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Training

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TrainingTraini

    Training

JournalofModernAccountingandAuditing,ISSN15486583

    ;January2012,Vo1.8,No.1,32-39LIHIN

    ;TrainingandDevelopmentoftheInternationalUSExecutive

    ;YezdiH.Godiwalla

    ;UniversityofWisconsin-Whitewater,USA

    ;TheinternationalUSexecutiveinforeignassignments

    ;assignments.Hehastopursuebettercopingskillsfor

    ;facesmoreobstaclesthanhis

    ;cultural,communicationand

    ;counterpartfordomestic

    ;language,self-capability,

    ;stressmanagement,andadjustmentissuesintheforeignsettings.Prematurereturncanbeobviatedthrough

    ;improvedpre.departuretrainingandpost-arrivalmentoring.USexpatriateswhoareselectedforforeign ;assignmentsinculturallydistantandoperationallydifferentcountrieshaveanespeciallyimportantneedfortheir

    ;developmentandtraining.Thechallengetoadaptandbecomefunctionalandfluentinthelocalsurroundingsin

    ;averyshorttimeisverydifficultfortheexpatri~e.Theexpatriate’sstrangeanddifficult-to-fathomforeig

    n

    ;environmentcauseshimtobeanxiousasheworkshardtoadjustandbeeffective.Theobstaclesofdealingwith

    ;thedifferentbusinesscustoms,socialetiquette,andlanguagedifferencesmakeitdifficultforcommunication,

    ;operatingenvironments,andbuildingprofessionalrelationshipsinanappropriatemanner.Hehastodealwith

    ;thestrangenessandunfamiliarityduringtheinitialperiodafterhisarrivalintheforeigncountry.Thisisfurther

    ;compoundedbythepressingneedforhimtoshowgoodperformanceandproduceresultsinhisforeign ;assignment.Hestrugglestoadjustandtoperformthetechnicalaspectsofhistask.

    ;Keywords:traininganddevelopment,internationalmanagement,expatriatetraining,trainingforeignsubsidiary

    ;managers

    ;Introduction

    ;ForeignassignmentsforUSmultinationalcorporations(MNCs)areexpensive,oftenranginginafew ;hundredthousandofdollars.Prematureexpatriatereturnshavehighmonetaryandemotionalcosts? ;Expatriatesuccessisimportant.ItisapathtofuelUSMNC’sforeignandoverallorganizationalgrowth.

    ;Internationalhumanresourcemanagementstrategyusesallthreetypesofpersonnel:homecountry, ;hostcOuntrv.andthirdcountry.Wherehostcountryexecutivesandtechnicalspecialistsarecalledfor,the

n

    ;thispaperportraysthetrainingdimensionsfortheUSexpatriate.

    ;Thetrainingdimensionsinclude:(1)theexpatriate’sowncapabilities:self-confidence,self-discipline,

    ;self-motivationandtenacitytoperformeveninadversecircumstancesandthemanagementothisstress ;duet0unfamiliartaskenvironments;(2)improvingcommunicationskills,includinglocallanguageskills,

    ;t0bulideffectiverelationshipswithhostpeopleinworkingandnonworkingsettings;and(3)buildingo

    n

    ;anincreasingrepertoireofperceptual,analysisandreasoningskillsinthelocalmilieutocompensatefor ;hisnotknowingthewaysofthelocalpeople.Histrainingmustbeintensebeforehisdeparture,and,upon ;arrivalhewouldfurtherbenefitfromalocalmentorforavoidingcostlymistakes?

    ;YezdiH.Godiwalla,Ph.D.,professor,ManagementDepartment,UniversityofWisconsinWhitewater ;TRAININGANDDEVELOPMENTOFTHEINTERNATIoNALUSEXECUTIVE33

    ;ThePurposeofthePaper

    ;ThepaperprovidesliteraturereviewandanessenceofthetrainingneedsofaUSexpatriateboundfor ;foreignassignments.Thepaperprovidesthevariousdimensionsofexpatriatetrainingandhowaneffective

    ;trainingmaybeaccomplished.

