DOC

Culture

By Helen Gray,2014-07-23 13:40
6 views 0
CultureCultur

    Culture

N0V.2008,Volume5,No.11(SerialN0.59)Sin0

    USEnglishTeaching,ISSNl5398072,USA

    ;Culturediflferenceandlanguageteaching

    ;LIANGZhim

    ;(ForeignLnngt{agesnndLitea|”reDepd,ment.H杖口iyin1‟}chersC0i)egeH犍口

    iaJlangsn2233oo.China)

    ;Abstract:Thepaperanalyzesthedefinitionofculture,anddiscussestherelationshipbetweencultureand

    ;Ianguage.ByreViewingcultureteachingandlanguageteachingappr0aches,thepaperputsf0n?ardsOmepractical

    ;concemsaboutlanguageteachingwhichfirmlyfabricatewithcultLIreteaching. ;Keyw0rds:cutlJre;laJ1guage;cu

    turedifrerence;cultureteachingandlanguageteaching

    ;HumancultllrecannOteXistwithOutameansOfsymbOliccOmmunicatiOn.LanguagegiVeshumanbeings

    ;accesstowhatisthoughtandexperiencedinthepast,aswellasawayofpassingnewinfomationt0funlre

    ;generations.Language,astheexpressionofcu1ture,separatesusf.romOtheranimalsandmakesushuman.But

    ;whatisculture?HOwarelanguageandcu1turerelated?

    ;1.Understandingculture

    ;GeenHOfStede,authOrOfresearchinintercultllralcOmmunicatiOnalOrganizatiOnalpractices,referstOculture

    ;as”thes0ftwareofthemind”(Hofstede,1991).Butherewewanttotakethatcomputeranalogyfurtherandsav

    ;thatcu1turejstheoperatingenvironmentthatenablessof}wareprogramst0run,Cu1tureislikeDOSorUNIXor

    ;Windows:Itiswhatenablesustoprocessinf0nnatiOninvariousspecmc

    p1ications.Wlendthemetaphorof

    ;wmd0wsVe

    pealingtodescribeculture:Cultureisamentalsetofwindowsthr0ughwhichalloflifeisviewed.

    ;ItVaesomindiViduaItoindividuaJwichinasociebutitsharesimporantcharac

    rjsticschmembersofa

    ;society.

    ;AccordingtoGoodenough‟s(1957,p.167)wel1.kn0wndefinition,”asociet,r‟scultureconsistsofwhateverit

    ;lsonehast0kn0worbelieVeinordertoOperateinamanneracceptablet0jtsmembersandtodOsoinanyrole

    ;thattheyacceptf0ranyOneOfthemselVes”.Specical1yspeaking,thisdeniti0nimp1iesthatcu1tIlrereferst0the

    ;pattemsofcustoms,traditiOns,socialhabits,values,beljefsandlanguageofasOciet ;TherearehundredsOfdefinitiOnsOfcu1nlre.ItisdifhculttOdefinebecauseitisalargeandinclusivecOncept.

    ;“EVelythingyOuneedtOkn0winlif-eistOgetalOnginasOciety‟‟isnOtasusef-uladefiniti

    On

    ;,

    ;hOweveasOnethat

    ;f.0cusesonwhatculture‟scharacteristicsare.Cu1tureinvo1vesleamedandsharedbehaviOrs,norn1s,valuesand

    ;matenal0bjects.Italsoencompasseswhathumanscreatetoexpressvalues,attitudes,andnoms.

    ;„Ilherearetwo

    esofculture:Materia1andspiritua1.Materialcul”lreisconcrete,substantialandobser,,able.

    ;On1yasmal1partofspirima1culture,theproductsOfthemindistangible,andmostspiritualcultllreis

    ;indiscemible,thatisin1plicit,hiddenandabstract,wlhichareindeedverydi

    culttodetect,nOton1ypresent

    ;prObIemstot0relgnIanguageIeamers,butmayconstitutep0tentiaItr0ubIespotsininter_cuIturalcommunication.

