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LUNI, 2 OCTOMBRIE 2006

By Roger Simmons,2014-07-11 13:04
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LUNI, 2 OCTOMBRIE 2006 ...

    LUNI, 2 OCTOMBRIE 2006

Aniversări – Comemorări interne

- Sfinţii Îngeri Păzitori (Calendarul romano-catolic 2006; Calendarul Bisericii Române Unite cu

    Roma, Greco-Catolice 2006)

    - Iom Kipur, sărbătoare mozaică (www.maven.co.il/content/jewishcalendar)

- 1409: Este atestată cea mai veche pisanie românească, cea de la biserica Streisângiorgiu

    (judeţul Hunedoara), împodobită cu picturi murale de cneazul Cândreş şi soţia sa Nistora

- 1841: S-a născut Mihail Străjan, estetician şi traducător; remarcabilă contribuţie la dinamizarea

    vieţii culturale a Craiovei (m.1918) - 165 de ani

    - 1853: S-a născut compozitorul Ciprian Porumbescu (m.1883)

    Imagine 1

    - 1866: S-a născut istoricul Gheorghe Popa-Lisseanu; a înzestrat istoriografia românească cu un adevărat corpus de surse narative - autori clasici şi texte privind epoca migraţiilor şi a începuturilor

    societăţii medievale în spaţiul carpato-dunărean; membru corespondent al Academiei Române

    (m.1945) - 140 de ani

- 1870: S-a născut Juarez Movilă, compozitor şi critic muzical (m.1943)

- 1875: A murit iluministul Petrache Poenaru, discipol al lui Gheorghe Lazăr; ca profesor la Sf. Sava

    şi director al Eforiei şcolilor naţionale (1832-1848) a avut merite deosebite în organizarea învăţământului naţional; în 1827 a brevetat, la Paris, invenţia tocului rezervor (stiloul); membru al

    Academiei Române (n.1799)

    Imagine 2

    - 1880: S-a născut prozatorul N.[icolae] M.[atei] Condiescu (m.1939)

    - 1897: S-a născut actorul ieşean Miluţă Gheorghiu, cunoscut mai ales prin rolurile în travesti din comediile lui Vasile Alecsandri (m.1971)

    - 1910: A murit naturalistul Dimitrie Grecescu, unul dintre întemeietorii cercetărilor floristice şi geobotanice din România; membru al Academiei Române (n.1841)

- 1911: S-a născut Miron Radu Paraschivescu, poet, eseist şi traducător (m.1971) - 95 de ani

- 1935: S-a născut (la Mana/judeţul Orhei, azi în R. Moldova) Paul Goma, prozator şi memorialist,

    refugiat politic, din 1977, la Paris

    - 1939: S-a născut solistul de muzică uşoară Dan Spătaru (m.2004)

    - 1956: S-a născut solistul de muzică uşoară Adrian Daminescu - 50 de ani

- 1973: A murit compozitorul Mihail Bârcă (n.1888)

- 2002: A murit compozitorul Tiberiu Olah (n.1928)

Aniversări – Comemorări externe

-"Ziua mondială a habitatului"; se sărbătoreşte în prima zi de luni din octombrie, în baza Rezoluţiei

    40/202 din 7.XII.1985 a Adunării Generale a ONU, la recomandarea Comisiei pentru aşezări

    umane; se marchează din 1986 ( - 20 de ani), când s-au împlinit zece ani de la prima Conferinţă a

    Naţiunilor Unite pentru aşezări umane, de la Vancouver, Canada, din 1976

     "Ziua mondială a arhitecturii"; se marchează pe baza unei hotărâri a Consiliului Uniunii

    Internaţionale a Arhitecţilor din iunie 1985 şi este consacrată calităţii în arhitectură şi urbanism;

    după cea de-a XX-a reuniune a Consiliului, de la Barcelona, s-a decis ca din 1997 această zi să se

    celebreze în aceeaşi zi cu cea a habitatului, adică în prima zi de luni din octombrie, în loc de 1 iulie

    ca până atunci

- Ziua naţională a Republicii Guineea. Aniversarea proclamării independenţei - 1958

    - 1684: A murit dramaturgul francez Pierre Corneille (n.1606)

    Imagine 3

    - 1852: S-a născut Sir William Ramsay, chimist englez (a descoperit gazele nobile); Premiul Nobel pentru chimie pe 1904 (m.1916)

- 1871: S-a născut Cordell Hull, om politic republican american; secretar de stat între anii 1933 şi

    1944, colaborator apropiat al preşedintelui F. D. Roosevelt; Premiul Nobel pentru pace pe 1945

    (m.1955) - 135 de ani

    - 1904: S-a născut scriitorul englez Graham Greene (m.1991)

    Imagine 4

    A Not So Brief Biography

"Childhood is life under a dictatorship."