    ;ABriefReviewofLiterature

    ;ThisbriefreviewindicatesthatUSexpatriatesandUSMNCsshouldfocusontheexpatriatetrainingneeds

    ;for:effectivelydealingwithhisstress,unfamiliartaskenvironment,workrelationship,communication, ;problemsolving,andreasoningcapabilities.Thefocusshouldbeontrainingsuchthathewouldbeaneffective

    ;expatriaterightfromthestart,uponarrivalinhisforeignassignment.

    ;TrainingNeeds

    ;Thepaperfocusesuponthetenetthateffectiveexpatriatetrainingwouldenablehimtoperformwell,right ;fromthestartinhisforeignassignment.Theoveralltrainingneedsarehereaddressed.LuthansandFamer ;(2002)expressedtheargumentwhentheysaid:

    ;Asglobalcompetitivebattlesheatup,theimportanceofdevelopingexpatriatemanagersforinternationalsuccess

    ;shouldnotbeoverlooked.Insearchofacompetitiveadvantage,MNCsareincreasinglydevotingmoreattentionand

    ;resourcestoculturaltrainingasawaytoimprovejobperformanceoftheirinternationalassignees. ;Flexibilityandadaptabilityareveryimportanttraitsforeffectivelybuildingsocialandworkrelationships

    ;sothattheexpatriatewouldbeeffective.Theexpatriatewouldneedtobuildself-confidenceandself-reliability

    ;toconducthimselfinthelocalculturalandworksettings.TheLeeandCroker’s(2006)studyconcludedwith

    ;thesefindings:

    ;(1)thegreatertheexpatriateconfidenceandhisadaptability,thentheloweristheperceivedneedforexpatriate

    ;training;(2)thegreaterthecomplexityoftask,thelesserthecapabilityofhostmanagersandthegreaterthe

cultural

    ;difference,thenthegreateristheperceivedneedfortheexpatriate’straining;and(3)theexpatriate’slearningpreference

    ;andtheexpatriate’sinstructor’strainingmethodswoulddeterminetheneedfortrainingandeffectivenessoftraining.

    ;Forthemulticulturallydistantforeignassignment,theUSexpatriatemayneedtopayevengreater ;attentiontogreateradaptabilityandflexibilityindealingwithlocaltasksandnonworkenvironments.

    Different

    ;studieshavesuggesteddifferentprioritiesforexpatriatetraining.Chang(2005)compiledtheworksofTung

    ;(1982),Oddou(1991),BrewsterandPickard(1994),andPetranek(2004).Chang(2005)cited: ;Someofthemorecommonfeaturesarecrossculturaltraining,communications(includinglanguage)t

    raining,

    ;clarificationofperformancecriteriaandexpectation,cooperationandcollaborationskills,managingstressandemotions,

    ;locallogisticsandeverydaylifeissues,knowledgeoftheforeignsubsidiaryanditslocalenvironments. ;TheUSexpatriate,indealingwithhisstrangeenvironmentwouldneedtofocusonbuildingcultural ;sensitivityandpersonalbehavioralflexibilityforbuildingeffectiverelationships.Shin,Morgeson,and ;Campion(2007)citedstudiestoindicate:”Communicationcompetence,culturalempathy,interperson

    alskills,

    ;andsocialinteractionwouldimprovecrossculturaladjustmenttoworkingandnonworkingenviro

    nment.’’

