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Study Guide for Test 2

By Beatrice Thomas,2014-02-09 09:45
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Study Guide for Test 2

    Study Guide for Test 2 Fall 2010

Test format:

    ; on Scantron (I will supply the scantron sheets)

    ; 50 questions, in multiple choice, T/F, or possibly matching questions

    ; Bring a #2 pencil

    Lectures/Chapters covered: Lectures 6-10 (Chapters 4 and 5).

    Source of questions: The test will come from

    ; the Lecture Outline Notes, based on the in-class questions in this document. As explained in

    class, the in-class questions will be changed for the text (from true to false, etc. but they reflect

    precisely the terms and concepts you should know)

    ; the “on your own” questions. At least one question from each of these will be on the test.

    ; the “not in text” - the RED notes you took in class. From 5 to 10 questions will come from

    these

    Study tips:

    ; Study/read over your class notes. For some students it will be helpful to review the same

    concepts in the textbook the visuals are a good reminder of concepts covered.

    ; Then look at the questions below and see if you can answer them. Do you know why a statement

    isn’t true? Do you precisely the definition of a term? Remember, the definition for one term,

    such as elevation, may be used in a T/F paired wrongly with the definition of another term, such

    as Often I will take a group of T/F questions in the notes and turn them into a multiple choice

    question, changing the items that were true or false. Often a multiple choice question will ask

    “Which is FALSE?” Therefore you must understand the material in the questions, don’t just

    memorize the answers to the questions the way they are, because true statement will be

    changed to false, etc. For example, if the answer is C in a multiple choice question in the

    notes, another answer will be correct on the test.

    On your own (answers not in the lecture notes; look them up in the textbook)

Page 104 of Geosystems:

    What is the fastest growing energy source in the world?

Which two countries lead the world in wind power production?

    Page 106: Which is cheaper in rural sites: rooftop photovoltaic (solar) energy generation or constructing a powerline?

Page 130:

    Since 1978, warming increased to _____?F per decade (nearly 7 times the rate of the last century). Sea ice is melting at a rate of ______per decade since 1978.

    The sea ice thins as warmer air melts the surface and warmer waters attack the base of the ice. Since 1970, about _____ of the Arctic sea ice has disappeared.

Lecture 6

Matching:

    1. Radiation being bent

    2. Radiation being scattered downward

    3. Radiation being redirected by gases and dust

    4. Passage of energy through the atmosphere and water

    5. Shorter visible lightwaves being scattered

    6. Mirages

    7. Longer visible lightwaves being scattered

    8. All visible lightwaves being scattered

    9. Eight additional minutes of daylight

    a) Diffuse radiation

    b) Sky is blue

    c) Refraction

    d) Sunsets

    e) Transmission

    f) Smog

    g) Scattering

Albedo involves:

    A. refraction

    B. reflectivity

    C. diffuse radiation

    D. scattering of thermal energy

Which has the highest albedo?

    A. White sand

    B. Water where the sun is directly overhead C. A forest

    D. dark asphalt highway

Which is not true regarding albedo?

    A. Darker colors absorb more insolation

    B. Low sun angles over water produce higher albedos than high sun angles

    C. Smooth surfaces have higher albedo than rough surfaces D. The Earth’s albedo is sometimes called Earthshine

    E. The Earth has a lower albedo than the moon does

T/F When clouds prevent insolation from reaching the ground, it is known as cloud-albedo forcing.

T/ F When clouds trap longwave radiation from earth, which raises temperatures, it is known as cloud-

    greenhouse forcing.

T/F After Mount Pinatabu exploded, global temperatures went up.

When reduced amount of light reaches the earth’s surface, often due to pollution, it is called:

    A. Global dimming

    B. Aerosol dimming

    C. Earth’s human albedo factor

    D. Global darkening

Lecture 7

Which is false?

    A. More insolation (energy) is absorbed by the atmosphere than by land and water

    B. Some absorbed energy is converted into chemical energy by plants

    C. Absorbed energy is typically converted into shortwave energy

    D. Absorbed energy is typically converted into longwave thermal infrared energy

Matching:

    1. Hurricane Ike moves west through the Gulf of Mexico

    2. Warm air rises in the classroom, making the seats higher in the auditorium warmer.

    3. Heat is transferred through soil particles.

    4. Your car sits in the parking lot and bakes. You open the sun roof and the air rushes up and out.

    5. You try to walk barefoot on a hot asphalt highway and your feet get so hot it feels like they’re

    getting burned.

    a) Convection

    b) Conduction

    c) Advection

T/F The term “greenhouse effect” reflects the fact that global warming processes work exactly the way

    greenhouses do.