Graham Greene was born on October 2, 1904 to Charles Henry and Marion Raymond Greene, the

    fourth of six children. Charles was the Head Master of Berkhamsted School. Graham's brothers

    included Hugh, who went on to become a Director General of the BBC, and Raymond, an

    accomplished mountaineer involved in the 1931 Kamet and 1933 Everest expeditions. One of

    Marion's distant cousins happened to be a person called R. L. Stevenson.

Greene studied at the Berkhamstead School and Oxford ( in Balliol ) By all accounts, he had a

    pretty torrid time in Berkhamstead, having

    to balance all the time between his father and his schoolmates.

He wrote quite regularly in Student Magazines, and was an editor of The Oxford Outlook. His first

    work, a collection of apparently forgettable poems, Babbling April, was published during his last

    year at Oxford.

After graduation, he worked briefly for the Nottingham Journal. He was baptized a Catholic in

    February 1926. In March, he returned to London, as the Sub Editor for The Times.

Greene married Vivienne ( later Vivien ) Dayrell-Browning in October 1927. He had met her in

    early '25, after she had written correcting a small mistake ( Greene had talked of 'worshipping' the

null

    Unfortunately he did not obtain approval for these schemes. In early 1943, Greene returned to London, to a job in Section V. He was assigned to Counter Intelligence, Portugal, and reported to Kim Philby, who was then in charge of the area. They became good friends - after Philby's defection to the erstwhile USSR, his memoirs, My Silent War, contained laudatory references to Greene and Greene wrote it's Introduction.

    An interesting sidelight of Greene's tenure in the SIS is the story of 'Garcia'. A double agent in Lisbon, he fed the Germans disinformation, pretending to control a ring of agents all over England, while all he was doing was inventing armed forces movements and operations from maps, guides and standard military references. Garcia was the inspiration for Wormold a character in Our Man in Havana.

    Greene left the Service in May 1944, and joined the Political Warfare Executive, editing a literary magazine intended for France. After the War, Greene was commissioned to write a film treatment based on Vienna, a city occupied by the Four Powers at the time. He collaborated with Carol Reed in writing The Third Man, a skillful tale of deception and drug trafficking. The film went on to win the First Prize at Cannes in 1949.

Graham Greene's Works

Early Years

1925 Babbling April

    1929 The Man Within

    1930 The Name of Action

    1932 Rumour at Nightfall

    1932 Stamboul Train ( Orient Express )

Pre World War II

1934 It's a Battlefield

    1935 England made Me

    1936 Journey without Maps

    1936 A Gun for Sale ( This Gun for Hire )

    1938 Brighton Rock

    1939 The Lawless Roads ( Another Mexico )

    1939 The Confidential Agent

    1940 The Power and The Glory ( The Labyrinthine Ways )

    1943 The Ministry of Fear

Post World War II

1948 The Heart of the Matter

    1950 The Third Man

    1951 The End of the Affair

    1955 The Quiet American

    1958 Our Man in Havana

    1961 A Burntout Case

    1963 A Sense of Reality

    1966 The Comedians

    1969 Travels with My Aunt

    1973 The Honorary Consul

    1978 The Human Factor

    1980 Dr. Fischer of Geneva, or The Bomb Party

1982 Monsignor Quixote

    1985 Getting to know the General

    1985 The Tenth Man

    1988 The Captain and the Enemy

    http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Parthenon/1608/greene_1.htm

    - 1946: A murit Ignacy Moscicky, fizician şi om politic polonez; autorul unei importante invenţii, condensatorul electric (1904); preşedinte al R. Polone în perioada iunie 1926 - septembrie 1939;

    membru de onoare străin al Academiei Române (1937) (n.1867) - 60 de ani

- 1951: S-a născut Sting (Gordon Matthew Sumner), compozitor, cântăreţ şi basist rock britanic -

    55 de ani

    Imagine 5

Never a stranger to adventure either in realms of soul or song, Sting has been having a year of new

    beginnings.