    ;Cultureislikethewaterwherefishswiminarea1itythatistakenforgranted,rarelyexamin

    ed.Itisinthe

    ;LIA9zhi.in,M_A.,lecturerofForeignLanguagesandLiteratIlreDepanment,HuaiyinTeacherscol1ege;researchfields

    ;appIledllngu1stlcs,transIatlOntheOryandpractlce.

    ;21

    ;Culturediflferenceandlangua2eteachin2

    ;airwebreatheandasnecessarytoourunderstandingofwhoweareasairist0ourphysicallife.Cultureisthe

    ;propertyofacommunityofpeople,notsimplyacharacteristicofindiViduals.Societiesareprogrammedby

    ;cu1tureandthatprOgrammingcOmesfromsimilar1ifeeXperiencesandsimilarinterpretatiOnsOfwhatthOse

    ;experiencesmean.Ifcultureismenta1pr0gramming,itisalsOamenta1m

    OfrealitIttellsusOmearly

    ;childhoodwhatmatters,whattoprefer,whattoavoid,andwhatt0do.Culturealsotellsuswhatoughttobe.It

    ;giVesusassumptionsabouttheidealbeyondwhatindiVidualsmayexperience.Ithe1psusinsettingpriorities.It

    ;establishescodesforbehaViorandproVidesjustmcationand1egitimizationf0rthisbehaVioHence,wesay:

    ;Cultureisthecoherent,1eamed,sharedViewofagroupofpe0pleabOutlife‟scOncemsthatrankswhatis

    ;impOrtant,fumishesattitudesabOutwhatthingsareapprOpriate,anddictatesbehaviOL ;2.RelatiOnshipbetweencultureandlanguage

    ;Languageistheprimarymeansbywhichaculturetransmitsitsbeliefs,Va1uesandnorms.Itgivespeoplea

    ;meansofinteractingwithothermembersofthecultureandameansofthinking.EdwardSapirandBanjamin

    ;WhOrfcOncludedthatlanguage,nOtOn1yser,,esasamechanismforcOmmunicatiOn,butasaguidet0sOcial

    ;rea1iTheymaintainthatlanguageinfluencesperceptionsandtransmitsthoughtsaswellashelpspattemmem.

    ;Inotherwords,speakingdifferent1anguagescausespeopletothinkdi

    erently(Wlardhaugh,2000,p.220).

    ;AIthoughfewmodemsociologistsfu1Iyacceptthenotionthatpeople‟sviewofrealityisentirelyconstructedby

    ;thelanguagetheyspeak,theydOgenerallyagreetherearedifflerencesintheway1anguagerepresentexperiences,

    ;andthesedifferencesinnuencehowpeopleperceivetheworld,andthereforehowtheybehaVe.

    ;Sincetheknowledgeandbe1iethatconstimteape0ple‟scu1tllrearehabitual1yencodedan

    dtransmittedin

    ;the

    anguageOfpeOple,itisextremelydiculttOsepamtethet,V0.Languageandculturearen0tindendentOf

    ;mutual1yeXc1usiVecOgnitiVesystemscOmpOsedOfanalOgOusstmcturesandprocesses.Rather‟cultureisawider

    ;systemthatcompletelyincIudeslanguageasasubsystem.LinguisticcompetenceisoneVarietyofsocialbehaVioL

    ;TherelatiOn0flanguagetOcultureisthenarelatiOnOfparttOwhOle.

    ;Cultureandlanguageareinte

    inedandareshapingeachotheLItisimp0ssibletOseparatethetwO.

    ;Languageisnotneutralcodesandgrammaticalrules.Ifwese1ectlanguagewithoutbeingawareofthecultural

    ;implications,wemayatbestnotcommunicatewellandatwOrstsendthemessage.Languagealsoactsasa

    ;renectiOnOftheenVirOnment.InadditiOntotheenvimnment,1anguagealsoref1ectscultura1valuesandpriOrities.

    ;InOrdertOcOmmunicatecOnceptsefflectiVely‟culturalknowledgeisasimportantaslinguisticknOwledge.

