DOC

Carbon_0

By Rick Woods,2014-07-23 12:50
10 views 0
Carbon_0Carbon

    Carbon

Jan.2008,Volume2,No.1(SerialNo.2)JournalofLifeSciences,ISSN1934-7391,USA

    ;CarbonstorageofbambooforestecosysteminChina

    ;WANGBingJ

    ;.WEIWen-jun2LIShaoning~GUOHaol,ZHOUMe~,BAIXiulan

    ;I1.InstituteofForestEcology,EnvironmentandProtection,ChinaAcademyofForestry,B

    eijing100091,China;

    ;2.LiaoningAcademyofForestry,Shenyang110032,China;3.InstituteofForestryandPo

    mology,BeijingAcademyofAgriculture

    ;andForestry,Beijing100093China;4.InnerMongoliaAgriculturalUniversity,ForestryC

    ollege,Huhhot010019,China)

    ;Abstract:Nationalforestinventorymaterialsanddatafrom ;ChinaForestEcosystemLocationResearchNetworkfCFERN1 ;wereobtainedforestimatingfourperiodsofcarbonstorageof ;Bambooforestecosystemfroml977to2O03inChina.The ;spatialandtemporalpatterns,verticaldistributionandpotential ;carbonstorageofthebambooforestecosystemwereanalyzed. ;TheresultsshowedthatcarbonstorageofChinesebamboo ;forestecosVsternwas537.6MtCduringl977and981.598.61

    ;MtCduring1984and1988.710.14MtCduring1994and1998. ;and837.92MtCduringl999and2o03.Itshowedthatthe ;carbonstoragewasincreasingduringthattime.Zhejiang, ;Jiangxi,Fujian,Hunan,GuangdongandSichuanwerethemajor ;carbonpoolsinChina,withthepercentagesofcarbonstorage ;between80.o4and83.13percentinalI.Thepercentagesof ;carbonstorageofvegetation.1itter,andsoilwerebetween23.85 ;and24-48percent.between0.92and0,96percent.andbetween ;74.56and75.23percentrespectively.Therefore,itisconcluded ;thatthecarbonstorageindifferentlayersweresimilarvertically. ;Carbonstoragewas837.92MtCfrom1999to2003.anditwill ;bein~easedto947.54MtCafteroneageperiodwitharateof ;54.81Mtcarbonsstoredinecosystemeveryyear.

    ;Keywor~:China;bambooforestecosystem;carbonstorage ;1.Introduction

    ;Inrecentyears,greenhouseeffectwhichwas

    ;causedbymoreandmoreC02emissionsdidalotof

    ;harmtoourlivingenvironment.Inthatcase,many

    ;scientistsfocusedonstudyingdistributionandregime ;ofglobalcarbonsinksandsources.Meanwhile,they

    ;tureedintoprimarypoliticalandeconomicissues11-51.

    ;WhenKyotoProtocolwhichaimedatcuttingdown ;CO,emissionswascarriedoutonFebruaryl6th2005, ;allcountrieshadtofacetheproblemofreducingC02 ;emission.Nowadays.inordertoslackenoffpressureof

    ),female,Master,assistantengineer; ;WEIWen-jun(1982

    ;researchfield:forestecosystemlongtermlocation.

    ;48

    ;fulfillingobligationinKyotoProtocol,manyscientists ;tumedtostudvcarbonsinksandsources16-12.TheCO,

    ;emissionsinChinafromburningfossilfuelwere0.655 ;Gtin1992and0.805Gtin1996.Chinawasthesecond ;biggestC02producerallovertheworld,onlynextto ;America.ThetotalamountofCO2emissionsin1996 ;were36timesmorethantheamountin1950113.With