Certified triple platinum in the United States and nearing worldwide sales of 7 million, Brand New Day

    has received Grammy Awards for Best Pop Album and Best Pop Male Vocal Performance and

    continues to weave its spell. A year and a half on the charts, every day it entrances new listeners with

    its echoes of Miles Davis and medieval plainsong, of Algerian and American country music all

    rendered with the singer/composer‘s signature originality. And its spirit, of renewal and energy and

    inspiration, overspills into the rest of Sting‘s remarkable career.

Of late, he‘s performed at the Superbowl, was awarded a star on Hollywood‘s Walk of Fame, and

    been nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song for "My Funny Friend and Me" from

    The Emperor‘s New Groove, the Disney film that‘s just crossed the $100 million mark in box office

    sales. His activism as well as his art has been recognized; for his work on behalf of human rights,

    Sting recently received an award from the government of Chile.

And the music he makes and the message he delivers compel him forward: with a US Tour in May

    and a European Tour in Summer 2001, the artist has shown no sign of letting up.

His body of work spanning nearly 25 years and embracing not only rock and reggae but also jazz,

    country, Celtic and Middle Eastern strains, Sting fashions a soundtrack for our times. Its essence?

    One of consistent pioneering, risk-taking. "My strategy is to be optimistic, nae maybe," he has said.

    "And maybe that‘s my job." His creative approach to Brand New Day, for example, typified his desire

    to test himself. "I composed, finessed and even sequenced the music before I‘d even written a word,"

    he says of his seventh and best-selling solo album. "I had to trust that the music would tell me stories,

    begin to create characters. It‘s almost a mysterious process. You have to be patient.It‘s a little like

    sculpting a piece of wood you begin to see faces in the wood."

The music that has spoken to him, the characters he has created, have been with us ever since he

    began his life in music. A native of Newcastle, site of English shipbuilders and ancient Roman walls,

    this former teacher, soccer coach and ditch digger, has made of his art a perpetual quest.

The Police, of course, established him as a world-renowned songwriter and singer: with Outlandos

    D‘Amour, Reggatta De Blanc, Zenyatta Mondatta, Ghost in the Machine, Synchronicity and a clutch of

    live and best-of sets, the trio Sting headed assumed the vanguard of contemporary music throughout

    the late ‗70s and early ‗80s. On his own, he has never ceased taking chances. The Dream of the Blue

    Turtles, Bring on the Night, … Nothing Like the Sun, The Soul Cages, Ten Summoner‘s Tales,

    Mercury Falling and Brand New Day achieve a truly distinctive synthesis of personal expression and

    universal communication.

    Often noted for his work in the field of human rights, Sting views his activism as part and parcel to being a citizen of the planet. He remains active in causes as various as ecology (with his wife,Trudie Styler, Sting founded the Rainforest Foundation), Amnesty International and human rights as a whole. For him, the personal and political fuse; art and action become inextricable. Finally, a complete

    communicator, Sting explores both sound and image;he‘s acted in films from Quadrophenia to Stormy

    Monday to Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels and appeared on Broadway in Threepenny Opera.

About the remarkable range of his energies, Sting has wryly commented: "No one‘s yet been able to

    come up to me with a limit. They‘ve tried, but I‘ve always been able to duck and weave, and I‘m still doing that."

    Yet there remains a pole star to his questing, a guiding light. Music. Recently selected as an inductee into the National Academy of Popular Music‘s Songwriters Hall of Fame, Sting has become

    synonymous with a kind of musical approach that knows no boundaries, limits, genres. Proud to

    number Branford Marsalis, Stevie Wonder, James Taylor, as well as Miles Davis arranger Gil Evans

    and Algerian singer Cheb Mami among his collaborators, Sting has already achieved a legacy of

    music that, like its creator, resists easy definition. Restless, creatively impatient, he will continue to defy expectations. Singer and songwriter, world citizen and activist, globetrotting adventurer and father of six, Sting greets the future and its every challenge indeed as a brand new day.

    http://www.sting.com/biography/sting_biography/

- 1968: A murit pictorul francez Marcel Duchamp (n.1887)

    Imagine 6

    Making Sense of Marcel Duchamp

by Andrew Stafford

Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), the painter and mixed media artist, was associated with Cubism,

    Dadaism and Surrealism, though he avoided any alliances. Duchamp‘s work is characterized by its humor, the variety and unconventionality of its media, and its incessant probing of the boundaries of art. His legacy includes the insight that art can be about ideas instead of worldly things, a revolutionary notion that would resonate with later generations of artists.

