Illinois Open 2007: Spite of the Long Knives
Packet by Illinois
1. This political entity’s fate was sealed with the fall of Bhamo, after which its last ruler fled to Bassein and was
assassinated by his son. Assuming power after the fall of Pyu to the Nanchao, this kingdom was converted to Theravada
Buddhism after its conquest of Mon. Falling out of power after the defeat by Kublai Khan of Narathihapate at
Ngasaunggyan in 1277, this dynasty’s greatest ruler was probably Anawrahta the Unifier, who set it up as the great rival of the Khmer. FTP, name this empire, also known as the Burman Empire, which unified Burma from its base of power in a
ANSWER: the Kingdom of Pagan (or Pagan Dynasty or Empire; accept Burman Empire before it’s mentioned)
2. One of these contains an encounter with a wolf, who flees though the main character is unarmed. A second criticizes a
woman as “queen of half-men, girt by her crew / Of sickly shame” before praising the selfsame for having “had loftier
thoughts; / To find out death.” A third advises a youth not to trust “Astrological numbers.” The dedicatees of these works
include the aforementioned Leúconoé, Aristius Fuscus, and Cleopatra. The first six of the third book of these are called
“Roman.” The variety in these poems’ meters results probably from the poet attempting to adapt a variety of Greek meters
into his own language, though their mood differs greatly from Pindar’s. FTP, name this set of four books of 103 short, lyric
poems in a variety of meters; the best-known work of Horace.
ANSWER: Horace’s Odes
3. The form of this object is the symmetrized Euler first integral if the Lagrangian density is the scalar product of the field
strength. The isotropic plasma approximation neglects off-diagonal terms in this mathematical object. It contains a term of
the Kronecker delta times the energy density and has a space-like component equal to the Poynting vector, so this rank-two
object gives the Poynting flux through the faces of a differential cube. FTP, name this three-by-three matrix that gives the
inertia transfer associated with electromagnetic field alone and is named for the corrector of Ampére’s law. ANSWER: the Maxwell stress tensor (accept Maxwell energy-momentum tensor; prompt on “stress tensor” or “Maxwell tensor”)
4. In the Deadwood episode “Mr. Wu,” the title character demonstrates that this is the only word of English he knows, using
it to refer to the robbers of his junk courier. As an adjective, it is in the title of a film that cannot legally be shown outside
the physical presence of Robert Frank; that film shares the name of the bad-faith final Decca single by the Rolling Stones,
this word’s namesake “Blues.” Equal parts Bailey’s and butterscotch schnapps make a drink that is named with cowboy and
this word. This insult was used to refer to the driver of a gun truck secretly belonging to Kaiser Söze, so criminals are made
to say “Give me the keys, you [this]” in the lineup at the beginning of The Usual Suspects. Allegedly the only word that can guarantee an R rating, FTP, name this insult referring to the performance of fellatio.
5. Simon Wright’s authoritative study of this person records that his Piano Concerto No. 5 was called a “piano tuners’ orgy.” The dedicatee of this artist’s Cinq preludes refused to play his Guitar Concerto without a written cadenza. In addition to compositions for Andrés Segovia, he created a 1955 Harmonica Concerto; Momoprecoce, a virtuosic piano work; and an operatic version of Yerma. He is best known for a series of 9 compositions the fifth of which has namesake
parts Aria and Dança and which were inspired by his study of The Well-Tempered Clavier as a child. FTP, name this composer best-known for his Bachianas brasileiras; the foremost composer of Brazil.
ANSWER: Heitor Villa-Lobos
6. A diplomat in this clash warned that one side was led by a council of kings, fighting which would be akin to fighting the
Hydra; this was the Thessalonian Cineas. As it began, the leader of the aggressors concluded a treaty with Ptolemy
Keraunos; and Barbula discontinued actions in the Samnite Wars. The Third Punic Treaty led to a Carthaginian defensive
blockade of the Tiber in this conflict, as Carthage sought to protect its interest in Sicily, which was eventually invaded.
Beginning as a dispute with Tarnetum, this war’s characteristic battles include ones at Heraclea and Asculum. FTP, name
this early third-century BCE war named for the King of Epirus and noted for its extremely costly victories.