    ;thedevelopmentofChineseeconomy,thetotalamount ;ofC02emissionswillbeincreasedatthesametime. ;Hence,thepressuretoeliminatetheC02emissionswill ;beheavierandheavier.Therefore,Chinesegovernment ;havepaidmoreandmoreattentiontoforestcarbon ;sinks,sincetheyhavebeenapprovedbytheKyoto ;Protocolthattoincreaseforestcarbonsinkcanbetaken ;asameanoffulfillingobligationinrelievingpressure ;ofcuttingdownthegreenhousegasesemissions.Forest ;ecosystemplayedanimportantroleintheterrestrial ;ecosystemcarboncycling.Sinceglobalforestareawas ;decreasingsharplydayafterday,bambooforestarea ;wasincreasingby3percenteachyear;itmeansthe ;bambooforestcarbonsinkwillbelargerandlarger. ;Chinawastherichestplaceinbamboosspeciesallover ;theworld.Bambooarea.volumeanditswoodinChina ;wereall‟rankasthefirstintheworld1141.Thereforeitis

    ;important,necessaryandurgenttostudybambooforest ;carbonstorageintensively.Itwillprovidescientific ;proofforChina.andwilJbeanewwaytoincreasc ;forestecosystemcarbonsinkaswel1.However,studies ;onbambooforestcarbonstoragewerefew.So,itneeds ;tobestudiedsystemicallyandintensivelyontheability, ;temporalandspatialpattern,andpotential ;CarbonstorageofbambooforestecosysteminChina ;developmentofbambooforestecosystemcarbon ;storage.

    ;2.Materialsandmethods

    ;Forestresoureesinventorydatawerethemost ;detailedandauthoritativematerialsofforests.Inlight

    ;Ofitssignificantvaluetoforestecosystem.itwasmore ;typicalforustoevaluatethecarbonbalanceofforest ;ecosystematnationalandregionalscalesl5_.Inthis

    ;study,thecarbonsinkwasestimatedmainlybyusing ;twokindsofdata.First.theareaofbambooforestin ;Chinawasextractedfromfourperiodsofforest ;inventoriesdatainChinaduringl977and2o03. ;includingtheinventorydatainl977J981,1984一】988,

    2003.Second.materialson ;l994l998.and1999

    ;vegetation.soilandlitterwasobtainedfromforest ;ecosystemlongtermocationobservationresearch

    ;conductedbyChinaForestEcosystemLocation ;ResearchNetwork(CFERN),whichhavedonealotof ;researchesonforestsuccession.Indetail,vegetation ;materialscontainedNetPrimaryProduction(NPP), ;biomassandorganiccarboncontentindifferentorgans ;ofbamboos.shrubsandherbs.soiImaterialsincluded ;bulkdensity,organiccarboncontent,gravelvolume ;contentwhichwerelargerthan2mmandsoilannuai ;carbonnetfixation.andIittermaterialsweremainlyon ;biomassandorganiccarboncontent.Inaddition, ;similarresearchesthathavedonebyothersinChinaso ;farwereusedinthisstudyaswel1.Ithasn‟tsortout

    ;bamboospeciesyetinnationalforestinventories.Asa ;result,allbambooforestswereclassifiedasoneforest ;type,bambooforest.Thus,itisimpossibletogetsome ;factorsweighedbyarea,forexample,averagebiomass. ;Inordertogainthemoreaccuratebambooforest ;carbonstorageinChina,thisstudywasconducted ;basedonbamboosdistributioninChina,andthe ;dominantbamboospeciesweretakenastheresearch ;objects.

    ;Potentialvegetationcarbonstorageofforest ;ecosystemisdefiedasthemaximumaccumulated ;biomassofforestinthelocalnaturalcondition.in ;whichcarbonwastakenastheunit.Itwasdifficultto ;measurethevegetationpotentialcarbonstorage. ;Therefore,matureandpostmatureforestcarbon

    ;densitycanbetakentoinsteadofpotentialcarbon ;densitytopredictthecarbonstorageofbambooforest ;vegetation}17.Inthisway,themaximumcarbon

    ;storageforthevegetationofbambooforestecosystem ;wasobtained.Duetothatthecarbondensityofforest ;ecosystemisdifferentindifferentages;thepotential

    ;carbonstorageaftersomeageperiodswasestimated ;basedonthecurrentcarbonstorage.Forexample, ;whenyoungbamboosgrewupandbecomehalf-mature ;bamboos,theylivedforoneageperiod.Ascarbon ;storagesinvegetationandsoilwerethemostimportant ;partsofforestecosystem,bothofthemshouldbe ;considered.Supposesoilannualnetcarbonfixationin ;certainclimaticandlocationandageperiodof ;bamboosaretwoconstants,thus,annuaInetcarbon ;fixationinsoilcanbeusedtoforecasttheforestsoil ;potentialcarbonstorage.Basedonanalysisabove, ;formula(1)canbeusedtoestimatethepotentialcarbon ;storageofbambooforestecosystem.

