2006 PACE National Scholastics Championship—ROUND 9
1. The Hill reaction describes the release of molecular oxygen from them, and the turnip
yellow mosaic virus causes them to clump. The “Tic” and “Toc” complexes are found on
their outer and inner envelopes. They are comically oversized in the Cylindrocapsaceae
family of algae. The highly ordered array of units known as the quantasome is found in
their lamellae, and is a site for reactions involving carotenoid and other pigments of
Photosystems I and II. For 10 points, name these organelles that contain grana and
thylakoids, the site of atmospheric carbon dioxide fixation and photosynthesis in plants.
ANSWER: chloroplasts <Wolpert>
Bonus: Its action spectrum in algae was determined by T. W. Englemann. It oxidizes
water and reduces carbon dioxide to form carbohydrates, releasing oxygen. For 10 points
 This is the aqueous medium enclosed by thylakoid lamellae that contains the
enzymes needed for carbon assimilation.
ANSWER: stroma  Severo Ochoa showed that this molecule is the biological version of the Hill Reagent.
It acquires two hydrogen atoms and is used in the Calvin cycle to convert carbon dioxide
ANSWER: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [accept NADP]
2. Among the significant battles which took place here was one ending Marcus
Aurelius’s war with the Marcomanni, where that emperor died. A more modern action
here was won by the decisive action of the Polish king J