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LOGICAL REASONING

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LOGICAL REASONING

    Logical Reasoning Bible

    

    I Primary Objectives:

    ?. Determine whether the stimulus contains an argument or if it is only a set of

    factual statements;

    ?. If the stimulus contains an argument, identify the conclusion of the argument; If

    the stimulus contains a fact set, examine each fact;

    ?. If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or

    weak;

    ?. Read closely and know precisely what the author said. Do not generalize;

    ?. Carefully read and identify the question stem; Do not assume that certain words

    are automatically associated with certain question types;

    ?. Prephrase; After reading the question stem, take a moment to mentally formulate

    your answers to the question stem;

    ?. Always read each of the five answers;

    ?. Separate the answer choice into contenders and losers; After completing this

    process, review the contenders and decide which is the correct one;

    ?. If all 5 answers appear to be losers, return to the stimulus and reevaluate the

    argument.

    II Basics of Logical Reasoning

    Premise Indicators Counter-Premise Indicators Conclusion Indicators

    because, since, for, for But, yet however, on the thus, therefore, hence,

    example, for the reason that, other hand, admittedly, in consequently, as a result,

    in that, given that, as contrast, although, even so, accordingly, clearly,

    indicated by, due to, owing though, still, whereas, in must be that, shows that,

    to, this can be seen from, spite of, despite, after all conclude that, follows that,

    we know this by, for this reason,

    furthermore, moreover,

    besides, in addition, whats

    more, after all

    1

    Quantity Indicators Probability Indicators

    all, every, most, many, some, several, few, Must, will, always, not always, probably, sole, only, not all, none likely, would, not necessarily, could,

    rarely, never

I 题型

    Family #1 Must Be or Prove Family

    1. Must Be True Questions

    Fact Test The correct answer to a Must Be True

    question can always be proven by referring

    to the facts stated in the stimulus.

    You can often predict the occurrence of

    Must Bu True questions because the

    stimulus of most Must Be True questions

    does not contain a conclusion.

    Correct Answer Types ; Paraphrased answers, restating a

    portion of the stimulus in different

    terms.

    ; Combination answers, resulting

    from combining 2 or more

    statements in the stimulus.

    Incorrect Answer Types ; Could Be True answers;

    ; Exaggerated answers;

    ; New Info;

    ; Shell Game;

    ; The Opposite answers;

    ; Reverse answers.

    2

2. Main Point Questions

    Many Main Point problems Main Point---Fill in the Incorrect Answer Types:

    feature a structure that Blank Questions

    a. Answers that are true but places the conclusion either

    do not encapsulate the The blank is always at the at the beginning or in the

    authors point; end of the stimulus. There is middle of the stimulus.

    a conclusion indicator at the

    b. Answers that repeat start of the sentence to help

    premises of the argument. you recognized that are

    being asked to fill in the

    conclusion of the argument.

3. Point at Issue

    Incorrect Answers in Point a. Ethical versus Factual Situations;

    at Issue Questions

    b. Dual Agreement or Dual Disagreement;

    c. The View of 1 Speaker is Unknown.

    The Agree/Disagree Test The correct answer must produce responses where one

    speaker would say I agree, the statement is correct and

    the other speaker would say I disagree, the statement is

    incorrect. If those two responses are not produced, then

    the answer is incorrect.

    3

    4. Method of Reasoning

    Method of Reasoning Questions Types The stimulus for a Method of Reasoning question will contain an argument, and the

    argument can contain either valid or invalid reasoning.

    You must watch for the presence of the premise and conclusion indicators.

    Use Fact Test to eliminate answers. If an answer choice describes an event that did not occur in the stimulus, then that answer

    is incorrect.

    Several types of incorrect questions:

    ; New Elements Answers;

    ; Half Right, Half Wrong;

    ; Exaggerated Answers;

    ; Opposite Answers;

    ; Reverse Answers.

    Method of ReasoningArgument Part MethodAP questions often feature 2

    Question conclusionsa main conclusion and

    subsidiary conclusionwhere the main

    conclusion is typically placed in the first or second sentence and the last sentence

    contains the subsidiary conclusion.

    Trick: the test makers in MethodAP is to

    create wrong answers that describe parts of

    the argument other than the part named in the question stem.

4

5. Flaw Questions

    Common Errors of Reasoning Explained

    a. Uncertain Use of a Term or Concept i. Appeal Fallacies

    ; Appeal to authority;

    ; Appeal to Popular Opinion/Appeal

    to Numbers;

    ; Appeal to Emotion.

    b. Source Argument j. Survey Errors

    ad hominem, or attack the person (or ; Survey uses a biased sample; source)

    ; Survey questions are improperly

    ; Focusing on the motives of the constructed;

    source;

    ; Respondents to the survey give

    ; Focusing on the actions of the inaccurate responses.

    source.

    c. Circular Reasoning k. Exceptional Case/Overgeneralization d. Errors of Conditional Reasoning l. Errors of Compositions and Division

    ; Mistaken Negation; 以偏概全或以全概偏

    ; Mistaken Reversal;

    ;