    ;Cp=Cn+TX(NPPXC~+Cs)XA(1)

    ;Here,Cp(t)isthepotentialcarbonstorageof ;bambooforestecosystemaftersomeageperiods,Cn(t) ;isthecurrentcarbonstorageofbambooforest ;ecosystem,T(a)istheageperiodofbamboos,NPP ;(t.hm-z.a)isNetprimaryproductivity,Ci(%)isthe ;bambooorganiccarboncontent,Cs(t.hm-e.a)is ;annualnetcarbonfixationinsoil,A(hm)isbamboo ;forestarea.Thecarbonstorageinshrubsandherbslow ;wasusually,andaccountedforbetween0.6and9.5 ;percentofthecarbonstorageinforestecosystem ;vegetationlayerI181Andcarbonstorageinsoilisas ;threeorfourtimesascarbonstorageinvegetationlayer. ;Therefore,thecarbonstorageinshrubsandherbswas ;negligible.Becauseoffalienleavesandbrancheswere ;includedinnetprimaryproductivity,soonlypotential ;49

    ;CarbonstorageofbambooforestecosysteminChina ;carbonstorageofshrubsandherbswereoutofthe ;forestecosystempotentialcarbonstorage. ;3.Resultsanddiscussions

    ;3.1Temporalandspatialpatternsofcarbon

    ;storageofbambooforestecosysteminChina

    ;ThenumbersofbamboospeciesinChina

    ;accountedforonethirdsintheworld.andChinaiSlist ;asthemostabundantcountry.Chinesenaturalbamboo ;forestswerewidelydistributedin19provinces,and ;theywereincentralinsubtropicalmountainregion114]. ;Therefore,bambooforestsinChinaplayedan ;importantroleallovertheworld.Accordingtothatthe ;regimecarbonstorageinforestecosystemwasrelated

    ;withthearea,successionstage,andhumandisturbance ;strongly,thus,itisnotonlysignificanttoassess ;nationalandregionalforestcarbonsinkinglobal ;carboncycle,butalsoshedlightonbambooforest ;restorationandreconstruction,protectand ;management.Tablelshowsthatduring1977and2oo3. ;carbonstorageofbambooforestecOsystemwas ;between24.81and27.62percentinZbejiang,between ;13.92and15.79percentinJiangxi.betweenl0.43and ;l1.84percentinFujian.between9.94and14.64 ;percentinHunan.between6_45and9.16percentin ;Guangdong.andbetween5.75andl1.52percentin ;Sichuan.Thetotalcarbonstorageofbambooforest ;ecosystemintheseprovinceswasincreasingexcept ;Hunan.Thetotalcarbonstorageofthesesixprovinces ;accountsforbetween80.04and83.13percentinal1. ;Theseprovincesarethemostimportantbambooforest ;carbonsinkinChina.

    ;Table1TemporalandspatialpatternsofcarbonstorageinChinesebambooforestecosyste

    m

    ;Note:”“representnone.ThecityofChongqingwassetupin1997,anditwasembodiedinSic

    huanprovincebefore

    ;Carbonstorageofbamboofores

    ;t

    ;———

    ;e

    ;———

    ;c

    ;————

    ;o

    ;.

    ;s

    ;...

    ;y....

    ;s

    ;...

    ;t

    ;.

    ;e

    ;....

    ;m

    ;.......

    ;i

    ;...

;n

    ;......

    ;C....

    ;h

    ;....

    ;i

    ;..

    ;n

    ;..