    ;ContinuousTraining,BeforeandAfterArrival

    ;TheUSexpatriateshouldfocusoncontinuoustrainingonceheknowsabouthisforeignassignment. ;Trainingconsistsofpredepartureandmentoringuponarrivalinthehostcountry.Shineta1.(2007) ;34TRAININGANDDEVELOPMENT0FTHEINTERNATIoNALUSEXECUTIVE

    ;emphasizedtwostagesoftraining--pre-?departureandpost?-arrival:

    ;First,inthepre-departurestage,organizationsselectandtrainindividualsforexpatriateassignments.Second,inthe

    ;post-arrivalstage,whenexpatriateworkersbegintointeractwithhostcountrynationals(HCNs)andadjusttheirbehaviors

    ;tothehostcountry’sculturalnormsandvaluesforbetterperformance,behavioralcross-trainingcanbei

    mplementedto

    ;ensurethatexpatriatesbehaveinculturallyappropriateways.(Further),behavioraltrainingismoreeffectiveinthe

    ;post-arrivalstagebecauseexpatriatestendtobemoremotivatedtolearnoncetheyareintheirassignments. ;USExpatriate’sOwnEvaluation

    ;TheUSexpatriateshouldtakestockofhimselfinthecontextofhisforeignassignment.Heshould ;determinehisprecisetrainingneeds,basedupontheassessmentofhisstrengthsandweaknessesinthecontext

    ;oftheforeignassignment.VarnerandPalmer(2005)emphasized”theroleoftheindividual,theimportanceof

    ;hierarchy,theimportanceofcontextincommunication,andattitudestowardstimeandchange.’’

    ;VarnerandPalmer(2005)suggestedanintegratedfourstageexpatriationprocess:

;(1)potentialexpatriatesarescreenedforpersonalitycharacteristics…contributingtoexpatriatesuccess

    ;(2)

    ;expatriatesfocusondevelopingaconsciousself-awarenessincludingtheirpreferences,likesanddislikes;(3)potential

    ;expatriatesstudytheothercultureandtheirreactiontoit;and(4)expatriatesexploreadaptationpossibilitiesandstrategies.

    ;Mentalmapsdictatehowwereacttoeventsandpeoplearoundus.Inordertounderstandothers,peopleneedto

    ;exploretheirownculturalstereotypicalthinking.Onlyaftertheyhavegainedself-awarenesscantheydevelopasolidbasis

    ;ofcooperation.

    ;Regardingthe”multisource360-degreefeedbacksystem”,LuthansandFarner(2002)statedthatitis

    ;“bothawaytoevaluateexpatriateculturaltrainingatbehavioralandperformancelevels,aswellasawayto

    ;developexpatriatestomakethemmoreeffectiveonceinthelocalculture.’’Their”expatriatemanagement

    ;effectivenessquestionnaire(EAEQ)”elicitsperceivedopinionsofanexpatriate’s”manager,subordinates,and

    ;peers(hereafterreferredtoas”others”,wouldbemeasuredbyitemssuchas”thispersonisabletoanswermy

    ;questions’’and”thispersonistechnicallycompetent.’’FourdimensionsusedintheEAEQare:

    ;(1)Technicalcompetence:”Thispersonisabletoanswermyquestions”;

    ;(2)Managementskills:”SolvespecificproblemsandcontributetoMNC’sbroadergoals”,andtheirability

    ;toplan,coordinatework,scheduleresources,trynewideas,control,andfollowup;

    ;(3)Interpersonalskills:”capabilitytogetalongwithandworkthroughothersinacaringway”,”caring

    ;emphaticconcernforeveryone”“listeningtomyideasandconcerns”,”recognizesandgivescredittoothers

    ;whodeserveit”:

    ;(41Leadershipeffectiveness:”expatriatesdesireandneedconfidencetoleadandworkthroughpeopleto

    ;accomplishassignedduties…”.”Thepersonisloyalandcommittedtothisorganization”.

    ;Theyfurtheraddedafifthandasixtyscale:confidence/efficacy,andculturalfit.Confidence/efficacyor ;“howwellonecanexecutecoursesofactionrequiredtodealwithprospectivesituations”inahighlytaskand

    ;contextspecificmanner.

