofforestpest.

    ;andindustrialplantations,therecognitionofthe ;potentialecologicalriskafteritsreleasingintothe ;environmenthasbecomemoreandmoreimportant,6,

    ;,171

    ;.Inthepast.theecologicalriskonthearthropod ;communityimposedbythetransgenicinsectresistant

    ;plants,wereusuallyconcentratedontheindividualand ;populationlevels.Asingleorafewspeciesoftargeted ;pestsfe.g.HelicoverpaarmigeraHubner)ornatural ;enemieswerebredbyindoormethodstoinspect ;whetherthetransgenicplantshadthepotential ;ecologicalriskornotf,,,,.

    ;Theresultsofthese

    ;methodscouldpartiallyrevealtheinfluenceof ;transgenicplantsonthebiologicalpopulations. ;However,theecologicaleffectsofthetransgenic ;insect—resistantwoodyplantsafterit’sreleasinginto

    ;thefieldsandtheregulationandinternalmechanismof ;itsinfluenceonthewholebiologicalcommunitywere ;rarelystudied[9-11lItisimportanttostudyitsinfluence ;onthecomponents,structureanddiversityofarthropod ;community,whichcanprovidetheoreticaland ;practicalsignificancesforthereasonableutilization ;andecologicalbiosafetyassessmentofthetransgenic ;insect.resistantplants14_5_t81.Basedonecological

    ;aspect,theinfluencesonthearthropodcommunity ;structureanddiversityimposedbydifferent ;insectresistantclonesofthetransgenicpoplar741 ;undernaturalconditionswereinvestigatedinthis ;paper.

    ;2.Materialandmethods

    ;Effectsoftransgenicpoplarclone741withinsectresistanceonstructureanddiversityofart

    hropodcommuni

    ;t

    ;

    ;y

;2.1Asurveyofthetestfields

    ;Permissionforfieldtrialswithtransgenicclones ;ofpoplar741inthecoastalForestryCentreof ;QinhuangdaowasgivenbyAgriculturalBiological ;GeneticEngineeringSecurityCommitteeofthe ;NationalAgriculturalMinistryofChina.Itcoveredan

    transgenic ;areaof1.3hectare,onwhichthenon

    ;controlsandthetransgenicpoplar741containingBt. ;toxingenefB.t.CrylAc)andtheArrowhead

    ;ProteinaseInhibitorgene(API)wereplanted. ;Accordingtotheinsectresistantevaluationresults

    ;(feedingtestsinvitro),thedifferentinsectresistant

    ;poplarcouldbecategorizedintotwogroups:theclone ;clonesPbl1,Pb29,Pb3werehighresistantclones

    ;whilePblandPbl7weremedium.resistantclones[19t. ;Cloneswereplantedinrows,3058plantswere

    ;usedofeachcloneperrow.Ineachplotclonesof ;control,medium-andhighresistanttransgenicclones

    ;indifferentmixtureswereplanted.Testplantswere2 ;yearsoldwhenplantedandthespacingwas3×5m, ;173260individualswereplantedperplot.Thewhole ;fieldtrialconsistedofsixplots.intwoofthesixplots ;everyclonewasplantedintworows.Allthenatural ;andartificialmanagingconditionsincludingthe ;topography,physiognomy,soilquality,temperature, ;rainfall,vegetation,cultivatingmethodsetc.were ;uniformandconsistentinthewholetrialarea.Apart ;fromthebasicforestrymanagingmeasures,no ;insecticidesweresprayedinthetestplots. ;2.2Methodsofinvestigation

    ;FromApriltoOctober2002,duringthewhole ;growingseasonoftransgenicpoplar741,the ;investigationswerecarriedoutatintervalsof7to10 ;days(totally23times).Tentreeswereselected ;randomlyfromeachvariant(mediumand

    ;highresistanttransgenicpoplarclonesandcontro1)to ;investigatethespeciesandquantityofthearthropodsin ;thewholetree.Theaphidsandacaridspecieswere ;especiallycountedaccordingtothefollowingmodified ;method.Abranchwaschosenseparatelyfromthe4 ;directions(east,west,south,north)andthenumberof ;thetwokindsofspeciesonthethirdleaffromthetlpOf ;abranchwascounted.Somespecies,whichcouldnot ;beimmediatelyidentified,wereputinpoisonbottlesor

    ;cuvettescontainingalcoholforthefurther ;identification171.In2003and2005thenumberofinsect ;specieswascountedaccordingtothesame

    ;experimentalintervalasin2002.Theresultswere ;summarizedtoevaluatethediversity.

