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ROUND 1

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ROUND 1 ...

ROUND 9

2006 PACE National Scholastics ChampionshipROUND 9

Related Tossup/Bonus

1. The Hill reaction describes the release of molecular oxygen from them, and the turnip

    yellow mosaic virus causes them to clump. The “Tic” and “Toc” complexes are found on

    their outer and inner envelopes. They are comically oversized in the Cylindrocapsaceae

    family of algae. The highly ordered array of units known as the quantasome is found in

    their lamellae, and is a site for reactions involving carotenoid and other pigments of

    Photosystems I and II. For 10 points, name these organelles that contain grana and

    thylakoids, the site of atmospheric carbon dioxide fixation and photosynthesis in plants.

    ANSWER: chloroplasts <Wolpert>

Bonus: Its action spectrum in algae was determined by T. W. Englemann. It oxidizes

    water and reduces carbon dioxide to form carbohydrates, releasing oxygen. For 10 points

    each:

    [10] This is the aqueous medium enclosed by thylakoid lamellae that contains the

    enzymes needed for carbon assimilation.

    ANSWER: stroma [10] Severo Ochoa showed that this molecule is the biological version of the Hill Reagent.

    It acquires two hydrogen atoms and is used in the Calvin cycle to convert carbon dioxide

    into glucose.

    ANSWER: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [accept NADP]

    <Luo>

2. Among the significant battles which took place here was one ending Marcus

    Aurelius’s war with the Marcomanni, where that emperor died. A more modern action

    here was won by the decisive action of the Polish king Jan Sobieski, who was able to turn

    back the forces of Mustada Pasha here in 1683. That came 150 years after Nicholas von

    Salm won the “Battle of the Moles” and turned back an army fresh off victory at Mohacs.

    For 10 points name this city at which Ottoman expansion into Europe was twice halted.

    ANSWER: Vienna <Kendall>

Bonus: They migrated from the Urals to the Caucasus in the fifth century, and their

    famous leaders included Arpad. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this group that settled around modern day Hungary in 895.

    ANSWER: Magyars [10] The Magyars conquered Moravia and would have swept into Western Europe had

    they not been stopped by this first Holy Roman Emperor at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955.

    ANSWER: Otto the Great [or Otto I]

    <Berdichevsky>

     2006 PACE National Scholastics ChampionshipROUND 9

3. His family friend Phil Stone helped him publish an octosyllabic couplet verse

    sequence before he began writing novels like a satire on New Orleans in which Sherwood

    Anderson is caricatured as Dawson Fairchild. The sewing machine agent V. K. Ratliff

    appears in his Snopes trilogy, and he also wrote Mosquitoes and a novel in which Dilsey Gibson looks after the Compsons. For 10 points, name this author of The Unvanquished,

    Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, and The Sound and the Fury. ANSWER: William Faulkner

    <Luo>

    The dog Lion distracts the title character of this story, nicknamed “Old Ben,” long enough for Boon Hogganbeck to kill him by slitting his throat. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this Faulkner short story found alongside “The Fire and the Hearth” and “The

    Old People” in Go Down, Moses.

    ANSWER: “The Bear

    [10] The main character of “The Bear” is this man, who joins the annual hunt for Old Ben

    and later finds out that he is related to Lucas Beauchamp.

    ANSWER: Isaac “Ike” McCaslin [accept Isaac; accept Ike] <Douglass>

    4. Rowley and Tollison wrote a book on the political economy of “seeking” this quantity, and such “seeking behavior” also applies to companies that attempt to secure government benefits. This term generally refers to the compensation received for a factor beyond the

    cost necessary to maintain operation, and in ideal, perfect competition, it would not exist.

    For 10 points, give this term, most commonly applied to the periodic cost of tenancy in a

    dwelling one does not personally own.

    ANSWER: economic rent

    <Kwartler>

Bonus: Name these taxes, for 10 points each.

    [10] This tax system, common in Europe, individually taxes every step of the production

    process of a good rather than taxing the consumer at the final purchase.

    ANSWER: value-added tax [accept VAT]

    [10] This tax is levied on the sale of financial assets, most commonly stocks and bonds.

    ANSWER: capital gains tax

    <Kwartler>

     2006 PACE National Scholastics ChampionshipROUND 9

5. One of his sons was blinded by Nomia. Statues of him were intended to bring

    prosperity and luck and marked the boundary of one’s property, and he assisted the Fates

    with the alphabet by reducing sounds to characters. With cow-gut and a tortoise shell, he

    created a musical instrument which he gave to Apollo in exchange for cattle he stole as a

    child. He slew Argus after lulling him to sleep, and he served as a psychopomp, or guide

    of souls. For 10 points, name this winged-sandal wearing messenger of the Greek gods.