    ;Self-COilfidenee

    ;Acertainamountofself-confidencetoeffectivelyperformtheexpatriateassignmentinunfamiliarculture

    ;andworksettingareimportantexpectationsforhiseffectiveness.Thestrongerhis”sel~efficacy”,thebetter

    ;wouldbehisinitialadjustmentandcontinuousperformance.

    ;Studiesonself-efficacyandself-monitoringindicatethatthetwodimensionshelpineffectiveexpatriate ;TRAININGANDDEVELOPMENTOFTHEINTERNATIONALUSEXECUTIVE35

    ;adjustmentfBadura,1982;Badura&Locke,2003;Gist&Mitchell,1992).Self-efficacyis”ap

erson’sbelief

    ;abouthisabilitytoperformaparticulartaskeffectively’’(Maurer,Weiss,&Barbeite,2003).Self-ef

    ficacyhas

    ;Dowerfuleffectsuponlearninganewtask,and,consequently,theperformanceofthetaskitself(Gist&

    ;Mitchell,1992).Further,self-efficacydirectlyinfluenceslearningprocessby:(1)thechoiceoftaskand ;learninggoalsandactivities;(2)thenatureandamountofeffortf0rthetask;and(3)thelevelandnatureof ;persistencetomasterthetaskdespiteitsstrangenessordifficulty(Badura,1982). ;Shineta1.(2007)positedtheextrademandsuponanexpatriateforamoreadjustmentorientedand

    ;achievementorientedpersonality,ascomparedwithanexecutivefordomesticassignments. ;AstudybyMendenhallandOddon(1985)articulatedthethreecriticaldimensionsforeffectiveexpatriate

    ;adjustmentinforeignenvironment:”therelationshipdimension,theperceptualdimension,andthe

    ;self-dimension.”Inthesamevein.Shineta1.(2007)stated:

    ;Therelationshipdimensionreferstoskillsrelatedtofosteringofrelationshipswithhostnationals.Forsuccessful

    ;expatriateadjustment,itisessentialtodevelopgoodrelationshipswithHCNs.Bymaintainingproperrelationshipswith

    ;HCNsexpatriateworkersareabletointeractwiththemappropriately,toovercomeproblemsandtoperformassignments

    ;effectively.

    ;Further,Cui,Berg,andJiang(1998)found”significantrelationshipsbetweencommunicationcompete

    nce,

    ;culturalempathy,socialinteraction,andcross—culturaladaptation”.Theysuggestedthat”relationship

    ;dimensionssuchasculturalempathyandinterpersonalskillsbecomeimportantwhendealingwithcultural

    ;differences.Astudyfoundthatbetterinterpersonalskillswerepositivelyrelatedtoexpatriates’adjustmentto

    ;workingandnon-workingenvironmentinhostcountries.’’

    ;TheImportanceofCommunication

    ;TheUSexpatriateneedstobeabletocommunicateinthecontextofthehostcountry’scultureinorderto

    ;betterbuildworkingrelationships.TheeffectivenessoftheUSexpatriatemayneedtopaygreaterattentionto

    ;nonEnglishspeakinghostcountriessothathemaybeabletoperformeffectiveness.

    ;Whenthehostcountry’smaincommercialandworkinglanguageisotherthanEnglish,Shineta1.(2007)

    ;suggestedthattheexpatriatewouldneedadditionalskilllevels.Theystated:”Theworkdemandsforsocialand

    ;perceptualskills,reasoningabilityandadjustmentandachievement-orientationpersonalitywillbehigherin

    ;non?EnglishspeakingcountriesthaninEnglishspeakingcountries.”Theirjustificationwasexpressed:

    ;

    ;

    ;becauselanguageisanessentialcommunicationmedium,expatriatesmayneedmoresocialskillsin ;non-EnglishspeakingcountriesthaninEnglishspeaking,sotheycandevelopfavorablerelationshipswi

th

    ;HNsviasocia1jnteractions.”

    ;ManagingStress

    ;Unfamiliarity,unexpectedsituations,differentparadigmsofhostcountrycultures,differentcauseeff

    ect

    ;reasoningprocess,anddifferentattitudestoorganizationalissueswouldplaceextrastressontheUSexpatriate.