ANSWER: the Pyrrhic War
7. This person died in Gostynin shortly after being forcibly tonsured. This ruler’s cousin defeated the rebellion of Ivan
Boltnikov, which gained traction from this ruler’s reversal of decision in the Inquest of Uglich; that reversal led to his
downfall as he was compelled to seek help from Charles IX to oust the Thief of Tushino. Wladyslaw IV was elected to
succeed him, but never served. He was proceeded by a man claiming to be the Tsarevich the he himself had declared died
by accident in 1591, the First False Dmitri. FTP, name this last Tsar of the Time of Troubles, who was succeeded by
ANSWER: Vasily IV Shuiksy of Russia (or Vasily Ivanovich, Knyaz Prince Shuysky)
8. One of these “of constructions” was developed by Coquand; its types are values of the first kind. These are related to type
theory through the Curry-Howard correspondence, which applies to the typed kind. An extension of these was posited by
Parigot, who added the bracket operator. Introduced to circumvent Russel’s paradox, these mathematical systems define
mathematics using functions and are especially good at analyzing recursion via the namesake operator. The original
negative result for the halting problem was derived using these, but the Turing machine result is equivalent since every
Turing machine corresponds to statements in these formalisms according to the thesis of Turing and their inventor, Alonzo
Church. FTP, name these so-called calculi named for a greek-letter operator.
ANSWER: lambda calculi (prompt on “calculi” or “calculus”)
9. The central action in this work centers on some clothes and a note left on a riverbank at the urging of a character who
remembers that Afrémov had to save the protagonist at one point. Janácek did not finish his 1916 opera based on this play,
in which Petrovich congratulates the title character on the action that causes him to say “Ah.... Happiness!...” after bidding farewell to Masha, his gypsy lover. This work is probably a polemic against divorce laws as Lisa’s dilemma between exile to Siberia and leaving Victor Karénin induces another character to shoot himself. FTP, name this work about Fédya
Protosov, who had not, in fact, perished; the best-known play of Leo Tolstoy.
ANSWER: The Man Who Was Dead or Zhivoi trup (or The Living Corpse or Redemption or Reparation)
10. The expression of sgk-1 is heightened in this region in response to stress or damage, but interestingly not
methamphetamine intake. This region’s output pathways are the cingulum bundle and the fornix. Studies on lovebirds showed that the removal of this entity resulted in a much higher mobbing frequency. Squire’s studies involved R.B., a
subject who had suffered damage to this area. Consisting of three fields of Cornu Ammonis and the dendrate gyrus, it is part of the limbic system in the medial temporal lobe. Reduction in its size is a strong correlate for Altzheimer’s disease. FTP,
name this region of the brain largely responsible for short-term memory formation that may be named for its resemblance to
ANSWER: the hippocampus
11. Protagonists of this person’s include a man who helps the hotel porter Boris resolve a problem with his daughter,
another who created works entitled Eyes to the Horizon and Complacency, and a third who goes to America with Frank after
Hanada threatens her with a golf club: these are Etsuko; Ryder, a pianist with memory problems; and Masuji Ono, who is
coming to grips with his propagandist past. The author of the screenplay for The Saddest Music in the World, his recent book Never Let Me Go was as well-received as aforementioned The Unconsoled, A Pale View of Hills, and An Artist of the Floating World. He is best known, however, for the tale of Lord Darlington’s butler Stevens, The Remains of the Day. FTP, name this Anglo-Japanese novelist who won the 1989 Booker Prize.
