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EFFECTEFFECT

    EFFECT

?84?

    ;CHINESEJ0URNAL0FMECHANICALENGINEERING

    ;v01.2l,No.3,2008

    ;XlAFafeng

    ;JIAZhenyuan

    ;SchoolofMechanicalEngineenng,

    ;DalianUniversityofTechnology,

    ;Dalian116023.China

    ;WUMenghua

    ;UZhi

    ;SchoolofMechanicalEngineenng,

    ;DalianUniversity,

    ;Dalian116622.China

    ;0INTRoDUCTIoN

    ;EFFECTOFSURFACTANTSONNi.TiN

    ;NANOCOMPOSlTECOATlNGS

    ;PREPAREDBYULTRASONlC

    ;ELECTRODEPOSlTlON

    ;Abstract:NiTiNnanocompositecoatingswerepreparedbyultrasonicelectrodepositio

    n,andthe

    ;effectsofthesurfactantsonthecoatingswereinvestigatedandthemicrostructureandmicro

    rigidity

    ;ofthecoatingswerecharacterized.Sampleswerealsosubmittedtocorrosiontestsin3%Na

    Cl

    ;solution.TheresultsshowedthatthesurfactantshadgreateffectsOllNiTiNnanocompos

    itecoatings.

    ;Thecompositecoatingspreparedbyultrasonicelectrodepositionwitllthesurfactantswere

    betterthan

    ;thatofthecoatingspreparedwithoutsurfactants.ThefavorablepropertiesOfNiTiNnan

    ocomposite

    ;coatingswereprepared,vitllthemixingofthenonionandpositiveionsuffactants.nleconcentration

    ;ofthemixingwas80mg/L.andtheratioofthenonionandpositiveionsurfactantswas1:2. ;Keywords:EfiectSurfactantNiTiNNanocompositecoalin2

    ;Compositeelectrodepositiontechnologyisamethodto ;obtaincompositecoatingsbyaddinginsolublemicrometeror

    ;nanometer.sizedsolidparticles(usuallyceramicparticles)tothe ;electrolytetoco.deposittheparticlesandmetalmatrixwith ;electrodepositiont’J.Inrecentyears.therehasbeenarapid

    ;increaseininterestinmetal-ceramicnanocompositecoatings ;owingtofavorablepropertiessuchasspecificheat,optical ;non.1inearityandmagnetismandmechanicalperformancesuchas ;highhardness.wearresistanceandcorrosionresistanceL.

    ;OwingtothesuperiorityOfbomaditionalcompositematerials

    ;andmodemnanomaterials,nanocompositecoatingshavebeenthe ;focusofmuchresearch[v-loJ.

    ;Factorsinfluencingthepreparationofnanocompositecoating ;includesurfactants.electricpulseparameters,andelectrolytepH. ;Thegrainsizeofthecodepositedmetalmatrixandthe

    ;distributionandcontentofnanoparticlesarethemainfactors ;determiningthepropertiesofthecompositecoating.Thevarious ;surfactantshavegreateffectsonTiNnanoparticlesincomposite ;coatings.Inthepresentstudy,NiTiNnanocompositecoatings

    ;weresynthesizedbyultrasonicelectrodeposition.Theeffectsof ;thesurfactantsonthecoatingswereinvestigatedandthe ;microstructureandmicrorigidityofthecoatingswere ;characterized.Sampleswerealsosubmittedtocorrosiontestsin ;3%NaClsolution.

    ;1EXPERIMENTALDETAILS

    ;1.1Materials

    ;NanoNiTiNcompositecoatingsweredepositedon45steel ;substratesbyultrasonicelectrodeposition.NickelplatesOf50 ;rnrnx40mmx3nlmwereusedastheanodeand45steelplatesof ;30mmx20ITIITIX1ITIITIasthecathode.Thespacebetweenthe ;anodeandcathodewas5070mrn.TiNnanoparticleswithan

    ;averagesizeof50nmandpuritygreaterthan99.9%were ;employed.

    ;1.2Parameters

    ;Thecompositionofelectrolyteanddepositionparametersof ;theNiTiNnanocompositecoatingsisshowninTable1andTable ;2,respectively.

    ;ThisprojectissuppoaedbyNationalNaturalScienceFoundationofChina ;(No.50475108)andNaturalScienceFoundationofLiaoningProvince, ;China(No.20042123).ReceivedJuly22,2007;receivedinrevisedform ;April14,2008;acceptedApril17,2008

    ;Table1Electrolytecomposition

    ;CompositionValue

    ;NiSO4’6H20Cs/(g?L)

    ;NiC12’H20Cc/(g.L)

    ;H3BO3CH/(g’L)

    ;NanoTiNG/(g.L)

    ;SurfactantC/(g.L)

    ;Wettingagent

;pH

    ;200400

    ;3560

    ;2540

    ;ll0

    ;50l20

    ;Minim

    ;45

    ;Table2DepositionparametersofNi-TiNnanoeomposite ;coatingsbyultrasoniceleetrodeposition

    ;DepositionparameterDepositionvalue

    ;PowerofultrasonicwavesP/W

    ;DensityofcurrentI/(A?dm-2)

    ;Temperature?