Family Life (1887-1903)

Marcel Duchamp was born in 1887, in a town in northwestern France. He was the fourth of seven

    children, six of whom survived infancy. His father was a successful notary, an occupation that

    combined legal and bureaucratic functions, and the Duchamps lived in the finest house in town.

Family interests included music, art, and literature; chess was a favorite household pastime. The

    home was decorated with prints by Duchamp‘s maternal grandfather, who was successful in both

    business and art.

    Even in a family that embraced the arts, it is surprising that all four oldest Duchamp children became artists. First-born Gaston, trained in law, became a painter; he used the name Jacques Villon. Second son Raymond, trained in medicine, became a sculptor; he was known as Raymond Duchamp-Villon.

    Their sister Suzanne painted all her life, but wasn't allowed any formal training; she became known as Suzanne Crotti after her second marriage. Shortly before his seventeenth birthday, Marcel announced that he too intended to pursue a career as a painter.

Student Days (1904-11)

    After graduating from the local lycée, Marcel joined his brothers in Paris. He studied at a good art academy, but by his own account he preferred playing billiards to attending classes. Meanwhile he eagerly absorbed a variety of influences from outside the academy Cézanne, Symbolism, Fauvism,

    Cubism, and popular illustration.

    He sold a few cartoons to Parisian humor magazines. They are interesting because two characteristics of the genre satirical or humorous content and the use of accompanying text

    would become signature characteristics of Duchamp‘s adult style. This one depicts a mechanical

    companion for bachelors: ―She undresses.‖

    This carefully inflected Portrait of the Artist‘s Father plainly shows the influence of Cézanne in the freedom of its forms and colors. Portrait of Dr. Dumouchel shows influences from Symbolism in its dreamlike atmosphere and Expressionism in its exaggeration of physical characteristics.

    Among the Fauves, Matisse was the acknowledged master. Young Man and Girl in Spring shows an obvious debt to him in its stylized approach to form.

    An allegory of male-female union, this work would be incorporated into a 1914 painting, his next-to-last work on canvas. The later painting, in turn, is a key to his monumental work of 1923, The Bride Stripped Bare By Her Bachelors, Even, another allegory of male-female union.

    In The Chess Players Duchamp explored the possibilities of Cubism. It shows two chess players at a table, in multiple views. In the center of the painting are a few shapes like chess pieces.

    The players are shown in different positions, suggesting the passage of time. Duchamp gave Cubism an idiosyncratic twist by introducing duration.

    The players are weighing their options. One potential outcome results in the capture, by the player on the left, of an opposing piece, held in his hand near the bottom of the painting. A picture of minds engaged in the calculus of chess, this is an early exercise in another continuing interest in Duchamp‘s art: depicting the intangible.

Three Paintings (1912)

    In 1912 Duchamp would devise a Cubist-inspired technique for depicting motion, then move on to something almost unheard of abstract painting. Yet by the year‘s end he would virtually abandon

    painting to venture into uncharted territory.

    Nude Descending a Staircase shows a human figure in motion, in a style inspired by Cubist ideas about the deconstruction of forms. There is nothing in it resembling an anatomical nude, only abstract lines and planes. The lines suggest her successive static positions and create a rhythmic sense of motion; shaded planes give depth and volume to her form. Motion and nude alike occur only in the mind of the viewer.

Duchamp‘s Nude is two parts serious, one part spoof.

    Nude Descending a Staircase was among the earliest attempts to depict motion using the medium of paint. Its conception owed something to the newborn cinema, and to photographic studies of the living body in motion, like those of Marey and Muybridge.

    It was also an antidote to Cubism‘s greatest weakness: Cubist paintings were necessarily static. Instead of portraying his subject from multiple views at one moment, as Cubist theory would dictate, Duchamp portrayed her from one view at multiple moments, as Muybridge did. By turning Cubist

theory upside-down, Duchamp was able to give his painting something the Cubists could not: vitality.