ANSWER: Kazuo Ishiguro
12. Written to address the so-called Übergang problem, the gulf between the results of two of its predecessors, this work
uses the principle of reflection to derive the purposiveness of the title faculty. One section of this book is probably a
polemic against Hume’s “Of the Standard of Taste;” a later section invokes comparisons between Polycletus’ Doryphorous and Miron’s Cow and Michelangelo’s David to discuss the difference between correctitude and beauty. Its two sections
discuss the teleological and aesthetic forms of the titular concept. FTP, name this 1790 work, the third great work of
ANSWER: Critique of Judgment or Kritik der Urteilskraft
13. When the A-field is non-zero, a generalization of this idea due by Rasolt and Vignale holds that goes by its name with
the word “current” added. Based on the fact that the state function is the namesake type of object, this model is like many
other approximate ones in that success depends on the choice of basis functions. This formalism rests on the HK theorems
and can be arrived at by the addition of the Weizsäcker correction and exchange energy the Thomas-Fermi model. The
universal variety of the namesake entity accounts for electron-electron interactions and appears in this theory’s fundamental
equation, the Cohn-Sham equation. FTP, name this quantum approximation used to find many-electron system ground-state
energies using the namesake types of mappings from the electron concentration function.
ANSWER: time-independent Cohn-Sham density functional theory (accept Cohn-Sham theory before “Cohn-Sham”)
14. One term in this identity can be considered as the inverse of the bordered Hessian matrix of the u-function acting on a
vector with u’s maximizing Lagrange multiplier as the only entry. A quick proof of this statement is to equate one of the
relevant functions, of the expenditure for a given utility, to the other, of the utility itself; take a price partial; then use the
Envelope theorem to set the price partial of the expenditure to the uncompensated demand. This fundamental equation of
value theory uses the income and substitution effects to changes in Mashallian and Hicksian demands. FTP, name this
cornerstone of mathematical economics named for a Russian economist and sometimes known as his decomposition.
ANSWER: Slutsky’s equation or decomposition or identity
15. With Tonks, this person names the problem of finding the distribution function for a substance that undergoes the
oscillations named for Tonks and this person. Many of the accomplishments of this scientist are based on the concentric
theory of atomic structure posited in his “The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules.” He is the namesake of a
unit equal to a microtorr-second, approximately the exposure required to deposit a monolayer, a concept that he invented.
He coined a term to refer to ESP studies, ufology and other research apparently following the scientific method but
producing bad results, as distinct from pseudoscience; this is his “pathological science.” FTP, name this coiner of the term
plasma, surface science pioneer, and American winner of the 1932 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
ANSWER: Irving Langmuir
16. This work usually has appended to it a similar work about Do-Well, Do-Better, and Do-Best, and its three texts are
known as A, B, and C, the last of which contains a number of autobiographical passages. Prior to the introduction of the title
character, the narrator follows a noble to Westminster, where she agrees to marry a knight after an attempt at incestuous
marriage is broken up; thus is the story of Lady Fee, the daughter of Falsehood, who tries to marry both Fraud and
Conscience. The narrator of this poem is drawn to the title character, who sets the world to work, through the advice of Holy
Church after he falls asleep in the Malvern Hills. FTP, name this alliterative allegorical work by William Langland about a
tiller of the soil.
ANSWER: William’s Vision of Piers the Plowman
17. In the 95th chapter of God Passes By, Shoghi Effendi identifies Baha’Ullah with this figure. The major resident of
Tusita, he is generally depicted wearing a khama as a girdle and holding a dharmachakra on a lotus. His major prophet is
Asanga, author of the Mahasannipata sutra, which holds that this being will appear after five epochs. The Leshan Giant is a
depiction of this figure, who is usually represented as an Indian prince. Similar to Mithra and Kalkin, his cult arose around
the same time as that of a similar figure, Amitabha. FTP, name this Buddha of Loving Kindness who will lead the world
with true dharma as foreseen by Siddhartha.
ANSWER: Maitreya (prompt on “Buddha” or “bodhisattva”)
18. Dinner parties recur in this person’s works and include one in which everyone is sitting on toilets; one from which
Alicia de Roc and Sergio Russel are unable to leave due to the presence of Leticia; and ones during which the the Thevenots
and Senechals are constantly interrupted. The aforementioned dinners occur in this artist’s The Phantom of Liberty, The
Exterminating Angel, and The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie, which reprises themes brought up in his early work, L'Âge d'or. In his best-known work, he harasses what seems to be the corpse of a woman played by Simone Mareuil and
slashing its eye with a razorblade. FTP, name this director best known for Un Chien andalou, a Surrealist film collaboration
with Salvador Dalí.
