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Nov.2008,Vl0lume6,No.11(SerialN0.62)USChinaForeignLanguage,lSSN1539-8O8

    0,USA

    ;Ac0mparatiVestudyforthemetaph0rsuseinhappinessand

    ;angerinEnglishandArabicangerlnJngllSnancIAraDlC

    ;FaWWcIzAlAbedAlHnqlAhmndEiShnr

    ;fi.FncltlAnsdndH”manities.Al—dlBiUniveiJoraan:

    ;2.Depdrtmenf0fLingHtics.Q”eenM,yUniversityLondon.UK)

    ;Abstract:Thispaperillustratesh0wmetaphorsareemployedindescribinghappinessandangerinEnglish

    ;andArabic.Theresearchersco1lectedasetOfEnglishandabicmet

    hOricaleXpressi0nsfrOmdirentsources

    ;includingtheworksOfLak0fjFandK6VecsesinEnglish,anddictiOnariesand1iterawOrksinArabic.The

    ;analysiswasconductedf0llowingtheconceptualmetaphortheOr),mode1.Then,theexpressiOnswereregrouped

    ;andclassiedintomajorandminorcategoriesaccordingtotheirmetaphoricalmappings.Thecomparative

    ;analysisshOwsthatthet,)l,OlanguagesremarkablysharesOmebasicleVe1metaphOrsi

    ncOncepmalizinghappiness

    ;andangeLInsomeminOrcases,asonofcrOssculturaldiflferenceshavebeenseenwhich

    canbeattributedtothe

    ;distinctiVecharacteristicsofeachcu1turesuchas:cljlnate,namra1elements,andmodeoflife.

    ;Keywords:metaphor;conceptualization;happiness;anger;cognitivelinguistics;comparativestudy

    ;1.IntrOductiOn

    ;TheViewsaboutmetaphoricallanguagesign

    cancevaryconsiderably‟especiallywhenta1kingabOutitsuse

    ;inlanguageanditsstudywithinalinguisticframework.S0metraditi0nalviews,suchasAristOtle‟s,consider

    ;metaphoricallanguageasmerelyadecoratiVeandomamenta1linguistictool,withitsusenotaddingany

    ;additionalinfomationtothediscourse(Gibbs,l994,p.74).Onthe0therhand,someviewsregardmetaphorasa

    ;matterofspecialextraOrdinarylanguage,orasetOfdeViantlinguisticexpressionswhosemeaningis‟‟reducible”

    ;tosomesetofIitel-alpropositions(SIingerIand,2004,p.325).However,currentappr0achesincognitive

    ;“nguisticsemphasizetheimportanceofmetaphorinlanguage,andtheyconsideritanessent

ialandindispensable

    ;phenomenoninbothlanguageandthought(Lako1987;Johnson,1987;Lakofr&Johnson,1980;Gibbs,1994).

    ;Infact,theimp0rtanceofmetaphOranditssmdyinlanguageissupp0nedbyLakofrandJohnson‟svita1prop0sal

    ;abouttheper,,asiVeness0fmetaphorsineVer),daylife,andh0wthisper,,asivenesscanbeobser,,edinlanguage,

    ;thoughtandaction(Lakoff&Johnson,1980,p.3).

    ;Itiswidelybelievedthatmostuniversalandbasicconceptsintheworldsuchas”time”,”state”and

    ;“quantity”arecomprehendedbyusingmetaphoricallanguage.F0rexample,whenwelook

    tOmeconceptuaI

    ;metaphor”Moreisup,‟(LakofjF&Johnson,1980,p.23)weseethatitmirrorswhatiscalledamappingpr0cess,

    ;wherequantltyasacOnceptisassOciatedwithcOncreteObservatiOnthatimpliesaverticalmOvement,suchas

    ;“pricesarehigh”,and”thedemandOffreshVegetablesisrising”0r”I‟mfeelingup”.Inordinarylanguage,

    ;FawwazAl?AbedA1-Haq,profess0roflingsticsattheDepartmentofEngnshLanguageandLitemtureanddeanofFacultyof

    alBaytuniVersity.E-mail:fawazm2008@yahoo.com. ;ArtsandHumanities,Al

    ;AhmadEl?Sharif,Ph.D.candidate,DepartmentofLinguistics,QueenMaDr-University0fLondon.E.mail:

    ;a.elsharif@qmu1.ac.uk.