    ;Electrodeposifionmethod

    ;Acfiontimet/min

    ;0300

    ;1.8

    ;250

    ;Pulse

    ;3045

    ;1.3Procedures

    ;Priortodeposition.thesteelsubstratesweremechanically ;polishedtoa0.10-0.15Bmsurfacefinishandthencleanedto ;removecontaminationonthesubstratesurface.Thesubstrates ;wereactivatedfor15sinamixedacidicbathafterrinsingwith ;distilledwater.TheNiTiNcompositecoatingswere

    ;electrodepositedbygraduallyincreasingtheultrasonicpower ;from0to30oW|

    ;1.4Charaeterization

    ;ThecharacterizationofthenanoNiTiNcompositecoatings

    ;WaSasfol10WS.

    ;(11ThemicrostructureofnanoNi.TiNcompositecoatings ;wasinvestigatedbyusingscanningelectronmicroscopy(SEM, ;JSM.6460I?1.

    ;(2)Themicrorigidityofcompositecoatingswastestedwith ;amicrohardnessinstrument(HXD10001byusingaloadof50g ;forl5s.Fivedatawerecollectedondifferentlocationofcoatings. ;andthemeanwasthemicrorigidityofcompositecoatings. ;(31Corrosiontestswerecarriedouton45steelsubstrate, ;NiTiNnanocompositecoatingsbyimmersingsamplesin3% ;NaC1solutionfor30hat30.C.TheweightlOSSwasmeasuredon ;anelectronicanalyticalbalance(Sartorius.BS2l0s). ;

;CHINESEJOURNALOFMECHANICALENGINEERING?85?

    ;2RESUIrSANDDISCUSSION

    ;2.1Effectsofsurfactantsonthemicrostructureofcomposite ;coatings

    ;Thesurfactantsareputintotheelectrolyte,andAandB ;arePVA(non-ion)andCTAB(positiveion),respectively.Fig.1 ;showsthemorphologyofNiTiNnanocompositecoatingsunder

    ;variousconcentrationofthesurfactantBThecontentofnRnoTiN

    ;particlesincoatingsincreaseswiththeincreasingofconcentration ;ofthesurfactant(Fig.1aandFig.1b1.Thisisbecausethatthe ;moreconcentrationofthesurfactant,thestrongereffectofwetting, ;emulsificationanddispersing,andsoon.Thusthecontentofnano ;TiNparticlesincoatingsincreases.Andwhentheconcentrationof ;thesurfactantsreaches80mg/L,thecontentofnanoTiNparticles ;incoatingobtainsmax.Whilethesurfactantsareexcessiveinthe ;electrolyte,superfluoussurfactantsadsorbonthecathodesurfaces, ;whichbametheco.depositionofmetalmatrixandTiNparticles. ;Therefore,thecontentofnanoTiNparticlesincompositecoatings ;decreases(Fig.1c).

    ;fa)40mg/L

    ;fb)8Omg/L

    ;(c)120mg/L

    ;Fig.1EffectofsurfactantsonthemorphologyofnanoNiTiN

    ;compositecoatingsunderdifferentconditions×20000 ;2.2Efrectofsurfactantsonthemicrorigidityofcomposite ;coatings

    ;Therelationshipbetweentheconcentrationofsurfactantsand ;themicrorigidityisobtainedbychangingtheconcentrationof ;PVA(non.ionic)intheelectrolyteseparately,whichisshownin ;Fig.2.Whentheconcentrationofthesurfactantis0mg/L,the ;microridityis615HVItcanbeseenthatthemicrorigidityof ;nanoNi.TiNcompositecoatingsincreasesfirstlyandthen ;decreaseswiththeincreaseoftheconcentrationofsurfactant.The ;reasonisthatnanoTiNparticlescanstrengthencomposite ;coatings,andthesurfactantcanwetandemulsifynanoTiN ;particles.Moderateconcentrationofsurfactantscanincreasethe ;contentofnanoTiNparticlesincoatings.However,superfluous ;surfactantswilleffecttheco.depositionofmetalmatrixandTiN ;particles.

    ;>

    ;

    ;

    ;

    ;2

;/

    ;.

    ;/-

    ;/

    ;ConcentrationofthesuffactantC/(mg?L-)

    ;Fig.2Effectofsurfactantsonthemicrorigidity ;ofnanoNiTiNcompositecoatings

    ;Fig.2alsoshowsthatthemicrorigidityofcomposite ;coatingspreparedbythesurfactantsissuperiortothecoatings ;preparedbynosurfactants.

