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Study Guide for Test 2

By Beatrice Thomas,2014-02-09 09:45
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Study Guide for Test 2

    Study Guide for Test 2 Fall 2010

Test format:

    ; on Scantron (I will supply the scantron sheets)

    ; 50 questions, in multiple choice, T/F, or possibly matching questions

    ; Bring a #2 pencil

    Lectures/Chapters covered: Lectures 6-10 (Chapters 4 and 5).

    Source of questions: The test will come from

    ; the Lecture Outline Notes, based on the in-class questions in this document. As explained in

    class, the in-class questions will be changed for the text (from true to false, etc. but they reflect

    precisely the terms and concepts you should know)

    ; the “on your own” questions. At least one question from each of these will be on the test.

    ; the “not in text” - the RED notes you took in class. From 5 to 10 questions will come from

    these

    Study tips:

    ; Study/read over your class notes. For some students it will be helpful to review the same

    concepts in the textbook the visuals are a good reminder of concepts covered.

    ; Then look at the questions below and see if you can answer them. Do you know why a statement

    isn’t true? Do you precisely the definition of a term? Remember, the definition for one term,

    such as elevation, may be used in a T/F paired wrongly with the definition of another term, such

    as Often I will take a group of T/F questions in the notes and turn them into a multiple choice

    question, changing the items that were true or false. Often a multiple choice question will ask

    “Which is FALSE?” Therefore you must understand the material in the questions, don’t just

    memorize the answers to the questions the way they are, because true statement will be

    changed to false, etc. For example, if the answer is C in a multiple choice question in the

    notes, another answer will be correct on the test.

    On your own (answers not in the lecture notes; look them up in the textbook)

Page 104 of Geosystems:

    What is the fastest growing energy source in the world?

Which two countries lead the world in wind power production?

    Page 106: Which is cheaper in rural sites: rooftop photovoltaic (solar) energy generation or constructing a powerline?

Page 130:

    Since 1978, warming increased to _____?F per decade (nearly 7 times the rate of the last century). Sea ice is melting at a rate of ______per decade since 1978.

    The sea ice thins as warmer air melts the surface and warmer waters attack the base of the ice. Since 1970, about _____ of the Arctic sea ice has disappeared.

Lecture 6

Matching:

    1. Radiation being bent

    2. Radiation being scattered downward

    3. Radiation being redirected by gases and dust

    4. Passage of energy through the atmosphere and water

    5. Shorter visible lightwaves being scattered

    6. Mirages

    7. Longer visible lightwaves being scattered

    8. All visible lightwaves being scattered

    9. Eight additional minutes of daylight

    a) Diffuse radiation

    b) Sky is blue

    c) Refraction

    d) Sunsets

    e) Transmission

    f) Smog

    g) Scattering

Albedo involves:

    A. refraction

    B. reflectivity

    C. diffuse radiation

    D. scattering of thermal energy

Which has the highest albedo?

    A. White sand

    B. Water where the sun is directly overhead C. A forest

    D. dark asphalt highway

Which is not true regarding albedo?

    A. Darker colors absorb more insolation

    B. Low sun angles over water produce higher albedos than high sun angles

    C. Smooth surfaces have higher albedo than rough surfaces D. The Earth’s albedo is sometimes called Earthshine

    E. The Earth has a lower albedo than the moon does

T/F When clouds prevent insolation from reaching the ground, it is known as cloud-albedo forcing.

T/ F When clouds trap longwave radiation from earth, which raises temperatures, it is known as cloud-

    greenhouse forcing.

T/F After Mount Pinatabu exploded, global temperatures went up.

When reduced amount of light reaches the earth’s surface, often due to pollution, it is called:

    A. Global dimming

    B. Aerosol dimming

    C. Earth’s human albedo factor

    D. Global darkening

Lecture 7

Which is false?

    A. More insolation (energy) is absorbed by the atmosphere than by land and water

    B. Some absorbed energy is converted into chemical energy by plants

    C. Absorbed energy is typically converted into shortwave energy

    D. Absorbed energy is typically converted into longwave thermal infrared energy

Matching:

    1. Hurricane Ike moves west through the Gulf of Mexico

    2. Warm air rises in the classroom, making the seats higher in the auditorium warmer.

    3. Heat is transferred through soil particles.

    4. Your car sits in the parking lot and bakes. You open the sun roof and the air rushes up and out.

    5. You try to walk barefoot on a hot asphalt highway and your feet get so hot it feels like they’re

    getting burned.

    a) Convection

    b) Conduction

    c) Advection

T/F The term “greenhouse effect” reflects the fact that global warming processes work exactly the way

    greenhouses do.

    T/F Greenhous gases can absorb long-wave radiation and emit it back to earth.

T/F Methane needs oxygen to form.

T/F Methane stays in the atmosphere for centuries

    T/F Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide is.

Which was NOT mentioned as a place where methane forms?

    A. Waste deposits

    B. Stomachs of cattle

    C. Stomachs of termites

    D. Rice paddies

    E. Coal mining

    F. Oil drilling

    G. Corn fields

Which is false?

    A. Light, feathery clouds transmit the most insolation.

    B. Light, feathery clouds produce a greater greenhouse forcing and a net warming of earth.

    C. Light, feathery clouds produce more albedo than low, thick clouds

    D. Low, thick clouds have a cooling effect.

    T/F The latent heat of evaporation is the heat that might potentially (latently) be transmitted from the ground.

T/F Desert areas lose more heat through evaporation.

T/F Humid areas lose more heat through sensible heat transfer.

T/F The highest values for sensible heat are in the subtropics.

T/F The highest values for the latent heat of evaporation are in the tropics.

    T/F The time around the December solstice is typically the coldest of the year.

T/F High noon is typically the warmest part of the day.

T/F There is an energy surplus around the equator

T/F There is an energy deficit around the poles

    T/F Energy input/output is about equal around 36? latitude, meaning there is no annual surplus or deficit

    T/F Stratus (low thick clouds) cause heat to be trapped (absorbed and radiated back to earth), but do not let as much insolation reach the earth as cirrus clouds do, so they have a net cooling effect.

    T/F Cirrus (high, feathery clouds) let more insolation in than stratus clouds, and they also trap (absorb) heat and radiate it back to earth, so they have a net warming effect.

Lecture 8

    Which are false?

    A. Urban areas are cooler than the surrounding countryside; they radiate less heat.

    B. Urban areas have a higher albedo than the surrounding countryside

    C. Humans remove heat from cities through air conditioning and heating systems.

    D. The “canyon” effect of buildings means they re-radiate heat and halt wind flow.

    E. Urban areas are sometimes called “Urban Albedo Islands”

    T/F Approximately 3 months of insolation received at the surface in the US equals the amount of fossil fuels we burn.

    T/F A typical US building receives more sun from the outside than is needed to heat the inside.

Which is FALSE?

    a) Temperature is a measure of the average amount of motion of individual molecules in matter

    b) Heat is a form of energy that flows from one system or object to another because the two are at

    different temperatures

    c) The freezing point for water varies is always 32