    ;AcOmparativestudyfl0rthemetaphOrsuseinhappinessandangerinEn2lishandArabic ;metaph0rsareusedtomakeabstractn0tionsm0rec0ncrete.ThiscognitiVepr0cess,knownas”c0nceptualizing”,

    ;isemployedt0giVeanyabstractnotionsuchasemOtiOna1statesamorephysicalandtangibleessenceorfeeling.

    ;Conceptualizinganyem0tiOnalstatecanbedrawninterms0famapping:acOrrespOndencerelationbetweentw0

    ;domains;thefirstistypicallymorephysicalOrcOncretethantheother.Thus,abs

    actnOtiOnsareunderstoodin

    ;tennsofmOrecOncreteones.Forexample,theastract”anger,‟isunderstoodintennsthecOncrete”heat”.

    ;COnsequently,”anger”with”boi1ing”isalinguisticexampleOftheVer),pr0ductiVeconceptua1metaphOr”Anger

    ;isahotf1uidinacontainer”(Lakof1r&K6Vecses,l983;LakoEl987).Thesamecanbesaidf0rthere1ationship

    ;betweentheabstract”Happiness”tOthephysicalandconcrete”Highness”.Inthiscasewecomeupwith

    ;expressionssuchas”t0beoncloudnine”whichiscOnsideredasaViVidexaInplefbrmet

    ?【ph0ricalmapping

    ;“Happinessisup”(K6Vecses,l991).weseet

1atthetwopreViousmetaphoricalmappingsareusedtodescribethe

    ;“intensity”oftheemotions.Happinessandangeraremerelyabstractconcepts.Andtomeasureaconcept,suchas

    ;emotionalstates,weresorttothereleVantmeasurementtooIsusedtodescribephysicalandconcretesubstances

    ;andentities.C0nsequently,metaphorisbetterthantheliterallanguageindescingemotionsbecauseemotions

    ;varyinintensityandcannotbemeasured.So,wecon

    ontsomedifrerentiallevelsofclaritybetweenlanguage

    ;speakersindescribingtheseem0tionswhenusingliterallanguage.OrtonyandFains

    ber(1987)seethat

    ;emOtiOnalstatesseemedtObecOmpatiblewimOurpuI1)OsesbecausetheytendtOhaVeanindefinable,brief

    ;qualitythatisdifficulttOdescribeusingliterallanguage,althOugh,Ofc0urse,theycanusuaUybe”labeled”using

    ;literallanguage.Thus,whileitmightbeeasyforapersont0”label”anemotionalstateas,f0rexample,”fear,‟,it

    ;isdimculttopI.0videaliteraldescriptionofthequalityofsomeparticular”experienceoffear”(Ortony&

    ;Fainsber,l987,p.181).

    ;Consequently‟weseethatmetaph0ricallanguagecouldp1aythreecommunicatiVenctionsinanydiscourse.

    ;First,itmightall0wustoexpresswhatisdimcultorimpossibletoexpressifwearerestrictedt0theliteralusesof

    ;language.Second,metaphormayconstituteaparticularlycompactmeansofcommunication.Thus,metaph0rical

    ;languagemayenableustOc0nveyagreatdea10finf0nIlatiOninam0recOncisemanneLFina1ly‟metaphOrical

    ;languagemayhelpincapturingmeViVidnessOfphen0menalexperience.Met

    hOrscanpaintOurlanguagewitha

    ;richerandmoredetailedpictureofoursubjectivee)eriencethanitmightbeif0urexperienceisexpressedby

    ;literallaIlguage(Gibbs,1994,p.124).

    ;2.UniVersalityOfmetaphOrs

    ;Itisevidentthatculturaldifrerencesconstitutethemainsourcesf0rthediVersityofmetaphorica1mappings

    ;bywhichabstractemOtiOnalstatesareunderstOOdbyresOrtingt0physicalandc0ncretecOncepts.Manystudies

    ;haVesoutoutcross.culturallinguisticdirencesinmet

    horuse.Forexample,manystudiesofthephysiology

    ;ofangeracrossseveralunre1atedculturesindicatethatincreaseinskintemperatllreandbIoodpressureare

    ;universalphysiOlOgica1cOrrelatesOfangeLThisaccOuntsf0rthe”Angerisheat”metaphOrinEng1ishandmany

;otherlanguages.Forex

    ple,King‟s(1989)andYU‟s(1995)workssuggestthatthec0nceptualizationofangerin

    ;terrnsofheatismuchlessc0mmoninChinesethaninEnglish.InChinese,theydesignate,themajormetaphorsof