    ;2.3Effectofsurfactantsonthecorrosionresistanceof ;compositecoatings

    ;ThecorrosionlOSSofcompositecoatingsdecreasesfirstly ;andthenincreaseswiththeincreasingofconcentrationofthe ;surfactants(Fig.31.ThereasonisthatnanoTiNparticlesare ;about50nm,andaddtheconsistencyofcoatings.Therefore,the ;corrosionliquidwillhardlyinvadethecompositecoatings.And ;thecorrosionresistanceofcompositecoatingsisenhanced ;consequently

    ;.02

    ;

    ;

    ;2

    ;

    ;C

    ;1

    ;0

    ;u1

    ;ConcentrationofthesurfactantC/(mg?L,

    ;Fig.3Effectofsurfactantsonthecorrosionresistance ;ofnanoNiTiNcompositecoatings

    ;Fig.3alsoshowsthatthecorrosionresistanceofcomposite ;coatingspreparedbyA(PVA)ispreferable,whenthe ;concentrationofsurfactantsis80mg/L.Becausethenonionic

    ;sRrfactantshaveobviouslylubricationactionandosmosisandcan ;effectivelycleanthesurfaceofparticles.Thiswillenhancethe ;affinityofparticlesandthemetalmatrix.Thusthecorrosion ;resistanceofcoatingsisimproved.

    ;2.4Effectsofthemixofsurfactantsoncompositecoatings ;Accordingtotheaboveexperiments,theoptimalconcentra

    ;tionofthesurfactantsis80mg/L.Theeffectofthemixof ;surfactantsonnanoNi-TiNcompositecoatingsisstudiedby ;mixingPVAandCTAB.AndtheresultisshowninTable3. ;

    ;.86XIAFafeng,etal:EffectofsurfactantsonNiTiNnanocompositecoatingspreparedbyultrasonicelectrodeposition

    ;Table3Effectofthemixofsurfactantsoncompositecoatings ;WhentheratioofAandBisl:1.thecorrosionlossof

    ;coatingsistheleastf1.1mg).ThisisbecauseAandBaremixed, ;tl1eywillacteachotherorformcomplexes.andbringthe ;counteractionandsynergizedaction.thenthecorrosionlossisthe ;least.WhentheratioofAandBisl:2.themicrorigidityof ;coatingsisthemostr9l3.4HV)andthecorrosionlossis1.3mg. ;Ontheonehand.ionicoutcomesofpositiveionsurfactants ;adsorbtheTjNparticlessurfaces.andcauseparticlestohave ;positivecharges.Theparticleswithpositivechargeswillrepulse ;eachotheranddispersehomogenouslyinelectrolyte.Ontheother ;hand.becausethehydrationofnon.ionSill”factants,thehydrated

    ;membranesareformedontheTiNparticlessurfaces,andthe ;stabilitvofsuspendedliquorisberet.Therefore,thecontentof ;nanoTiNparticlesislarge.andthemicrorigidityofcoatingsis ;high.

    ;Takingtheabovedataintoconsideration.thebeRermicro ;rigidityandcorrosionresistanceofnanoNi-TiNcomposite ;coatingscanbepreparedbyadoptingtheratioofAandBisl:2. ;3CoNCLUSIoNS

    ;(1)Thesurfactantstakeonanimportanteffectduring ;preparingnanoNiTiNcompositecoatingsbyultrasonicelectro

    ;depositedtechnology.Themicrorigidityofcompositecoatings ;preparedbythesurfactantsissuperiortothecoatingspreparedby ;nosurfactants.

    ;(2)Thebe~ermicrorigidityandcorrosionresistanceofnano ;Ni-TiNcompositecoatingscanbepreparedbymixingofthe ;nonionandpositiveionsurfactants.Theconcentrationofthe ;nonionandpositiveionsurfactantsis80mg/L,andtheratio ;isl:2.

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    ;Biographicalnotes

    ;XIAFafengisaPhDcandidateinSchoolofMechanicalEngineering,Dalian ;UniversityofTechnology,China.Hisresearchareasincludeultrasonicand ;electrodepositionmsearch.

    411-81950418;Email:xiaff@126.com ;Tel:+86

    ;JIAZhenyuaniscurrentlyaprofessorinSchoolofMechanicalEngineering, ;DalianUniversityofTechnology,China.Hisresearchinterestsinclude ;dynamics,noiseandvibrationcontrol,dynamicmeasurementanddata ;processmg.

    ;WUMenghHa,correspondingauthor,iscurrentlyaprofessorinSchoolof ;MechanicalEngineering,DalianUniversity,China.Hisresearchinterestis ;specialtechnologyresearch.

    ;Tel:+86411-87402147;Email:wmh005@163.com

    ;References

    ;LIZhiiscurrentlyanassociateprofessorinSchoolofMechanicalEngineering, ;[1]JACOBSONNS,OPILAEJ.OxidationandcorrosionofceramicsandDalianUniversity,Chhaa.

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