    ;RecentstudyOftheinter1)laybetweenlanguageandcu1turehasreVealedthef0ll0wingfact:Whi1ea1itt1e

    ;knOwledgeOfmeta

    etculrurewillenab1eaforeignlanguageleamertOObseT,,eandanalyzehisOwnculture,a ;lmleknOwledgeabOuttheleamer‟sOwnculturewi1lalsOprOmOteforeignIanguageleaming.

    ;InOrdertOunderstandthesigncanceOfamessagefrOmsOmeOne,weneedtounderstandthewaythat

    ;persOnlOOksatthewOrld,andtheValuesthatweighheavilyinthatpersOn‟sculruralbackp

    ack.Wleneedt0

    ;understandthemeaningsthatarenotputintowords,theimportanceofthewordsthatareused,andthewaythe

    ;messageisO

    anizedandtransmitted.WlealsoneedtoknOwwhattOexpectwhenthatotherpersOnengagesina

    ;particularcOmmunicatiOnbehaViO

    ;Thewaytodea1withcu1turaldiVersisnottodenyitorignoreit,buttoIeamaboutdif_ferencess0theydo

    ;n0timpairc0mmunicatiOn.

    ;Thefirststepinef_fectiveinterculturalcOmmunicatiOnistheunderstandingandacceptanceOfdifferences.

    ;Culturedifflerenceandlanguageteaching

    ;Thatdoesn0tmeanwehaVetoagreewithanOcherculture‟sViewpoint,orthatwehaVetoadoptanotherculture‟s

    ;values.Itdoesmeanweandtheyexamineourandtheirpri0rities.Intheprocess,wewi11realizethatapersOn

    ;enteringanotherculturewillalwayshaVetoadaptt0anumberofcu1turalconditiOns.ThatdOesnOtmeantuming

    ;One‟sbackOnOne‟sowncultureordenyingitspriorities.Rather,itmeansleamingwhatmOtiVatesothersandhow

    ;othercultura1priOritiesinfonnthebehaVior,attitudes,andValues.Thisapproachmeansaddingtoone‟s0wn

    ;culture,nOtsubtractingfrOmit.

    ;3.TheaimOfteachingOrlearningalanguage

    ;Itwi1lbegenerallyacknOwledgedthattheultimateaiminlanguageleamingistOacquirecOmmunicatiVe

    ;cOmpetence,tOinteret,whetherthisismadeOVertintalkingOrcOrrespOndingOrwhetheritremainscOVertasa

    ;psychologicalactiVityunderlyingtheabilit)rtosay,listen,writeandread.Theissueisnotwhetherthisistheaim

    ;oflanguageleamingbuthOwthisaimistobeachieVed.Itwillalsobegenerallyagreed,perhs,thattraditionally

    ;thefocusOfattentiOnhasbeenOnthelinguisticskillsandmatithascOmmOnlybeensuppOsedthatOncetheseare

    ;acquiredinreasonablemeasurethec0mmunicatiVeabilitieswillfollowasam0reorlessautomaticcOnsequence.

    ;WhateVidencewehaVe,hOweVeLsuggeststhatthisisnOtthecase:theacquisitiOnOfcOmmunicatiVeabilitiesina

    ;language.0nthecontrary,itseemstobethecasethatanoVer-emphasisondrillsandexercisesf0rtheproduction

    ;andreceptionofsentencestendstOinhibitthedeVeIOpmentofcommunicatiVeabilities.ThisisnOtmeanttoimply

    ;thatsuchdrillsandexercisesarenotnecessarAsp0intedOutearlietheabilitiesincludetheskjs:onecannOt

    ;acquiref.0merwithOutacquiringthelatteThequestiOnishowcantheskillsbetaught,nOtasaself_sumcient

    ;achievementbutasanaspectOfcommunicativecompetence?HOwcanskillsbere1atedtOabilities,usagetOuse?

    ;4.ReViewingcuItureteachingandlanguageteachingappr0aches

    ;SincetheendOfWl0r1dWarII,cultureteachinghaswOnpOpularattentiOninlanguageteachingcirclesOf

    ;di

    erentcountries,anditsrangehasbeenbmadenedtocOVernotonly”thecapitalletterC”,butalso”thesmall

    ;letterc”.