    ANSWER: Hermes [accept Mercury before “Greek” is read] <Beyer>

Bonus: Saved by Hermes after the death of Semele, he was raised by the nymphs of

    Nysa, For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this carrier of the thyrsus who gave Midas the gift of the golden touch.

    ANSWER: Dionysus

    [10] After this King of Thebes banned the worship of Dionysus, his limbs were torn apart

    by the Maenads in a process known as sparagmos.

    ANSWER: Pentheus

    <Beyer>

6. He spent a year in Tunis after his teacher Charles Folsom was made consul there.

    After he arrived too late to participate in the capture of San Juan de Ulloa, he asked to be

    relieved of duties in the Mexican War. He established a station at Mare Island before the

    Civil War, during which he captured Forts Morgan and Gaines and uttered a certain

    phrase. For 10 points, name this Union naval commander who won the battle of Mobile

    Bay, where he famously cried out “Damn the torpedoes!” ANSWER: David Farragut

    <Yaphe>

    Bonus: On June 22, 1807, the American ship Chesapeake was overtaken by a British frigate, which fired after demanding to board and seize deserters. For 10 points each:

    [10] This man replaced James Barron as commander of the Chesapeake after the incident

    and was killed in a duel by Barron. He burned the Philadelphia during the Barbary wars. ANSWER: Stephen Decatur

    [10] The Chesapeake was later commanded by James Lawrence, who was killed in

    combat against the HMS Shannon after uttering this five-word command.

    ANSWER: “Don’t give up the ship!”

    <Kendall>

     2006 PACE National Scholastics ChampionshipROUND 9

7. He worked in a lower space than Michelangelo, painting the Sistine Chapel walls

    while working on The Youth of Moses and Temptation of Christ. Around 1500, he

    abandoned art to become a follower of Savonarola, leaving behind such paintings as one

    showing a flying blue man, three dancing girls, and a lot of yellow fruit, and another in

    which a red wrap with black spots is about to be thrown over the title figure. For 10

    points, name this student of Fra Lippo Lippi who painted Primavera and The Birth of

    Venus.

    ANSWER: Sandro Botticelli

    <Luo>

Bonus: For 10 points each, name these other painters who used classical subjects.

    [10] His Bacchus and Sick Bacchus preceded his larger body of Christian works, including Supper at Emmaus and The Conversion of St. Paul.

    ANSWER: Caravaggio [or Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio] [10] Paris and Helen, The Lictors Bringing to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, and The

    Oath of the Horatii are among the scenes by this French Neoclassicist.

    ANSWER: Jacques-Louis David

    <Weiner>

8. This procedure depends on the Bayer process to refine its raw material. Two main

    methods for regenerating the carbon anode are the Soderberg and prebake, the latter of

    which is environmentally healthier as it does not involve burning pitch. It followed the

    same general idea as the Wohler process it replaced, with its innovation being a cheaper

    cryolite mixture rather than sodium to lower the melting point of the ore in question, a

    mineral derived from bauxite. Invented by two men who both lived and died in the same

    years, for 10 points name this process that reduces alumina ore to aluminum metal.

    ANSWER: Hall-Heroult process

    <Rahman>

Bonus: For 10 points each, identify each of these processes named for someone.

    [10] Ammonia can be produced commercially through this process that reacts nitrogen

    and hydrogen gas over an iron catalyst at high pressures.

    ANSWER: Haber-Bosch process

    [10] Ammonia can be further oxidized into nitric acid by this process that oxides the

    ammonia then absorbed by water.

    ANSWER: Ostwald process

    <Mitchell>

     2006 PACE National Scholastics ChampionshipROUND 9

9. A scene in the film L’Inferno was based on one of these created by Gustave Dore,

    based on Dante’s Canto 28. Many of them show the cleansing of the heart by Gabriel or the Night Journey, and they often use fire or cloth to cover the face. A recent set of them,

    solicited by children’s book author Kåre Bluitgen, first appeared in Egypt’s Al-Fagr. For

    10 points, what items were later republished by Jyllands-Posten, a paper based in

    Denmark, offending the tenets of many Islamic sects and causing February 2006 riots?

    ANSWER: pictures of Mohammed [accept equivalents for “pictures” such as drawings, paintings, depictions, caricatures, etc.]

    <Weiner>

Bonus: Name these textile arts that could be used in depicting Mohammed, for 10 points

    each.

