Logical Reasoning Bible
解 题 思 路 整 理
I Primary Objectives:
?. Determine whether the stimulus contains an argument or if it is only a set of
?. If the stimulus contains an argument, identify the conclusion of the argument; If
the stimulus contains a fact set, examine each fact;
?. If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or
?. Read closely and know precisely what the author said. Do not generalize;
?. Carefully read and identify the question stem; Do not assume that certain words
are automatically associated with certain question types;
?. Prephrase; After reading the question stem, take a moment to mentally formulate
your answers to the question stem;
?. Always read each of the five answers;
?. Separate the answer choice into contenders and losers; After completing this
process, review the contenders and decide which is the correct one;
?. If all 5 answers appear to be losers, return to the stimulus and reevaluate the
II Basics of Logical Reasoning
Premise Indicators Counter-Premise Indicators Conclusion Indicators
because, since, for, for But, yet however, on the thus, therefore, hence,
example, for the reason that, other hand, admittedly, in consequently, as a result,
in that, given that, as contrast, although, even so, accordingly, clearly,
indicated by, due to, owing though, still, whereas, in must be that, shows that,
to, this can be seen from, spite of, despite, after all conclude that, follows that,
we know this by, for this reason,
besides, in addition, what’s
more, after all
Quantity Indicators Probability Indicators
all, every, most, many, some, several, few, Must, will, always, not always, probably, sole, only, not all, none likely, would, not necessarily, could,
Family #1 Must Be or Prove Family
1. Must Be True Questions
Fact Test The correct answer to a Must Be True
question can always be proven by referring
to the facts stated in the stimulus.
You can often predict the occurrence of
Must Bu True questions because the
stimulus of most Must Be True questions
does not contain a conclusion.
Correct Answer Types ; Paraphrased answers, restating a
portion of the stimulus in different
; Combination answers, resulting
from combining 2 or more
statements in the stimulus.
Incorrect Answer Types ; Could Be True answers;
; Exaggerated answers;
; New Info;
; Shell Game;
; The Opposite answers;
; Reverse answers.
2. Main Point Questions
Many Main Point problems Main Point---Fill in the Incorrect Answer Types:
feature a structure that Blank Questions
a. Answers that are true but places the conclusion either
do not encapsulate the The blank is always at the at the beginning or in the
author’s point; end of the stimulus. There is middle of the stimulus.
a conclusion indicator at the
b. Answers that repeat start of the sentence to help
premises of the argument. you recognized that are
being asked to fill in the
conclusion of the argument.
3. Point at Issue
Incorrect Answers in Point a. Ethical versus Factual Situations;
at Issue Questions
b. Dual Agreement or Dual Disagreement;
c. The View of 1 Speaker is Unknown.
The Agree/Disagree Test The correct answer must produce responses where one
speaker would say “I agree, the statement is correct” and
the other speaker would say “I disagree, the statement is
incorrect”. If those two responses are not produced, then
the answer is incorrect.
4. Method of Reasoning
Method of Reasoning Questions Types The stimulus for a Method of Reasoning question will contain an argument, and the
argument can contain either valid or invalid reasoning.
You must watch for the presence of the premise and conclusion indicators.
Use Fact Test to eliminate answers. If an answer choice describes an event that did not occur in the stimulus, then that answer
Several types of incorrect questions:
; “New” Elements Answers;
; Half Right, Half Wrong;
; Exaggerated Answers;
; Opposite Answers;
; Reverse Answers.
Method of Reasoning—Argument Part Method—AP questions often feature 2
Question conclusions—a main conclusion and
subsidiary conclusion—where the main
conclusion is typically placed in the first or second sentence and the last sentence
contains the subsidiary conclusion.
Trick: the test makers in Method—AP is to
create wrong answers that describe parts of
the argument other than the part named in the question stem.
5. Flaw Questions
Common Errors of Reasoning Explained
a. Uncertain Use of a Term or Concept i. Appeal Fallacies
; Appeal to authority;
; Appeal to Popular Opinion/Appeal
; Appeal to Emotion.
b. Source Argument j. Survey Errors
ad hominem, or attack the person (or ; Survey uses a biased sample; source)
; Survey questions are improperly
; Focusing on the motives of the constructed;
; Respondents to the survey give
; Focusing on the actions of the inaccurate responses.
c. Circular Reasoning k. Exceptional Case/Overgeneralization d. Errors of Conditional Reasoning l. Errors of Compositions and Division
; Mistaken Negation; 以偏概全或以全概偏
; Mistaken Reversal;