    ;a

    ;

    ;InTable1.italsoindicatedthatbambooforest ;ecosystemcarbonstorageindifferentplaceschanged ;greatlyduring1977and2003inChina.Ingeneral, ;bambooforestecosystemcarbonstorageintheplaces ;wheretherewerelargeareasofnaturalbambooforests ;increasedinthattime.Thecarbonstorageinoneplace ;dependedonfastreproductionofbambooandtheir ;largeareaofbambooforest.Thelargequantitiesof ;productivitiesandfastreproductionprovidedenough ;bamboowoodforus.However,otherplaceswithsmall ;areasofbambooforests,ifthereweremanybamboo ;plantationsilqthem.Tlheirbambooreproduction ;couldn‟tmakeupcuttinganddestroyingbyhuman

    ;beings,andtheircarbonstoragedecreasedatlast.It ;showedinTable1.bambooforestecosystemcarbon ;storageinSichuan,Zhejiang,Fujian,Anhui,Hubeiand ;Jiangxiincreasedduring1977and2003,decreasedin ;YunnanandShandong,increasedfirstthendecreased ;andincreasedatlastinShanxi,HainanandHenan, ;decreasedfirstandincreasedlaterinGuizhou,Guangxi ;andJiangsu,anddecreasedfirstthendecreasedfinally ;increasedinGuangdong.Inaddition,therewere8 ;placeswhichbambooforestecosystemcarbonstorage ;increasedduringl98land198413during1994and ;1998.andIlfroml999to2003.Whenforestswere ;protected,bambooforestswereprotectedtoo,and ;carbonstorageofbambooforestsbecamelargerand ;larger.

    ;Bambooforestecosystemcarbonstoragewas ;537.6MtCinChinafrom1977to1981,598.61MtC ;froml984tol988.7l0.14MtCfroml994tol998, ;

    ;837.92MtCfroml999to2O03.Thegrowthrateof

;19841988,1994.1998.and19992003were1l,l9

    ;andI8percentrespectively.Itkeptincreasing ;continuously.Therewere61.0lMtcarbonswerefixed ;inbambooforestecosystemduringl984and1988. ;witharateof7.63Mteachyear;l11.53Mtcarbons ;ffom1994to1998,witharateof10.14Mteachyear; ;127.78Mtcarbonsfrom1999to20o3,witharateof ;21.3Mteachyear.Theresultsindicatedthatthe ;bambooforestswerecarbonsinksinChinaduring ;l977and2003.Forestecosystemwasalargecarbon ;sinkduring1977and1981inChina.Therewere0.37 ;Gtcarbonsfixedinitinthattime,witharateof74Mt ;Ceveryyear.Itbecameasmalleftrbonsourcesduring ;1982and1988.Therewere0.06GtcarbOIlSemitted ;fromitduringthattime,withtheemissionrateof8.6 ;MtCeachyearI16J.

    ;Consequently.carbonstoragein

    ;bambooforestecosystemincreasedcontinuously,it ;playedanactiveroleincarbonstorageinChina. ;3.2Verticaldistributionofcarbonstorageof ;Bambooforestecosystemindifferenttimes ;InTable2,arbonstorageofbambooforest

    ;ecosysteminvegetationwerebetween131.63and ;l99.81MtCfroml977to2003inChina,andthe ;percentageofbambooforestecosystemcarbonstorage ;werebetween23.85and24.48percent;jnlitterwere ;between5.15and7.75MtC,andthepercentagewere ;from0.92tO0.96percent;insoilwerebetween400.82 ;and630.36MtC.andthepercentagewerefrom74.56 ;to75.23percent.Therefore,itwasconcludedthatthe ;carbonstorageindifferentlayersweresimilar ;vertically.Comparedwithvegetation,soilandlitter ;carbonstorageinChineseforestecosystem,vegetation, ;soilandlittercarbonstorageofbambooforest ;ecosystemtookup277,2.53and0.76percent ;respectively.Comparedwithforestvegetation ;carbonstorageinChinaduring1973andl993.bamboo ;forestvegetationcarbonstorageaccountedfor2.99 ;percentfroml977tol981.and3.3lpercentduring ;1984andl988.Itwassummarizedthatbamboo ;forestfixedmoreandmorecarbonsinvegetationlayer. ;51