    [10] The Cloisters in upper Manhattan houses the seven-piece Hunt of the Unicorn series,

    an example of this woven, decorative type of fabric work.

    ANSWER: tapestry [or tapestries]

    [10] Used frequently for upholstery because of its durability, this fiber derived from the

    Angora goat was produced exclusively in Turkey for centuries.

    ANSWER: mohair

    <Chuck>

10. The politician James Harthouse attempts to seduce a character in this novel, in which

    Mrs. Pegler and Stephen Blackpool are accused of theft. Tom and Louisa try to peek

    through circus tent walls, and their actions are blamed on Sissy Jupe. Housekeeper Mrs.

    Sparsit is placed at the bank after Louisa’s marriage to Mr. Bounderby in this novel, featuring a model school led by M’Choakumchild and concerning the fact-obsessed

    Coketown schoolmaster Thomas Gradgrind. For 10 points, identify this Dickens work.

    ANSWER: Hard Times

    <Mitchell>

Bonus: Name the novels by Charles Dickens in which these plots occur, for 10 points

    each.

    [10] Fogg and Dodson persuade Mrs. Bardell to employ the orator Serjeant Buzfuz in a

    lawsuit, and the protagonist lives with Sam Weller after leaving Fleet Prison.

    ANSWER: The Pickwick Papers [or The Posthumous Papers Of The Pickwick Club]

    [10] Kate is protected from Mulberry Hawk and Mantalini and marries Frank Cheeryble,

    while the title character works for Wackford Squeers before marrying Madeline Bray.

    ANSWER: Nicholas Nickleby

    <Luo>

     2006 PACE National Scholastics ChampionshipROUND 9

Tossups

1. They can be formed easily when Darcy’s Law predicts a high velocity, and their name

    derives from their use at a Carthusian monastery in 1126. They are inserted by bypassing

    what the vadose area and capillary fringe, and they work because natural pressure is

    created when aquicludes like clay or shale exist on either side of a porous aquifer,

    creating a confined aquifer. They exist when the recharge area possesses a water table at

    a greater altitude than the surface outlet or head. Useful because they require absolutely

    no energy to pump large volumes of water, for 10 points, name this type of well.

    ANSWER: Artesian wells (or flows)

    <Westbrook>

2. James H. Blount was sent to investigate her removal by forces under Lorrin Thurston

    and minister John L. Stevens. Those men had ordered troops from the U.S.S. Boston

    ashore and set up a provisional government that replaced her with a republic led by

    president Sanford Dole. She came to power after the death of her brother King Kalakaua,

    but ruled for less than two years before American intervention. For 10 points, identify

    this last monarch of the Hawaiian islands.

    ANSWER: Queen Lil’uokalani <Berdichevsky>

3. According to ESPN.com, it may have enabled linebacker Mike Vrabel to make his

    second career Super Bowl touchdown catch, and it can replace artistic felines. If one is

    used to locate another one, it can cause a rip in the fabric of the space-time continuum.

    They may have enabled the construction of the Great Wall of China and they can

    generate bizarre micro-climates, including indoor precipitation of toner. For 10 points,

    name these devices, nonfunctional models of which are sold by office supplier Staples?

    ANSWER: “easy” buttons <Ismail>

4. He wrote an article accusing Schopenhauer of “thoroughly degenerating heads by

    selling hollow talk. With Poisson, his name graces an equation that models the effects of solvation on the electrostatic properties of molecules. The canonical partition function

    is given by the sum of this man’s namesake factors. His namesake constant is equal to the

    universal gas constant divided by Avogadro’s number, and links temperature with energy.

    For 10 points, name this physicist, the "father of statistical mechanics," who shares credit

    for the T to the fourth blackbody law with Stefan. ANSWER: Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann

    <Teitler>

     2006 PACE National Scholastics ChampionshipROUND 9

5. Elhanan may have killed this man’s brother Lahmi, though a reading of the source

    Hebrew says Elhanan killed this figure himself and indicates that Jerusalem was in the

    possession of the Jebusites at the time that this figure’s head was supposedly displayed.

    Rashi used the length of his coffin to estimate the dimensions of this man, who met his

    demise in the valley of Elach under the forces of Saul. For 10 points, name this Philistine

    warrior, beheaded after being felled by a stone from David.

    ANSWER: Goliath [or Gath]

    <Passner>

6. His The Child Buyer is rumination on the value of public education, while an obsessed

    craftsman becomes involved with a woman trying to escape her past in The Walnut Door. His time as a war correspondent inspired his Into the Valley and Men on Bataan, while another of his works appeared as a report in The New Yorker on August 31, 1946, about one year after the events depicted in it occurred. For 10 points, identify this author of The Wall, A Bell for Adano, and Hiroshima.

