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Applying

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ApplyingApplyi

    Applying

2008???(25?PSCIENCE&TECHNOLOGYINFORMATION

    ;1.TheoryandPrinciple

    ;Addressingtheconceptofequivalenceintranslation,Nida(1964: ;156)claimsthatiatherecanbenoabsolutecorrespondencebetween ;languagesin.Nida(1964:136)proposesthenotionofDynamicEquivalence ;(D-E)intranslation,whichoffersiatheclosestnaturalequivalenttothe ;source-languagemessageininbothmeaningandstyle.Theimpactonthe ;receptorishighlightedsothatiatheresponseofthereceptorisessentially ;likethatoftheoriginalreceptorsin(Nida&Taber,1969:20). ;Nida&Taber(1969)dividestranslationprocessintothreestages ;iManalysis,transferandrestructuring,whicharesummarizedand ;explainedindetailbelow:

    ;(A)Analysis

    ;(A1)Describehowsemanticelementsarepresentedsyntactically; ;(A2)Themeaningisdiscernedbyidentifyingthedistinctivefeatures ;oftheword/expression(e.g.semanticcomponent)(Nida1975); ;(A3)Semanticstyleshallbeaccountedfor;

    ;(A4)Thebackgroundismadeclearandthesentenceisparaphrased. ;(B)Transfer

    ;(B1)Atranslatorshallbelessconcernedwithiaverbalconsistencyin, ;e.g.matchingequivalenttermsinsourceandtargetlanguages,butfocus ;oniacontextualconsistencyin,e.g.thesociolinguisticanddiscourse ;contexts(Nida&Taber,1969:199).

    ;(B2)Semanticadjustmentandredistribution,suchasexpansionand ;synthesis,areconducted.

    ;(C)Restructuring

    ;ia[S]tylisticformappropriatetothereceptorlanguageandthe ;intendedreceptorsinisattainedandsimilarreceptor-impactcomparable ;tothatoforiginalreceptorsisconstructed.

    ;Nida(1964)claimsthatthereisnoabsolutetechnique,butrather ;generaltendencyintheapplicationofDynamicEquivalencein ;translationprocess.Ithinkthethreestagesareintegrallyinfusedbecause ;boththemeaningandstyleareprocessedineachstage.Theartificial ;divisionshallserveasanindicativeprinciple,notanoperationmanual. ;2.Examples

    ;TwoarticletitlesaretranslatedbytheauthortoillustratetheD-E ;principle.ThearticlesarefromFarEasternEconomicReview,whichis ;anestablishedweeklymagazineofDowJones&CompanyInc. ;2.1.iaChina:BouncingBackfromtheBrinkin(A)Analysis

    ;(A1)Syntactic:China(noun):Bouncing(verb)Back(adverb)from ;(preposition)theBrink(noun).

    ;(A2)Meaning:Jumpbackstronglyandsuddenlyfromtheedgeofa ;steepplace,suchasonemightfallover(OED).

    ;(A3)Semanticstyle:iaBouncingin,iaBackinandiaBrinkinallstartwith ;theinitialletterofiaBin,resultinginalliteration.Thetitleitselfisa ;metaphor.

    ;(A4)Backgroundandparaphrase:InAugust2003,2monthsafter ;WorldHealthOrganization(WHO)lifteditsSARS-relatedtravelwarning ;onChina,Chinaioseconomywasrecoveringremarkablyfromthis ;(B)Transfer

    ;(B1)Context:Chinaiosexportwasbooming,andeconomistspredicted ;asubstantialpost-SARSaccelerationofGDPgrowth(7.5%)(Dolven, ;2003).Theverbalphrasedescribestheeffectoftherecoveryasswiftand ;effective.

    ;(B2)Semanticadjustment/redistribution:Itisveryhardtorender ;thephonological3-iaBininitialsinChinese.Tocompensatethissemantic ;lossandcapturethespeedyandremarkablefeatureofrecovery,idiomatic ;phrasesaretobeemployed.Moreover,literaltranslationwouldappear ;redundantandcouldnotcreatetheaestheticreactiontothemetaphor ;thattheoriginalreceptorwouldhave.Properidiomaticphraseswould ;presenteffectiveandfigurativerenderingofthismetaphorinChinese. ;Thetranslationshallalsomakethetemporalfactorexplicit,i.e.thepost- ;SARSscenario.

    ;(C)Restructuring

    ;Styleandimpact:Thepost-SARSscenarioisrenderedasia?????? ;?Lin.ia????inistheChinesenameforSARS.ia??inmeansmisfortuneand ;disaster,whichdepictsSARSasatragedyandanexperienceofhardship. ;ia?Linclearlyindicatesthetemporalfactor.Besidethisaddition,iaBouncing ;BackfromtheBrinkinisrenderedastheidiomofia???5?p?Pin,whichis ;literallytranslatedasia(under)averydangerouscircumstance(onehas ;managedto)escapefromthedangerandsavedhis/herlifein.Sometimesit ;isusedinmartial-artsnovelstohighlighttheactionasincredible. ;Therefore,thetranslationoftheentireheadingis:?9??:???????L,???5 ;?p?P:0

    ;2.2.iaChidingChen/BushtoChen:Don’tRiskItin

    ;(A)Analysis

    ;(A1)Syntactic:Chide(verb)Chen(noun)/Bush(noun)to

    ;(preposition)Chen(noun):Don’t(modalverb)Risk(verb)It(pronoun).