    ;angerseemtobebasedmainlyOnpressure,nOtonpressureandheat.ThisindicatesthatspeakersofChinesehave

    ;reliedOnadifrerentaspectOftheirphysiOlOgyinthemetaphOricalcOnceptualizatiOnOfangerOtherthanthatOf

    ;Englishspeakers.Matsuki(1995)obser,,esthataUthemetaphorsforangerinEnglish,asanalyzedbyLakofjFand

    ;K6vecses(1983),cana1sobef0undinJ

    anese.Atthesametime,shepointsoutthatthereisalaenumberof

    ;2

    ;AcomDarativestudvfl0rthemetaph0rsusenhapg!堕垦g!堕望垒苎竺

    ;angerelatedexpressionsthatgrouparo

    dtheJapaneseconceptof”hara”(Lit.”belly‟‟).Thisisaculturally

    ;significantc0nceptthatisuniquetoJapaneseculture,andsothec0nceptualmetaphor‟‟Ang

    erls(mthe)hara”ls

    ;limitedtoJaDanese.OthercrOsscultura1studiesshOwthatdi

    erentlanguagesexhibitdierentpattemsof

    ;figurativelanguageuse.InsOmecasesOfvariati0nmetaphOrsthataretrequemmonelanguageaTera1feOr

    ;nonexistentinanother‟asitisthecaseofsomemetaphorsinEnglishandSpanish(Barcelona

    &Soriano,2004).In

    ;0thercases,similarmetaphOrsareusedintwOlanguages,butaremanyt1mesas

    equentmOneottnelanguages,

    ;asisf0undforsomemetaphorssharedbyEnglish,French,andDutch(Boers&Demecheleer,l997).

    ;Throughourreviewfortheliteratureofthisf_ie1d,wenoticethatmetaphoncal1anguagepr0cessmghasbeen

    ;asubjectOfextensiveresearchinthewestemculfure.SOmeofthesesmdiestackJedthewaywemlderstaJ1d

    ;metaph0rs,andotherstudiesexplOrehOwabstractnOtiOnsareconceptualizedw1thmtnemmdbyusmg

    ;metaphoricallanguage.WhenweinvestigatecrossculralstudiesOf?

    1etaphOr,wenoticethatArablclslgn0red

    ;fromsuchresearch.Infact,thereisavitalneedtostudyArabicmetaphorsf_r0macogn1tlVelmgulstlcVlewpomt?

    ;3.MethOds

    ;TheresearchershavecollectedanumberOfmetaphOricalexpressiOnsusedindescribinghappmessandanger

    ;inEnishandArabic.TheEnishexpressionswereextractedfromtheworksofLako

    andK6Vecsesonme

    ;fieldfLako

    l987:Lakofr&K6vecses,l983;K6vecses,1991).TheseworkspresentmostoftheconVentlonal

    ;andnon.conventionalmethOrsusedinthecOnc

    tualizing”happiness”and”anger”inEnglish.TheArabic

    ;expressi0nswereextracted

    OmtheArabicwnttenliterature,likedictionaries,thesauri,literaw0rkssuchas ;pOetn,andpr0se.Theresearchersfoll0wedtheLakOf1FandJOhns0n‟sconceptualmetaphOrtheoryasamodelor

    ;analyzingtl1ec0llectedexpressionsMetaphorSareregroupedinc0generalsourcedomains(fire,up,?ght,animal,

    ;etc.).Then,thespecmcsourceandtargetdomainsineachgr0upwereidentinedbyusingmetonymic

    ;representations.Moreparameterswereinvestigated,suchassearchingforomerlinguisticexamples,lookingfor

    ;additionalsemanticorpragmaticevidences,andcheckingwhethertherewasamOregeneralmpmgOr

    ;elaborations.Finallitisworthtoclarithatin0rdert0limitthescopeofthisstudy‟theresearchersreliedonthe

    ;datacOlIectedfrOmanumberOfwrittenArabicsOurces.SO,theArabicexpressiOnswereOnlywritteninStandard

    ;ArabicfSA),othervarietiesorstylesofArabicwereexcludedfromanalysisinthisresearch. ;4.FindingsanddiscussiOn

    ;Twobroadsortsofmetaphorsthatparticipateintheunderstandingof”happiness”and”anger‟inboth

    ;languagescanbeidentified.First,thereisagroupofmetaphorscalled”generic

    1eVe1methors”(K6Vecses,2000,

    ;pp.38—39),thesemetaphorsapplyt0aeatnu”lberofconcepts,notonlyhappiness.Thesemetaphorsinclude

    ;“Moreisup,lessisdown”,”Intensityisheat‟‟and”Thebodyisacontainer”metaphors.LakofrandK6Vecses

    ;includeacouple0ffhemintheirana1ysisofAmericananger(Lak0ff&K6vecses,l983;Lako1987,pp.397

    ;.