    ;Heneedsstressmanagementskills.

    ;MendenhallandOddou(1985)studiedtheself-dimension(i.e.,self-confidenceandtoleranceofstress), ;andclaimedthattheyare”closelyrelatedtoindividual’sabilitiesandpersonalitycharacteristics.Thisincludes

    ;confidenceinone’sabilitytodealeffectivelywithforeignersandnewsurroundings.’’

    ;Similarly,Black,Gregersen,Mendenhall,andStroh(1999)statedthatunfamiliarsurroundingsraisethe ;36TRAININGANDDEVELOPMENTOFTHEINTERNATIONALUSEXECUTIVE

    ;levelofstressandsignificantlyimpairstheexpatriate’seffectiveness.

    ;StressrelatedstudiesofPayne(|994),PriesterandClum(1993),andFraserandTuckerf1997)showed ;thatcognitivebreakdowns,suchaslapsesofmemory,reasoningandperceptionsindifficultsituations. ;cause

    ;stresslevelstogoup.Further,increasesinstresslevelscauseineffectivenessinproblemanalysesand ;problemsolving.

    ;Theindividualceasestocorrectlyfathomcauseeffectrelationships.

    ;Shineta1.(2007)concluded:

    ;Inturn,suchperceiveduncertaintymayleadto

    ;explanationofcause-effectrelationships.Thus,these

    ;intoleranceofanomaliesandincongruitiesandastrongneedfor

    ;kindsofreasoningabilitywouldbeparticularlyimportantsetof

    ;cognitiveabilitiesforexpatriatework.Thissuggeststhatexpatriateworkwillhavehigherreasoningabilityrequirements

    ;thandomesticworkbecauseofstress,uncertainty,andanxietyassociatedwithunfamiliarsituations. ;Shineta1.(2007)citedliteratureonstressandemphasized:

    ;???

    ;cognihveabilitiesareparticularlyimportantinstress-copingprocess.Forexample.studieshavefoundapositive

    ;relationshipbetweencognitivefailures(failuresofmemory,reasoningandperceptionineverydaylife1andstress

    ;susceptibility.Inaddition,ithasbeenshownthatproblem-solvingabilityisnegativelyrelatedtostressleve1.Inasimilar

    ;vein,uncertaintycanbecausedbyanindividual’sinabilitytoadequatelystructureorcategorizeinformation.Inturn.such

    ;perceiveduncertaintymaylcadtointoleranceofanomaliesandincongruitiesandastrongneedforexplanationof

    ;cause’and’effectrelationships.ThissuggeststhatexpatriateworkwillhavehiIgherreasoningabilityrequirementsthan

    ;domesticworkbecauseofstress,uncertainty,andanxietyassociatedwithunfamiliarsituations.

    ;Toconclude,literaturereviewsuggestsastrongneedforproperassessmentoftrainingfortheforeign ;assignment.Theseincludeself-evaluation,adjustmentandstressmanagement,communicationskills,building

    ;relationships,understandingreasoningprocessofhostculture,andself-motivationandtenacity. ;DiscussionoiltheFigures

    ;ThetwofiguresprovideaperspectiveonUSexpatriatetrainingandmentoring.AUSexpatriatewhomay ;beaneffectiveexecutiveinhisUSenvironmentmayneedtoimprovehisabilitVtotransferhisskillsacross ;culturesandapplythemtohisforeignassignment.Itisimportantthatherealizestheneedfortraining ;tailormadetothespecificforeignassignment.Inadditiontogeneralrainingonbeanexpatriateforanyforeign

    ;assignment,heneedstoalsofocusonthespecificcountrycultureandoperatingsituation. ;Expatriatetrainingwouldleadtoimprovingthelearningcurveuponarrivalintheforeignassignment, ;resultinginfewercostlymistakes;successfuladapt?

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