But by adopting characteristic techniques of Cubism the somber palette, the methodical

    deconstruction of form while subverting its principles, Duchamp doubtlessly meant to mock its

    pretensions.

Soon after it was finished, Duchamp‘s Nude was rejected by the Salon des Indépendents because

    members of the jury felt that Duchamp was poking fun at Cubist art. They especially objected to the

    title, which they felt was cartoonish. Duchamp had painted the title along the bottom edge of his

    painting, like a caption, which certainly reinforced their impression of his comic intent.

Like the Nude before it, The King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes depicts figures in motion, but

    here they are juxtaposed with static entities. Abstract kinetic figures the swift nudes of the title

    flow in two streams, one ebony and one gold, amid a pair of solid-looking forms, the king and queen.

    The royal couple are shiny abstract forms which do not resemble any known objects.

Duchamp said the swift nudes were ―flights of imagination‖ introduced to satisfy his preoccupation with

    movement. They can also be seen as flights of imagination on the part of the king and queen which

    makes this painting, like The Chess Players of 1911, about portraying thought.

Duchamp‘s next painting delved further into abstraction, creating an image with no counterpart in the

    visible world. The Passage from Virgin to Bride is a conglomeration of semi-visceral, semi-mechanical

    forms that suggest fleshly vessels, armatures, and vanes. Shape, color, and space fluctuate,

    suggesting mutating forms amidst deep recesses.

There is a greater degree of depth than in the preceding paintings, but margins between foreground

    and background are indistinct. As the eye moves around the canvas, its forms fluctuate in and out,

    change contours, and shift positions. This is a picture of complicated flux, more than a little confusing

    to the eye an apt depiction of the transition from youth to young adulthood. This picture is among

    the earliest examples of wholly abstract modern art.

After 1912, Duchamp would paint only a few more canvases. He was growing increasingly

    disillusioned with what he called ―retinal‖ art — art that appealed only to the eye and wanted to

    create a new kind of art, one which would engage the mind.

He began to make notes for a large-scale project unlike anything else, which would become his

    monumental work of 1923, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even. In one of these notes

    Duchamp wonders cryptically ―Can one make works of art which are not ‗of art‘?‖

His next work would take Duchamp far outside existing boundaries of art, into unnamed territory now

    called conceptual art.

3 Standard Stoppages (1913)

3 Standard Stoppages is a question in a box. It asks whether things which we presume to be absolute

     in this case, a standard unit of measure might be merely arbitrary.

―Stoppage‖ is a French word meaning a repair made to cloth by a method of reweaving, like a tailor

    would make to mend a worn coat. 3 Standard Stoppages is made from three strands of ordinary

    tailor‘s thread.

Duchamp wanted to capture the effect of chance on an everyday occurrence, like Muybridge captured

    the effect of time on everyday motion. He called 3 Standard Stoppages ―canned chance.‖

    To capture the effects of chance, Duchamp conducted an experiment. From a height of one meter, he dropped a meter-long piece of thread onto a prepared canvas, letting it twist at random. He repeated this procedure three times, fixing the threads in place where they fell.

    Where they fell, the threads described three gently curved lines of equal length: a meter transformed by chance. Together they suggest an infinite number of possible meters, including the special case of a straight line.

    A few years later, with his Bicycle Wheel and other ―readymades,‖ Duchamp will ask whether some other things which are presumed to be absolute namely, artistic conventions of beauty and

    craftsmanship might also be merely arbitrary.

Chocolate Grinder (1914)

    Over the next few years, Duchamp made numerous preparatory studies for his monumental work of 1923, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even. Among them were several paintings, including Chocolate Grinder.

    For Chocolate Grinder he painted in a new style, crisp and precise like an architectural drawing, which had nothing to do with either Cubism or Abstraction. The white lines on the grinder wheels are made of threads, like the 3 Standard Stoppages of 1913, but here they are sewn through the canvas and pulled tight.

    Another painting, Network of Stoppages, is composed of three images, superimposed. The foremost image is another study for The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even, consisting of nine connected lines, traced from the 3 Standard Stoppages.

    The background, in greens and yellows, is an uncompleted large version of the 1911 painting Young Man and Girl in Spring, rotated 90 degrees counter-clockwise. Slide the transparency control to compare Network of Stoppages to Young Man and Girl in Spring. You can discern the torsos of the two main figures, the orb between them, and elements of the tree into which they are reaching.