    ;HoweVer,thereisakindof”separatiOn”model,whichViewscultureasknowledgethatcanbeseparated

    ;

    OmlanguageThecOmm0npracticeOfthismOdelistOadda”c0urseOfknOwledge”tOthelistOfforeign

    ;languagecurriculum.Sucha”separatiOn”modelisrepresentedin1anguagewhileneglecti

    ngculture;theOtheris

    ;tooVeremphasizegrammarformswhileneg1ectingtheirfunctionalcontents.Thishasbeentypica1ofthe

    ;traditiOna1FIpracticeinChina,whichemp1Oysthe”gran1martranslatiOnapprOach”.

    ;WiththecultiVatiOnOfcOmmunicatiVecOmpetenceasitsg0al,thec0mmunicatiVeappr0achhascOntributeda

    ;lOttotheoVercomingofsuchshortcomingsas”muteEnglish”and”deafEnglish”.Asaresult,anotherapprOach

    ;comesintObeingwhichconsiderscultureasthe”thenfn1skill”inadditiontothe”f-0urbasic

    skillsinEnglish”.In

    ;thissense,itemp10ysthe”attachment”mOde1Ofcultureteaching,which”attaches”culturetO1anguageteaching.

    ;Andrecentlsomelinguistsbegintoquethedichot()my0fSaussure‟slanguage/paroleandfhedichotomy

    ;oflanguagecompetence/perforn1ancebychomsky.Theydonotthinkitisreasonableandpropertodichotomize

    ;languageandculturealth0ughtheirtheorieshaVebeenregardedpossessinggreatsigncanceinestablishing

    ;linguisticsasascienceandcontributingalotinmodemlinguistics.InKramsch‟sopinion(1993,p.3),inorderto

    ;getOut0fthedi1emmaofsuchadichotomweshOuldregard1anguageandcu1tureas”twosi

    desOfthesame

    ;cOin”tOintegratelanguageandcultureteaching.Thisisthe”integratiOn”mOde1.

;23

    ;Culturediflferenceandlanguageteaching

    ;CultureisnOtsomethingwearebomwith,butratheritisle

    ed.We1eamedourculturethroughproVerbs;

    ;weleamourculturefromf0lkta1es,legends,andmyths;weleamourculturethr0u

    an;weleamourculnIre

    ;thrOughmassmediaandcultureistransmitted

    OmgeneratiOntOgeneratiOn.Thenitisa1sOleamable.Thata1sO

    ;meansculturecanbetaught.Soinlanguageteaching,whataspectsshOu1dbeconsidered? ;5.PracticalcOncernsabOutlanguageteaching

    ;Generallyspeaking,therearesixtOpicsthatcanbepickedOutcOVeringthOseOfcultureteachingthatthe

    ;aVeragelanguageleamerismOst1ikelytOrequire.

    ;(1)Places.Theleamerneedssomesenseofphysicallocationtowhichtorelatetheta

    et1anguage.In

    ;ch0Osingata

    etarea,Ourprincipa1concemwi1lbetOdescehOwthegeOgraphyisperceiVedbynatiVe ;speakers.

    ;(2)IndiVidualpersonsandwayoflife.0fcourse,wecannotgeneralizeflr0monepers0norasmallgroupto

    ;anentirec0untr),orregion.ButgettingtoknowoneindiVidualcangiVethe1eameranentryintothisaspectOfa

    ;culnlre.

    ;(3)Peopleands0cietyingenera1.Theleamershouldbeledtoidentif.ysignificantgIDupsindicatiVeofsocia1,

    ;prOfessiOnal,ec0nOmic,andagedifrerences,aswe1lasthOsethatreflectregiOnalcharacteristics.ItisnOt

    ;necessarytoundenakean”objectiVe‟‟inquiryinthemanner0fasociologistorsocia1anthropologist.Itismuch

    ;moreamatterof6ndingouthowpeopleviewthemselVesinrelati0ntoVari0usgroupsinsocietyorinrelationto

    ;societ)rasawhole.