    ;23Classificationandidentification

    ;Thecollectedspecimenshouldbeidentifiedat ;leasttothefamily.Speciesofthearthropodcommunity ;couldbeclassifiedinto3nutritionalclasses.and ;describedasthefollows:thebasalspecies,whichcould ;notpreyonotherspeciesandonlycanbefoodofothers, ;mainlyincludingphytophagousinsectsandneutral ;arthropods,whichcouldnotfeedonplantsandother ;arthropods,suchasmidges,saprophyticandstrolling ;specie,theintermediatespecies,whichcouldpreyon ;otherspeciesandalsocarlbecaughtbyothers,mainly ;includingsomeminitypepredatorynaturalenemies, ;suchasmediumandminispiders,ladybugsand ;parasitoidwasps;thetopspecies,whichcouldhunt ;otherspeciesandseldombepreyedbyothers,mainly ;includingsomefiercelyhuntingandstronglymoving ;greatandmediumpredators,suchasspidersLycosidae, ;SalticidaeandThomisidae[161.Thearthropodscould ;alsobecategorizedintothreefunctionalgroupssoasto ;becountedseparately.Thesegroupswerepests, ;includingsapsuckinginsects,leaf-eatinginsectsand ;acarids;naturalenemies,includingparasitoid ;andpredatorynaturalenemies,andspiders;andneutral ;arthropods.

    ;2.4Analyzingmeans

    ;Individualtotality:

    ;Ni:thenumberoftheispecies

    ;N:thesummationofthenumberofallspecies

    ;Richness(s):thespeciesnumberofthe

    ;community

    ;4l

    ;N

    ;?dllN

    ;Effectsoftransgenicpoplarclone741withinsectresistanceonstructureanddiversityofart

    hropodcommunity

    ;Dominance=Ni/Nx100%

    ;Diversityindex(ShannonWiener):H=?1)iInd

    ;PiandPi=N-/N

    ;Evennessindex(J):J=H/Ins

;Dominancyconcentrmionindex(C):

    ;c=?[Ni(Ni1)/N(N-1)

    ;3.Results

    ;3.1Influenceoftransgenicpoplar741clones ;onthecomponentsandstructureofthearthropod ;community

    ;Inarthropodcommunity,thedominanceofthe ;basalspeciesdecreased,whereas,theindicesofthetop ;andintermediatespeciesconsiderablyincreasedinthe ;high..resistantandmedium..resistantclonesofthe ;transgenicpoplar741comparedwiththecontrol ;rTable1).

    ;Table1Comparisonofdominanceandchangeofnutritionaldasses(%)andnumberoffuncti

    onalgroupswithin

    ;arthropodcommunityintransgenicpoplar741withdifferentinsectresistance(year2002)

    ;42

    ;Effectsoftransgenicpoplarclone741withinsectresistanceonstructureanddiversityofar.

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    ;3.Accordingtothistable,thetransgenicpoplarclones ;showedanincreasedspeciesnumberofthenatural ;enemies,whereasthespeciesnumberofthe

    ;subcommunitiesincludingpestandtheneutral ;arthropodswerebasicallyatthesamelevelcompared ;withthecontro1.Consideringtheindividualnumberof ;thethreesubcommunities,theresistanttransgenic ;poplar741hadanobviouslydecreasednumberof ;pests,butaslightlyincreasednumberofnatural ;enemiesandneutralarthropods.Accordingto ;componentsandquantitydistributionofthearthropod ;communityitwasshownthattransgenicpoplar741 ;ledtoadecreaseofthepestandamorereasonable ;community.Comparedwiththecontrol,theresistant ;transgenicpoplar741hadhigherindicesofdiversity ;andevennessandlowerdominancyconcentration ;indices.inalIthethreesubcommunitiesofpest.

    ;naturalenemyandneutralarthropods.Thecommunity ;characteristicindicesshowedthat,comparedwiththe

    resistanttransgenicpoplar741,the ;high

    ;mediumresistantpoplar741hadhigherdiversityand ;evenness,betterstructureandlowerdominancy ;concentrationindex.inallthethreesubcommunities.

    ;Eachofthesubcommunitiesappearedtobemore

    ;stableinthemedium.resistantstrainsthaninthe ;highresistantstrainsandthecontro1.

    ;Table3Comparisonofcharacteristicindicesamongpest,naturalenemyandneutralarthrop

    od

    ;sub-communitiesindifferentinsectresistantclonesoftransgenicpoplar741

    ;Note:S-speciesnumber;1-individualnumber;Hdiversity;J-evenness;Cdominancy

    concentrationindex.

    ;Basedontheaboveanalysis,owingtothe

    ;transgenicpoplar741resistantclones,thenatural ;enemysubcommunityturnedtobemorecomplex;the ;pestgroupsontheotherhandwereinarelative ;equilibrium,andthecapabilityofnaturalenemyto ;controlthepestwasenhanced.Thedominanceofthe ;neutralarthropodsincreasedrelatively,alongwiththe ;reductionofthepestquantity.Asawholeorpartially ;theecologicalstabilityoftheinsectcommunityon ;transgenicpoplar741wereenhancedcomparedwith ;thecontrol,andthemediumresistantcloneshada

    ;betterecologicaleffectthanthehigh.resistantclones.