    ANSWER: John Hersey

    <Berdichevsky>

7. Originally consisting of five members and chaired by Thomas Cooley, this body was

    formed after the decision in the Wabash v. Illinois case. It primary power was reduced

    greatly in 1980 with the passage of the Staggers Act, and it was disbanded in 1996. It was

    earlier strengthened with the Mann-Elkins Act and the Hepburn Act, the latter of which

    gave it discretion over freight rates and accounting practices by transportation companies.

    For 10 points, name this agency created in 1887 to oversee the railroad industry.

    ANSWER: Interstate Commerce Commission

    <Frankel>

    8. His second piano sonata alludes to his earlier The Slaves’ Shuffle and Demons’ Dance Around the Pipe and is accompanied by a volume of essays. That sonata was his first

    publicly performed work after a fifteen-year sabbatical and has such movements as

    “Emerson,” “Hawthorne,” “The Alcotts,” and “Thoreau.” For 10 points, name this

    composer of the Camp Meeting symphony, Three Places in New England, and The Unanswered Question, who created the aforementioned work, the Concord Sonata. ANSWER: Charles Edward Ives

    <Ismail>

     2006 PACE National Scholastics ChampionshipROUND 9

Bonuses

Arts: Discovered at the Villa Ludovisi, its subject is prone and leaning on his right arm,

    wearing only an open-ended necklace and an anguished facial expression. For 15 points,

    name this Hellenistic statue sometimes called the “Wounded Gladiator.” ANSWER: The Dying Gaul

    <Ismail>

Current Events: Twins by this surname founded the right-wing Law and Justice Party,

    with one of them becoming the president of Poland in 2005. For 15 points, give this name

    also borne by a former Berkeley math professor, Ted, who was convicted of being the

    Unabomber.

    ANSWER: Kaczynski

    <Southard>

Geography: The Siachen Glacier is controlled by India, the Aksai Chin and Trans-

    Karakorum Tract are part of China, and Gilgit and Baltistan are provinces of Pakistan.

    For 15 points, all are found in what region, which four countries border or claim part of?

    ANSWER: Kashmir [do not accept “Jammu and Kashmir”] <Greenstein>

History: Friedrich List first popularized the idea of states combining to abolish trade

    barriers and tariffs. For 15 points, what organization of states, whose name comes from

    the German for “customs union,” did List’s suggestion help found in 1834?

    ANSWER: Zollverein

    <Berdichevsky>

Literature: He spoke out about self-induced cultural inferiority in Children of the Mire

    and wrote the cubist play Salamandra. For 15 points, name this author of Sun Stone and

    the rumination on Mexican culture, The Labyrinth of Solitude. ANSWER: Octavio Paz

    <Berdichevsky>

Popular Culture: His first Winston Cup start was the same as Richard Petty’s last. He

    won the inaugural Brickyard 400 and took the series championship in 1995, 1997, 1998,

    and 2001. For 15 points, name this three-time Daytona 500 winner and driver of the #24

    DuPont car.

    ANSWER: Jeff Gordon

    <Bykowski>

Religion/Mythology/Philosophy: One of its proponents was the author of The Visible

    and the Invisible, Maurice Merleau-Ponty. For 15 points, name this philosophical school

    that tries to describe experience per se and was founded by Edmund Husserl.

    ANSWER: phenomenology

    <Yaphe>

     2006 PACE National Scholastics ChampionshipROUND 9

    432Mathematics Calculation: For 15 points, simplify the rational expression (x + 2x - 11x 2- 12x) / (x + x - 12). 2ANSWER: x(x+1) [or x+x; “x times the quantity x+1” or “x squared plus x”]

    <Feist>

Science: Equal to the product of the eigenvalues, it appears in the solution to a system of

    linear equations given by Cramer’s rule, and it can be calculated using Laplace’s method

    of expansion by minors along a row or column. Invertible matrices must have a non-zero

    value of, for 15 points, what function defined for square matrices?

    ANSWER: determinant

    <Teitler>

Social Sciences: It was barred from being used for racially discriminatory ends in Batson

    v. Kentucky, Powers v. Ohio and Georgia v. McCallum. For 15 points, identify this type of challenge issued during voir dire, which allows a lawyer to strike a juror without

    stating a reason.

    ANSWER: peremptory challenge

    <Nance>

     2006 PACE National Scholastics ChampionshipROUND 9

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