ANSWER: Louis Buñuel
19. It’s likely that this work’s children at bottom-right and center-top are from the same model, as both have identical orange curls; only one displays one of the four diffuse halos. The two cherubs in this work have wings of orange, blue, and
brown, part of one of which can be seen through the gray cloak of the figure at left. The figure at right who, like the central
figure, holds a book, is probably St. John the Evangelist, while the figure at left, who is tonsured and holds a wooden cross,
is supposed to be St. Bonaventure, but looks more like St. Francis. Probably a portrait of the artist’s wife Lucrezia, it was
painted for San Francesco dei Macci and its title comes from the statues at the corners of the pedestal on which the title
figure stands. FTP, name this depiction of the Virgin; the best-known work of Andrea del Sarto named for monsters.
ANSWER: the Madonna of the Harpies (accept Madonna of San Francesco dei Macci or close equivalents before “San
Francesco dei Macci”; what we call this work is more of a nickname more than a bone fide title, so be lenient in general;
prompt on things like “Madonna”)
20. Species endemic to this geographic region include Flett’s violet and a namesake marmot. Indirectly named by John
Meares, this region features lakes like Lake Sutherland and Lake Cushman and is drained by such rivers as the Sol Duc and
Dungeness. Home to most Roosevelt elk, it includes the Hoh, Queets, and Quinault forests, the only rain forests in North
America. Roughly demarcated by the line from Aberdeen on the Grays Harbor and its namesake city, this peninsula’s
namesake mountain range is mostly within its namesake national park. The westernmost point of this peninsula is Cape
Alava, the westernmost point in the contiguous United States. FTP, name this peninsula of northwestern Washington.
ANSWER: the Olympic Peninsula
21. Servius and Virgil hold that this being is the mother of the Hesperides. Ovid records that Deucalion first prayed to this
god and recounts the story that she was the original patron of the Oracle of Delphi, which she later donated to Apollo; her
role as revealer of oracles is a natural extension of her job of interpreting the gods’ will. A daughter of Gaea and Cronos,
she supplanted Metis in one position. The mother of the Moriae and Horae, the Fates and Hours, by Zeus, she was known as
Justitia or Justice to the Romans. FTP, name this goddess, the Greek representation of order, usually depicted as a blind
woman with scales.
ANSWER: Themis (accept Justitia or Justice before they’re mentioned and prompt on them afterwards)
22. An early work examining this ruler’s governance was written by F. R. Windgate in 1891 and examines 'Abd al-Qadir’s
propaganda. This person largely secured ascendancy with victory at Kazgei, where the forces of William Hicks were killed
almost to a man. Initially based on Aba Island, he captured Kordofan and founded an empire that would be conquered by a
man whom Queen Victoria rebuked for the mistreatment of this figure’s skull, which may have been fashioned into a
souvenir drinking cup. He ascended to power by defeating Charles Gordon’s defenders of Khartoum in 1885. FTP, name this man who established a theocracy over Sudan in the late nineteenth century after taking the title of the Muslim redeemer.
ANSWER: al-Mahdi or the Mahdi (or Muhammad Ahmad Ibn As-sayyid 'abd Allah)
Illinois Open 2007: Spite of the Long Knives
Packet by Illinois
1. Name each of the following Nigerian authors, FTPE.
 His best-known novel is Sozaboy: A Novel in Rotten English, in which he ball peens Nigerian corruption, but this Ozoni chief achieved a much greater measure of fame when he was executed by the corrupt Nigerian government in 1995.
ANSWER: Kenson Beeson Saro-Wiwa
 One of this writers volumes of short stories tells of some Incidents at the Shrine and recent works include Astonishing
the Gods and Dangerous Love. He is best known for his 1991 work about Azaro and people starving outside Lagos, The
ANSWER: Ben Okri
 This relatively early Nigerian author is known for such Magical Realist depictions of the Nigerian countryside as the
novels The Concubine and The Slave. His plays include Isiburu and Pepper Soup and the Road to Ibadan.