    ;CarbonstorageofbambooforestecosysteminChina ;Table2Verticaldistributionofbambooforestecosystemcarbonstorageindifferenttimesin

China

    ;Place

    ;Carbonstoragein

    ;19771981/Mt

    Carbonstoragein ;

    ;l9841988/Mt

    ;Carbonstoragein

    ;19941998,Mt

    ;Carbonstoragein

    ;199920o3,Mt

    ;VegetationLitterSoilTotalVegetationLitterSoilTotalVegetationLitterSoilTotalVegetati

    onLitterSoilTotal

    ;Note:ThesameasinTablel

    ;3.3CarbonstorageinChinafrom1999to2OO3 ;anditspotentialstorageafteroneageperiod ;InTable3.carbonstorageofbambooforest ;ecosystemwas837.92MtCduring1999and2003in ;China.Itwillbe947.54MtCafteroneageperiod. ;Therewere207.56Mtcarbonsinvegetationandlitter ;andwillbe3l2.3MtCafteroneageperiod;63036Mt ;Cinsoil.and635.25MtCafteroneageperiod.The ;carbonstorageinbambooforestecosystemwill ;increasebv54.81MtCeachyear.Thegrowthrateof ;vegetationandsoilwere56.25MtCand2.44MtC ;everyyearrespectively.Theforestcarbonstoragein ;OneageperiodforChinesefirforestistwoyears ;52

    ;vegetationincreasedbyarateof26.5MtCeveryyear ;duringl977andl993inChinaIJ:thegrowthrateof ;bambooforestinvegetationfrom1999to20o3was ;higherthanthatofotherforestinChina.Forestcarbon ;storageinvegetationwas3.7GtCduring1989and ;993inChina,andthepotentialcarbonstoragewas ;8.4GtCThepotentialcarbonstoragewasas2.26times ;asthecurrentcarbonstoragei111.

    ;Bambooforest

    ;potentialcarbonstorageinvegetationwasas1.56 ;timesasthecurrentcarbonstoragefroml999to2003. ;Bamboogrewfastbeforethefirsttwoyears.Therefore, ;thecarbonstorageofbambooforestinvegetation ;increasedmoreslowlywhentheygrewup.Annualnet ;Carbonstorageofbambooforestecosyin-d ;carbonfixationinforestecosystemwas86.3Mt ;carbonseachyear[201

;,

    ;andtheannualnetcarbon

    ;fixationinbambooforestecosystemwas54.8lMtC ;eachyear.Itwascausedbythefastgrowthrateof ;bamboosaswel1.Withoutconsideringthehigh ;productionandreproductionofbamboos,thepotential ;carbonstorageofbambooforestwasmainlybasedon ;thecurrentbambooforestduring1999and2003. ;Hence,itwilllargerthanthepotentialcarbonstorage ;here.Thuscarbonfixedabilitycannotbeneglectedin ;China.

    ;Table3Bambooforestecosystemcarbonstoragefrom1999to2003inChinaand

    ;Note:ThesameaSirlTable1

    ;4.Conclusions

    ;Carbonstorageofbambooforestecosystemwas ;537.6MtCfroml977tol98linChina.598.61MtC ;froml984tol988.7lO.14MtCfromI994to1998. ;837.92MtCfrom1999to2o03.Thecarbonstorageof ;bambooforestecosystemwasincreasingduringthat ;time.Zh~iang,Jiangxi,Fujian,Hunan,Guangdong ;andSichuanwerethemajorcarbonpoolsinChina. ;withthepercentagesofcarbonstoragebetween80.04 ;and83.13percentinal1.

    ;Thepercentagesofcarbonstorageofvegetation, ;litter,andsoilwerebetween23.85and24.48percent, ;between0.92and0.96percent.andbetween74.56and ;75.23percentrespectively.Therefore,itisconcluded ;thatthecarbonstorageindifierentlayersweresimilar ;vertically.

    ;Carbonstoragewas837.92MtCfrom1999to

    ;2003.anditwillbeincreasedto947.54MtCafterone ;53

    ;Carbonst?

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com