    T/F Greenhous gases can absorb long-wave radiation and emit it back to earth.

T/F Methane needs oxygen to form.

T/F Methane stays in the atmosphere for centuries

    T/F Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide is.

Which was NOT mentioned as a place where methane forms?

    A. Waste deposits

    B. Stomachs of cattle

    C. Stomachs of termites

    D. Rice paddies

    E. Coal mining

    F. Oil drilling

    G. Corn fields

Which is false?

    A. Light, feathery clouds transmit the most insolation.

    B. Light, feathery clouds produce a greater greenhouse forcing and a net warming of earth.

    C. Light, feathery clouds produce more albedo than low, thick clouds

    D. Low, thick clouds have a cooling effect.

    T/F The latent heat of evaporation is the heat that might potentially (latently) be transmitted from the ground.

T/F Desert areas lose more heat through evaporation.

T/F Humid areas lose more heat through sensible heat transfer.

T/F The highest values for sensible heat are in the subtropics.

T/F The highest values for the latent heat of evaporation are in the tropics.

    T/F The time around the December solstice is typically the coldest of the year.

T/F High noon is typically the warmest part of the day.

T/F There is an energy surplus around the equator

T/F There is an energy deficit around the poles

    T/F Energy input/output is about equal around 36? latitude, meaning there is no annual surplus or deficit

    T/F Stratus (low thick clouds) cause heat to be trapped (absorbed and radiated back to earth), but do not let as much insolation reach the earth as cirrus clouds do, so they have a net cooling effect.

    T/F Cirrus (high, feathery clouds) let more insolation in than stratus clouds, and they also trap (absorb) heat and radiate it back to earth, so they have a net warming effect.

Lecture 8

    Which are false?

    A. Urban areas are cooler than the surrounding countryside; they radiate less heat.

    B. Urban areas have a higher albedo than the surrounding countryside

    C. Humans remove heat from cities through air conditioning and heating systems.

    D. The “canyon” effect of buildings means they re-radiate heat and halt wind flow.

    E. Urban areas are sometimes called “Urban Albedo Islands”

    T/F Approximately 3 months of insolation received at the surface in the US equals the amount of fossil fuels we burn.

    T/F A typical US building receives more sun from the outside than is needed to heat the inside.

Which is FALSE?

    a) Temperature is a measure of the average amount of motion of individual molecules in matter

    b) Heat is a form of energy that flows from one system or object to another because the two are at

    different temperatures

    c) The freezing point for water varies is always 32?F.

    d) There is atomic motion in a frozen, snowy landscape.

Matching:

    1. Fahrenheit

    2. Celsius

    3. Kelvin

    A. Divided into 100 degrees using decimal system.

    B. Boiling point is 212 degrees

    C. Boiling point is 100 degrees

    D. 0 is the point at which ice melts

    E. 0 is the point at which all atomic motion stops

    F. Used in the US

    G. Used in most countries

    H. Used by some scientists

T/F Temperatures become higher as latitude increases.

Which is true?

    A. Night time cooling tends to be less in mountainous places than at lower elevations

    B. Surfaces lose heat more slowly at higher elevations because the atmosphere is denser there.

    C. The insolation received at higher elevations is less intense because of the thinner atmosphere.

    D. Average air temperatures are cooler at higher elevations

    E. Temperature ranges between day and night are not as great at high elevations as they are at low

    elevations.

Which is False?

    A. Clouds tend to decrease night time temperatures.

    B. In general, clouds tend to decrease daytime temperatures.

    C. Cirrus clouds do not tend to decrease daytime temperatures.

    D. At night, clouds act as insulation.

    E. At night, clouds radiate longwave energy, which increases their ability to keep nights warm.

    T/F The transparency of water means that oceans are not able to hold as much heat as land.

T/F When water evaporates, it turns into water vapor.

    T/F Sunlight is able to penetrate ocean water to a depth of about 20 feet.

    T/F The energy stored in water vapor is known as the latent heat of evaporation.

Which is true?

    A. Specific heat means the temperature at a specific place.

    B. It takes less heat to increase the temperature of water than it does land.

    C. Water heats up more quickly than land.

    D. Water cools down more quickly than land.

    E. Because water moves, energy gets spread out more, so the water can store more energy than land

    can.