ANSWER: Elechi Amadi
2. The definitive modern text of this work is due to T. Graesse. Also known as the Lombardica historia, it inspired
numerous works including a cantata by Arthur Sullivan. FTPE:
 Name this thirteenth-century hagiographical work.
ANSWER: The Golden Legend or Legenda Aurea
 The Golden Legend is the best-known work of this Dominican abbot also known for his Chronicle of Genoa. He is
beatified for Guelph-Gibbeline peace brokering and his name may have been intentionally corrupted to one meaning
“whirlpool” as a joke.
ANSWER: Jacobus De Voragine or Jacob of Voragine  The latest biography in the Golden Legend is of this Dominican, canonized in 1253. The Legend claims he wrote
“Credo in Deum” in his own blood while being ax-murdered by Cathari, whom he was attempting to destroy with an Inquisition.
ANSWER: Saint Peter Martyr or Peter of Verona (or San Pietro Martire or Pietro da Verona; prompt on “Peter”)
3. Name each of the following things that can happen when radiation interacts with matter, FTPE.
 This classical Coulombic scattering of one charge by another has a differential cross-section varying as the forth power
of the cosecant of the center-of-mass scattering half-angle. While its namesake used it with helium and gold to correctly
deduce the atomic structure, its total cross-section is unphysically infinite.
ANSWER: Rutherford scattering
 Well-modeled by MD, this is a process whereby atoms of a solid material are simply ejected and vaporized due to
bombardment by energetic ions.
ANSWER: physical sputtering
 Electrons of the proper energies will achieve size resonances in the transmission probability and tunnel directly through
atoms of noble gasses, a phenomenon known as this.
ANSWER: the Ramsauer-Townsend effect (accept either)
4. Name these theorems useful in complex analysis, FTPE.
 Sometimes also named for Goursat, who relaxed its assumption of smoothness, this theorem states that the line integral
of a function on a closed curve is zero if the function is analytic on the curve and its interior.
ANSWER: the Cauchy-Goursat theorem
 This theorem simply states that a bounded entire function is constant.
ANSWER: Liouville’s theorem
 This theorem states that, for any simply connected domain with at least two boundary points, there exists a one-to-one
analytic function such that the image of the domain is the unit open disc and, further, that that function is unique up to the
sign of its derivative at one point.
ANSWER: the Riemann mapping theorem (prompt on just “Riemann”)
5. This period sometimes known as the Triumvirate came to an end in 1413 when Mehmed I managed to kill his brothers
Mûsa Bey, Isa Bey, and Süleyman. FTPE:
 Name this period following the capture of Bayezid I during which the Ottoman Empire lacked a ruler.
ANSWER: the Ottoman Interregnum
 The Ottoman Interregnum was caused by this Turkic-Mongol conqueror from Samarkarn, who laid aside his conquest
of India in 1398 to deal with the strong Ottoman empire on his western flank.
ANSWER: Timur Lenk (or Timur the Lame or Tamurlane or Tamburlane)
 Bayezid’s abandonment of the ghazi led his Muslim forces to desert him, which allowed Timur to smash Bayezid’s
forces at this 1402 battle, after which Bayezid was captured.
ANSWER: the Battle of Ankara
6. Name each of the following about women who can play a pretty mean bass, FTPE.
 Tina Weymouth is known for her bass stylings in this group, fronted by arch-wierdo David Byrne. She plays a Fender
Swinger in their concert film Stop Making Sense.
ANSWER: Talking Heads
 Billy Corgan claims to have hired this bassist during a drunken argument over the merits of a shitty post-punk cover
band and to have fired her from the Smashing Pumpkins for being a “mean-spirited drug addict.” Your author remembers
her for spinning a lot in a plaid skirt while playing.
ANSWER: D'Arcy Elizabeth Wretzky (accept either)
 This song has Pixies bassist Kim Deal apparently discussing her observation of repeated public sex in "a shady place"
with a well-endowed black man, the titular form of love; Deal calls the aforementioned man "a big black mess / ... a hunk of
love" and notes "He's like the dark, but I'd want 'im."