    ;3.3Theinfluenceoftransgenicpoplar741on ;thearthropodcommunityfeaturesofdifferent ;functionalgroup

    ;Thecommunityindicesofdifferentfunctional ;groupsofthetransgenicpoplar741werecompared ;throughdiversity,evenness,anddominancy ;cOncentration.TheresultswerelistedinTable4. ;45

    ;Effectsoftransgenicpoplarclone741withinsectresistanceonstructureanddiversityofart

    hropodcommunity

    ;Table4Comparisonofdiversity,evennessanddominancyconcentrationindicesamongdif

    ferent

    ;AsshowedinTable4,thedifferentfunctional ;groupsintransgenicpoplar741hadahigherdiversity ;andevenness,butalowerdominancyconcentration ;indexthaninthecontrol(exceptforthesaprophytic ;andstrollingspecieshadahigherdominancy ;concentrationthanthecontro1),whichwerecoincident ;withthetotaltendencyofthearthropodcommunityin ;thetransgenicpoplar741.Comparedwiththe

    resistantclones,thehighresistantclones ;medium

    ;showedaslightlyincreaseddiversityofleaf-eating ;pestsandparasitoidnaturalenemies,whereasthe ;mediumresistantclonesincreasedthediversityofthe ;sapsuckingpests,predatorynaturalenemy,

    ;saprophyticandstrollinggroups.Thecommunity ;characteristicindicesoftheleaf-eatingpestsand ;parasitoidnaturalenemieschangedcoincidently.The ;saprophyticandstrollinggroupshadasimilarchanging ;tendencyofcharacteristiccommunityindicestothe ;predatorynaturalenemy.Thepestsmightthereforenot ;betheuniquefoodresourceofthenaturalenemy. ;4.Discussionandconclusions

    ;Basedonobservationsindifferentyears,itwas ;shownthat,amongthearthropodcommunityoftwo ;transgenicpoplargroupswithhighandmediuminsect ;resistance,thenumberofbasalspecieswasreduced. ;Thequantifyofphytophagousinsectsinthesetwo ;groupsdecreasedwhiletheamountofneutral ;arthropodsincreased.Thenumberofintermediate ;speciesandthequantityofthepredatorynaturalenemy ;increased,whiletheamountoftheparasitoidnatural ;enemieswasreduced.Thearthropodcommunityinthe ;plantationoftransgenicpoplarshadhigherdiversity,

    ;evennessandlowerdominancyconcentrationindices ;thanthecontro1.Inthetransgenicpoplar741,all ;functionalgroupsincludingsub-communitiesof ;naturalenemies,pestsandneutralarthropods,which ;werecategorizedbythefeedingpatterns,showeda ;higherdiversity,evennessandlowerdominancy ;concentrationcomparedwiththecontro1.The ;arthropodcommunityofthetransgenicpoplar ;presentedmorestablecompositionandstructural ;features,andthemediuminsectresistantpoplarclones

    ;showedallimprovedecologicaleffectthanthe ;highresistantclones.Therefore,mediumresistant

    ;transgenicclonesofpolar741couldbeasuitable ;choiceconcerningafurtherlargescaleapplicationof

    ;transgenicpoplartrees.Itwascharacterizedbyall ;enhancedecological”immunization”,whichcouldnot

    ;onlysuppressthedevelopmentofpestpopulations,but ;alsostrengthenthecontrollingcapabilityofthelocal ;naturalenemies.Theoretically,theselectionofthe ;mediumresistantclones,wasadvantageous

    ;Effectsoftransgenicpoplarclone741withinsectresistanceonstructureanddiversityofa

    

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    ;concerningtheregulationoftheproportionbetween ;pestsandnaturalenemiesandtheenhancementofits ;naturalcontrollingcapacity.Thusthisstudyshowed ;coincidentresultswiththeresearchofinsect ;communitystructureintransgeniccottonfields ;reportedbyCUI,eta1.14-51.Thesyntheticalanalysis ;indicatedthatthearthropodcommunityoftransgenic ;poplar741,hadanincreaseddiversity,evennessanda ;morereasonablestructurethancontrol,which ;strengtheneditsfunctiontoreducetheimpactsof ;environmentalchangesandinternalpopulation ;fluctuations.Itdecreasedtheoutbreakchanceofthe ;pestandwasfavorableformultiplyingnaturalenemies.

    ;Thusthereexistsnowanecologicalbasistocontrol ;insectpestinforesttreesbyutilizationofnatural ;factors,likegenes,whichcanhelptodiminisha ;propagationofpests.

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