Lecture 9

Matching:

    1. Continental climate A. Moderating influence of ocean

    2. Marine climate B. Typically in interior of continents

    3. Greater temperature ranges

    4. Low range in temperatures

    Which of the above climographs show marine climates? Continental?

The thermal equator is:

    A. The average heat directly at the equator during July

    B. The average heat directly at the equator for the whole year

    C. 0 degrees latitude

    D. an isotherm connecting all points of highest mean temperature across the globe.

T/F An isoline connects lines of increasing value.

T/F An isotherm connects lines of equal humidity.

Which is NOT true?

    A. The biggest extremes in temperature are in the northern hemisphere continents

    B. The thermal equator dips south in January over land

    C. The hottest places in the world in July are the islands at the Tropic of Cancer

    D. The thermal equator peaks north in July over land.

    T/F The thermal equator is over the northern hemisphere deserts in July

T/F In July, the thermal equator is farther south in South America than it is in the Pacific Ocean,

    because the land is warmer than the water at the same latitude.

T/F In January, the thermal equator is farther south over land in North America than it is over the Pacific

    Ocean because the water is cooler than the land.

    T/F Methane gas is plentiful in tundra (and other wet) soils.

T/F Plants (organic matter) break down quickly in tundra (and other wet) soils because there is so much

    oxygen.

T/F High temperature stress leads to hypothermia

T/F Low temperature stress leads to hyperthermia

T/F The wind chill factor reflects the fact that as wind speed increases, we lose heat more slowly from

    our bodies.

T/F The heat index is a measurement of the human body’s reaction to air temperature and water vapor

    (humidity)

    T/F We lose heat more easily from our bodies when humidity is high.

    Which is NOT a way our bodies regulate for/react to cold (hypothermia)?

    A. Constrict surface blood vessels

    B. Decrease physical activity.

    C. Balling up

    D. Shivering

    E. Increased urine volume

    Which is NOT a way our bodies regulate for/react to heat (hyperthermia)?

    A. Dilation of surface blood vessels

    B. Balling up to make less body surface exposed to air

    C. Sweating

    D. Decreasing physical activity

Lecture 10 (note: the topic of the notes say Lecture 9)

    B

    A

In the diagram above, how would A (amount reflected by surface) be decreased?

    A. More melting of the Arctic ice cap

    B. Building more highways

    C. Increasing snow fall

If less insolation is reflected, and more is absorbed, what will that do to the temperature?

What are the Greenhouse gases?

    A. Methane, carbon dioxide, water vapor

    B. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

    C. Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor

    D. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, methane

    Label the following as carbon sinks or carbon sources

    A. Fossil fuels that are buried underground

    B. Fossil fuels that are being used by your car

    C. The ocean floor

    D. Currents upwelling from the ocean floor

    E. Forests

    F. Forests that are being burned or cut down

    G. Methane buried in tundra soils

    H. Methane emitted from the melting of tundra soils

Why does this map show that there is more carbon in some soils than in others?

    In the blue countries shown in the map above, land uses that STORE carbon have risen. In the pink countries, they’ve decreased. Why?

Which are the two largest emitters of greenhouse gases of the economic sectors listed below?

    Electric Power Industry

    Transportation

    Industry

    Agriculture

    Commercial

    Residential

    What are top 4 ways in which US households cause the emission of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, of the factors listed below?

    Water heating

    Air Travel

    Refrigeration

    Auto travel

    Mass Transit

    Heating and Air Conditioning

    Computers

    Lighting

    The map above shows carbon dioxide emissions per capita (per person). The darker the area, the higher the emissions. Looking at countries in the map above, which is in the correct order from high per person use to low?

    A. US, China, Brazil

    B. China, US, Canada

    C. US, Europe, China

    The map above shows total carbon dioxide emissions by country. Why, given the differences in per capita CO2 emissions, are China and the US equal in total emissions? Canada and India? Which continent has the lowest total emissions? Why?

    What does the graph above tell us about the reasons for rising carbon dioxide levels? Answer: Population in industrialized countries has increased to over a billion people, all of whom engage in activities that cause the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Population in developing countries has risen even more, so carbon dioxide levels are likely to rise still more in the future.

How many degrees will Atlanta’s temperature likely change in the next 20 years?

    A. 2 degrees C (4 F)

    B. 3 degrees C (6 F)

    C. 4 degrees C (8 F)

    For the next generation, what will Atlanta’s temperature be at maximum? At minimum?

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