    The third image is a schematic drawing of The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even, rotated 90 degrees clockwise. The area outside this is blacked out. Painted with a fine line, it is almost invisible in the small version shown here. Slide the transparency control to view a rendition of the schematic.

    Young Man and Girl in Spring is an allegory of male-female union, and so is The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even. The network of nine connected lines is a metaphor for this thematic connection between the two works. Network of Stoppages is a painting of the idea behind The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even.

Bicycle Wheel & Other Readymades (1915)

    Bicycle Wheel was the first of a class of objects that Duchamp called his ―readymades.‖ He created twenty-one of them, all between 1915 and 1923. The readymades are a varied collection of items, but there are several ideas that unite them.

    The readymades are experiments in provocation, the products of a conscious effort to break every rule of the artistic tradition, in order to create a new kind of art one that engages the mind instead of the

    eye, in ways that provoke the observer to participate and think.

    If you want to break all the rules of the artistic tradition, Duchamp reasoned, why not begin by discarding its most fundamental values: beauty and artisanship. The readymades were Duchamp‘s

    answer to the question, How can one make works of art that are not ―of art‖?

It was an audacious proposal, and to execute it Duchamp employed an equally audacious method: he

    withdrew the hand of the artist from the process of making art, substituting manufactured articles

    (some custom-made, some ready-made) for articles made by the artist, and substituting random or

    nonrational procedures for conscious design.

The results are works of art without any pretense of artifice, and unconcerned with imitating reality in

    any way.

For a simple construction assembled from two everyday objects, Bicycle Wheel has a lot of aesthetic

    appeal. Here are five aspects

     Idle visual pleasure: Duchamp said he simply enjoyed gazing at the wheel while it spun, likening it to

    gazing into a fireplace.

     Comic effect: an ordinary unicycle is a comical thing; upside-down and immobile it might be hilarious.

     Juxtaposition of motion and stasis (recalling the theme of 1912‘s King and Queen Surrounded by

    Swift Nudes).

     Evocation of domestic pleasures: it suggests a spinning wheel, with attendant evocations of the

    hearth.

     Resemblance to a human form: it suggests a neck and head or an eye on a pedestal.

The readymades include different types of works: prefabricated objects, assemblages, altered images,

    and installations. Of course, these categories didn't exist in art in those days.

Prefabricated objects were ordinary manufactured objects, bought right off the shelf or salvaged,

    unaltered in form. Sometimes Duchamp gave them purposefully abstruse titles, or inscribed them with

    a nonsensical phrase.

Along its back, this wide-toothed metal Comb bears the phrase ―Three or four drops from height have

    nothing to do with savagery.‖ Duchamp liked the way the phrase confounded rational interpretation

    and triggered idiosyncratic associations, engaging the observer‘s private imagination.

Other readymades invite other forms of participation. Bicycle Wheel invites the viewer to give it a spin.

    It was art‘s first kinetic sculpture. Traveler‘s Folding Item is a typewriter cover, without the typewriter.

    Displayed near eye level, it invited naughtier viewers to peek under its skirt. It was art‘s first soft

    sculpture.

It was axiomatic to Duchamp that art occurs at the juncture of the artist‘s intention and the observer‘s

    response, making the observer a kind of co-partner in the creative process. This juncture, with all its

    ambiguity, is the domain of the readymades, where they engage the observer in personal,

    unpredictable ways.

Assembled readymades were constructed of two or more objects. Some were simple, like Bicycle

    Wheel, which was made by joining two prefabricated objects. Other assembled readymades included

    custom-made parts requiring the services of hired craftsmen.

With Hidden Noise was made from two specially-engraved copper plates and four bolts, which

    together enclose a ball of twine, which in turn encloses an unseen object. It rattles when shaken. The

    object inside is unknown, even to the artist: it was inserted by a friend of Duchamp's, who went to his

    grave without revealing what it was.

Installed readymades depend on their environment for their meaning. Trebuchet (1918), for example,

    was originally a coat rack nailed to the floor of Duchamp‘s studio. The disposable Sculpture for

    Traveling (1918) consisted of strips of rubber which could be strung in a web between the walls, floor

    and ceiling of his studio in any number of ways.

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