    ;(4)Histor),.Theleamerneedsanopportunitytogettokn0wthesign

    canthistoricaldeVelopmentsofthe

    ;cOuntryOrregiOn,includingthehistOryOfminOrities.HeshOuldgettOknOwthehistOricallysignificantsymb0ls,

    ;nOtableeVentsandtrends,andmemainhistOricalpers0nalitiesaswellascriticalissues,pastandpresent.

    ;(5)Institutions.Theseinc1udethesystemofgoVemment,theeducationalsystem,socia1welfare,econ0mic

    ;institutions,themilitaryandpolice,religiOusinstitutions,politicalpartiesandthemedia. ;(6)Art,music,literature,and0thermajorachieVements.Theleamerssh0uldbeabletoacquireknow1edge

    ;ab0utandanappreciatiOn0fanists,musicians,andwriters,andknOwOfOthergreatguresa

ndtheir

    ;achievementst0someextentthatthesearecommonknowledgeinthespeechcommunityan

    dconstituteaheritage

    ;OfcOmmOnliteracy.

    ;Tbbespec

    c,inlanguageteaching,weshou1dpaymoreattenti0ntothef0llowingespeciallyatthemiddle

    ;andhigherstageOflanguageandcu1tureteaching,withtheimprOVementOfstudents‟ling

    uistic1eVe1.

    ;(1)Cultural1oadedmeanings0fwords;

    ;(2)CulturaldirencesineVerydayconVersation: ;Greetingsandfarewells

    ;WlaysOfaddress

    ;C0n1p1imentsandpraise

    ;MiscellaneOussOcialamenities:

    ;(3)Idioms,proVerbsandsayings;

    ;(4)Metaphorandassociation;

    ;(5)”Col0rful‟‟language——red,black,white,green,yello,v,blueandpur1)le; ;(6)Allusions;

    ;24

    ;Culturediflferenceandlanguageteachj

    ;(7)Euphemisms;

    ;(8)Taboos;

    ;(9)Language0frespectandhumiljty;

    ;(10)Varieties0fEnglish;

    ;Regionaldierences

    ;Dif-ferencesinmedium

    ;Socialdifrerences:

    ;(11)BodylanguagemonVerbalcommunicati0n

    ;6.COnclusi0n

    ;InattemptingtOunderstandanOthercu1ture‟sperspectiVe,wewillbefunheraheadifweta

    keOfjrOurOwn

    ;culturalblinkersanddevelopsensitivityinthewaywespeakandbehaVe.Thatisnotalwayse

    asy.Wearea1l

    ;culturallybasedandculturaIlybiased.”Cultureshock”isandwillstillbeablockincommuni

    cationandwestill

    ;haVealOngwaytOgOinlanguageteaching.

    ;References:

    ;BeamerLinda&vamerIris.1992.,fP,f,?fcffoPg,06d,wD

    cP.Beijing:TsinuauniVersPress.

    ;ClaireKramsch.20O0.,f(P

    c,fzf.Shanghai:ShanghaiF0reignLanguageEducationPress. ;G?K.5‟.CMralnnthp0{oandlinics.h,Ga.,RepmTheAnnlR0llndbleMePljngon ;j,ffgP.washington,GeoetownUniVersityPress.

    ;Hofstede,Gl991.(0曙口力ff0zPaPNewYbrk:McGrawHi11.

;Mckay,sandraLee&HombeeNancyH.(Eds.),2o01.cfD,ff口甜PfP

    cfshanghai:shanaiForeign

    ;LanguageEducationPress.

    ;Samovar,L.A.,eta1.2000.(10甜口f6P,wPcz,,‟,.Beijing:F0reignLanguageTachingandResearchPress. ;wardhaugh,R.2000.(cff0

    DcfD,f,”fzc,P.Beijing:ForeignLanguageTleachingandResearchPress.

    ;,?iddOwson,H.G1999.7ac,,,

    (PcD,,fcaf.Shanghai:ShanghaiForeignLanguageEducationPress.

    ;(EditedbyStena,TinaandMax)

    ;25

    ;

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com