    ;(A2)Meaning:iaChideinispolishedwrittenformofiascoldin,which ;meanschecking,blamingandrepressingsomeoneinloudandangry ;expressions(OED).iaRiskinmeansventuringintoadisastroussituation. ;(A3)Semanticstyle:IniaChidingChenin,bothwordsstartwiththe ;initialofiaCin,leadingtoalliteration.iaDon’tRiskItincanappearin

;spokenEnglish.

    ;(A4)Backgroundandparaphrase:In2004,ChenShuibian,the ;regionalleaderofTaiwanprovince,wasscoldedbyBush,whourged ;ChennottotaketherisktodeclareTaiwanasanindependentcountry. ;(B)Transfer

    ;(B1)Context:BushrebukedChenShuibianbeforeChenios

    ;inaugurationspeechinMay2004andrequestedChentoensurethat ;iaTaiwanisnotmovingtowardsindependence,orrisklosingAmerican ;supportin(Lawrence2004:28).Chinesegovernmentrepeatedlyreaffirms ;itspositionthatitwillneverabandontheemploymentofarm-forcesto ;achievenationalreunificationwithTaiwanifChendarestoclaim ;independence,i.e.iariskitin.TaiwanissueisaboutChinaiosterritorial ;integrityandnationalsovereignty,whichisnon-negotiable. ;(B2)Semanticadjustment/redistribution:Totranslateit,averb ;iaBin,iaB(?T???(55??)

    ;ApplyingthePrincipleofDynamicEquivalenceinthe

    ;TranslationoftheHeadingofNewsReport

    ;????

    ;(?????N????????????????????210018)

    ;:YAbstract:FNidaiosfamousnotionofDynamicEquivalenceintranslationprocessischaracterizedbythreestages-analysis,transferand

    ;restructuring,whichareexplainedindetail.Theapplicationoftheseprinciplesareillustrate

    dbyprovidingstep-by-stepexplanationonthetranslation

    ;processofheadingsoftwonewsreports,whichareselectedfromFarEasternEconomicReview.

    ;:YKeywords:FDynamicEquivalence;heading;news

    ;g??.?????Ag?

    ;6

    ;epidemiccrisis.phraseisinsertedinushtoChenmakingitush7 ;00

    ;2008???(25?PSCIENCE&TECHNOLOGYINFORMATION

    ;??

    ;g?

    ;(?&???(600??)sternlytoldChenin.Theliteraltranslationofiariskitin ;doesnotcomplywithChinesegrammarandiaitinneedstobesemantically ;andmeaningfullycontextualized.Therefore,iaitinisdeletedandaphrase ;describingaconcreteactiontocharacterizetheiariskinisemployed. ;(C)RestructuringStyleandimpact:TotranslateiaChidein,ia?(inis ;chosentorenderconsistencywiththeoriginalrefinedform.ia?(inoften ;appearsinaChineseidiom,???(???&,whichmeansiareprimandthe ;evilsofthesocietyinahighlycriticalwayin.Soia?(inmeansreproachand ;reprimand.TocoincidethetwoinitialiaCin,ia?(inhasthesamesoundin ;Chinesewithia?]ininCheniosnameiM?!?w?].Meanwhile,anadverb ;indicatingthedegree,ia??in(meaningiaseverallyin),isemployedtomodify

    ;ia?(ininordertoreinforcethemomentumofreprimandaswellasto ;conformtocustomaryChinesewayofwrittenexpression.ThusiaChiding ;Chen/BushtoCheninistranslatedas?8?????(?!?w?],whichretains ;originalphonologicalandsemanticfeatures.

    ;IniaDon’tRiskItin,oralmodeisadoptedtorevealtheoriginalstyle

    ;ofiatalkingin,whichisnotcoatedindiplomaticterms.Therefore,iaDoniotin ;isrenderedasthecolloquialtermofia?,inratherthantheformal ;xfia??iniaRIinyfqy

    ;xyzio

    ;commitcrime-???H????,whichliterallymeansiariskdangerin ;desperationinandiatomakearecklessmovein.Inaddition,iaitinis ;contextualizedintheexpressionofia??????in(meaningiaaggressively ;seekingindependencein)toserveasbackgroundinformation.Therefore, ;thetranslationoftheentireheadingis:?8?????(?!?w?]:?,???H?????? ;????:0

    ;:YReferences:F

    ;[1]Dolven,B.China:BouncingBackfromtheBrink.FarEasternEconomicReview. ;[N].2003??8?E,166???(34?P?(48??.

    ;[2]Lawrence,S.ChidingChen/BushtoChen:Don’tRiskIt.FarEasternEconomic

    ;Review.[N].2004??5?E.167???(20?P,28-31??.

    ;[3]Nida,E.PrinciplesofCorrespondence.1964.InVenuti,L(ed.).TranslationStudies ;Reader.[M]London:Routledge,2000.126-140.

    ;[4]Nida,E.&Taber,C.TheTheoryandPracticeofTranslation,[M]Leiden:Brill.1969

    ;Nida,E.Exploringsemanticstructures.[M]Munchen:Fink.1975. ;[5]OED:OxfordEnglishDictionaryOnline.[???g?????q??]http://dictionary.oed. ;com.

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    ;[2]??????,?’?E?3?F?????????????4???????u?L?&:0?????f??????(J)2004.6.

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