    ;406).Thesec0ndgroupsofmetaphorsaremoretypicalofemotionsingenera1andsomeofthesemetaph0rsare

    ;usedtOdescribehappinessandangerinparticulaLakofrandK6vecsescallthesemetaphors”basic—leVel

    ;metaphors”(Lakoff&Kc}vecses,1983;Lako

    1987,p.4O6).AccordingtomanyresearchersinmethoLthese

    ;levelsprovidethebulkoftheconceptualstructureforanger(andhappiness)andaremoredirectlylinkedto

    ;eXpe”ence(Soriano,2003,p.1l0).

    ;InthispapertheresearchersstantheiranalysiswiththeuseOfmetaphOricallanguageincOncmalizing

    ;AcOmparativestudyfl0rthemetaph0rsuseinhappinessandangerinEnglishandArabic ;happiness.EachArabicexpressioniswrinenbyusingtheph0netic

    ansliterati0nf0rtheArabicsoundsand

    ;f0ll0wedbyaliteraltranslation(Lit.).

    ;4.1Metaph0ricalc0nceptualizati0n0fhappiness

    ;4.1.1Orientati0nalmetaphors

    ;ThefirstmajorgroupofconceptualmetaphorsgiVeshappinessanupwardoreintationa1denotationwhere

    ;happinessisassociatedwithsomekindofe1eVatedplace”of-f‟theground(Lakofr&J

    ohnson,1980,p.17).This

    ;metaphOrinVOlVesmanyOthersubmetaphOrswhichsharethesamemetOnymicmap

    ping”Beinghappyisbeing

    ;ofFthegr0und”(K6Vecses,1991,p.31).Thismaj0rmetonymicmappingleadstoanothermorecommon

    ;oreintationaImetaphoricalm

    ping”Happinessisup”.ManyEnglishexpressionsusedindescribinghappiness

    ;comeunderthismetaphoricalmapping,suchas,”1wasnyinghigh”,”Shewasoncloudnine”,”I‟msiXfeetofr

    ;theground”.Inotherexpressionsthisisexplicit1yexplainedmI.0ughthelinkingOfbirdsf1yingwithhappiness

    ;feeling.Forexample,”Myheartwassoaringlikeaneagle”,”ThebirdOfh

    piness”,”Happyasalark”.Arabic,

    ;likewise,isllofexpressionswhichinVolVesuchmetaphors.FunherIIlore,itseemsthatorientationaland

    ;„„nying”metaphOrscOnstitutememOstprOductiVemetaphOricalc0nceptualizatiOnforhpinessinArabic.Inthe

    ;majority0fthec0llectedrabicexpressions,happiness,asaconcept,isViewedasanyingbird.Insomeother

    ;expressionshappinessisviewedasalightswiftmoVingobjectthataireasilyplayswith.F

    0rexan1ple,”kaada

    ;ya

    iimf.arahan”(Lit.Healmostnewforhappiness)(seeAppendixIandAppendixII),”taara?aad

    uhuf.arhan”

    ;(Lit.Hisheanniedforhpiness),”?Tiirubijanaahi—issumlurimarahan”(Lit.I

    nyingbythewingsofjoyf0r

    ;happiness),”?Sbahatlatuqillunikawaahi17r

    )ymarahan”(Lit.ThelandbecomesoVerburdenthatitcouldn0t

    ;holdmefor(my)joy).Arabic0reintationalmetaphors,ingeneral,and”Happinessisup”met

    aphors,inpanicular,

    ;aremostlyass0ciatedwithbirds.Birds,suchassparrowsandlarks,representsign

    camsymbolsforhappinessin

    ;bo

    ArabicandEnglishcultures.Typically,theyareseenasdwellingintheair,thisentailsbeing”up”and”ofr

;thegr0und”.Birdsarealsoassociatedwith

    eedom.ItseemsintuitiVelyacceptabletorelatetherelationship

    ;bet,veenfreed0mandhappinesstotheVeryfactthateedomisonep0ssibles0urcef0rhappiness.K6Vecses

    ;(1991,p.31)seesthatinoursimplmedviewf0rtheworld,wehavethebeliefthatwhen”wear

    efree,weare

    ;happy…andwhatseemstobegoing0nhereismatwecomprehenda/an(em0tiona1)state(1ikehappiness)in

    ;tesofapossiblesourceofthatstate(f‟reedom).

    ;Inaddition,orientationalmetaph0rsinvolveanothersonofsimilaritybet,veenEnglishandabicinwhich

    ;f1yingisanactivitythatisperf0nIledbyahumano

    an,mainlythe”hean”.Andweknowthatoneofthe

    ;symptomsofhappinessistheincreaseinbloodpressureandheartbeating.So,ahappypersonfeelsthathishean

    ;isbeatingveryquicklyandstronglyandthatitisgoingtofreeitselffromthechestandf1iesaway.S0,the0

    ;metphorsof”nyingbirds‟‟and”nyingheart”arepresentinthetwolanguages,sincetheyrepresentauniVersaI

    ;bodyreactioninthemomentsofhalppiness.ItsvitallysigniflcanttodrawhowArabicinvolvesanotl1ersortof

    ;metaphOricalcOnc

    tualizatiOnindescribingthesignmcanceOfhappiness.ThiscanbeelabOratedinexpressions ;suchas:”ha

    alatcaIayyasahaabatul—hubuuri‟‟(Lit.ThecloudofhappinesswasrainingaboVeme),”sahaa?ibu

    ;1,abtatytanhallu‟‟(Lit.Myc1oudsofhappinessareraining).Inthe1astoArabicexpressionshappinessis

    ;depictedasrainycl0uds,anOtherentailmentfortheOrientatiOnalmetaphorssinceclOudsare,plausibly‟”Offthe

    ;gr0und”.Furthennore,theassociationbetweencloudsandhappinesscanbeattributedtothepleasureandjoy

    ;accompaniedwiththerainbecauseofitsimportancetohumanbeings,animals,plantsandcmps.Thismetaphor

    ;representsanexcepti0nalrepresentationf0rtheflmitfulnessandcheerlnessfhathappinessbringsf0rallcreatures

    ;Cl0udsrepresentasourceforjoyandtotalwe1faref0rthefamersandplants,anditaffectsal1peop1eand

    ;4

    ;Acomparatjvestudyfl0rthemetaphorsusejnhappinessandangerinEnjshandArabic ;creaturesthatarebeneaththem.Happinessdep1ctlOnasaclOudsymbOllzeshOwmuchitisc0nsideredasasOurce

    ;forpleasureandjoyt0theh

    pypersonhimse1eandtoallpeop1eeVencreaturesaroundhim.Inaddition,mis

    ;metaph0rrenectsthesigncanceofwaterandraininginmOstArabicsOcieties.ManyArabsocietiesaredestined

    ;toliVeinaridsearinglandswherewaterandrainarememostpreciouselementsoflife.Inadditiontothat,by

    ;depictinghappinessasc1Ouds,itisportrayedasaVitalshelterandshadowagainsttheheatofthesun.K6Vecses

    ;(199l,p.36)giVesmanyeXplanationsforthecognitiVemotiVati0nfortheassociationbetweenhappinessand

    ;upward0rientation.Inoneofthem,heseesmatthisconceptllaIizationisaVer),

    icalexpressiVeresponse

    ;assOciatedwithhappinesswhichissmi1ing.InmanyexamplesillustratedfromEng1ishsmilingcOmesasanatural

    ;accompanyingactwithhappiness(1ike”ShewassInilingwithhappiness”and”Theywereallsmiles”0r”He

    ;gried

    omeartoear”).Nowhentbeintenseoftbehappinessstateincreases,then,slnjJingincreasestoreach

    ;thestateoflaughing(e.g.”Hewassohappyhelaughedoutloud”).K6Vecses(1991,p.36)seesthatwhenwe

    ;smiIe,theendsofthemoumtumupwards,andwhenwearesadtheytumdOwnward.An0thermotivatiOnsfor

    ;conceptualizinghappinesswithupwardorientatiOnmaybethatitsass0ciationwithsOmebehaVi0ralresponses

    ;thatinVolVeanupwardmoVement?

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