7. Inaugurated by Rumelhart and McClelland, models of this kind attempt to explain both top-down and bottom-up
phenomena using delocalized, simultaneously operating neural networks. FTPE:
 Name these important models in perception psychology similar in name to a computing paradigm.
ANSWER: parallel distributed processing models (prompt on “network processing models”)
 PDP models do well explaining these effects, which occur for words and objects. The word variety of this effect is the
boost in detection speed for strings of letters when they are parts of words.
ANSWER: superiority effects
 Another example of a superiority effect is the Stroop effect, the difficulty in identifying one of these entities when it is
exhibited in the form of the name of another one.
8. Name each of the following poems of Edgar Allen Poe, FTPE.
 This poem finds the poet walking with Psyche, his soul, by the tarn of Auber near Mount Yaanek and, as soon as he
pacifies her, they happen on the tomb of the title figure, whom the poet had interred a year ago to the day.
 The title figure is addressed as a “true daughter of Old Time” but the poet declares that he cannot love her as she has
torn from him “The summer dream beneath the tamarind tree.” ANSWER: “Sonnet – To Science”
 Opening with a quote from Byron’s The Island, this work contains four of the titular divisions, the second of which begins “Perhaps it may be that my mind is wroght / To a fever by the moonbeam that hands o’er.”
9. Answer each of the following about some early Greek philosophers, FTPE.
 Hippolytus records that Anaximander of Miletus invented the term “first principle” to describe this substance, with a
name meaning “boundless,” which was Anaximander’s first principle. ANSWER: the apeiron
 Sextus Empiricus notes that this peripatetic poet and opponent of Anaximander is sometimes called a skeptic for his
line “And the clear truth no man has seen.” Some sources credit him as the teacher of Parmenides and thus true founder of
the Eleatic school.
ANSWER: Xenophanes of Colophon
 Simplicius records that this teacher of Democritus shared the Eleatic’s philosophy, but used it to draw the opposite
conclusion, namely that the world is comprised of an infinite number of constantly moving atoms.
ANSWER: Leucippus of Elea or Miletus
10. Name each of the following fluid equations of state , FTPE.
 In some ways the most general equation of state, it states p V over k T as a polynomial of in specific volume to all non-
ANSWER: the virial equation of state
 Valid when the reduced pressure is much less than the reduced temperature, this equation gives the pressure as the
kinetic temperature over the adjusted specific volume, minus a term proportional to one over the square root of the
temperature. Later amended by Soave, it does poorly for liquids.
ANSWER: the Redlich-Kwong equation of state
 The most-common non-polynomial equation of state, this equation gives the pressure as the kinetic temperature over
the adjusted specific volume times e to the minus interaction density over the kinetic temperature.
ANSWER: the Dieterici equation of state
11. Answer each of the following regarding human thought about simian thought, FTPE.
 This psychologist’s 1917 The Intelligence of Apes summarizes experiments conducted on Teneriffe and posits the “aha moment” to counter Thorndike’s trial-and-error hypothesis. It details such hilarious behaviors as chimpanzee crate stacking
and pole vaulting.
ANSWER: Wolfgang Köhler
 A stone-born intelligent monkey is one of the protagonists of this work of Wu Cheng'en, which was translated by
Whaley as Monkey.
ANSWER: Journey to the West or Xiyouji
 Continued in The Story of B, this Daniel Quinn novel begins when a man answers an ad placed by a telepathic gorilla.
ANSWER: Ishmael: An Adventure of the Mind and Spirit
12. Answer each of the following about lesser works of Johann Sebastian Bach, FTPE.
 The dances of BWV Appendix 113-132 are from this manuscript book from 1725, dedicated to and titled for Bach’s
ANSWER: The Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach or Clavier-Büchlein vor Anna Magdalena Bach (accept various
words for notebook like “Manuscript Book” or “Keyboard Book”)  Predating similar works in a French style and the Partitas, these six minor-key keyboard works, BWV 806-811, deviate little from the traditional Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue. Each features a virtuoso prelude, which may have been
for a nobleman in the title country.
ANSWER: English Suites
 The first 224 entries in the BWV catalogue are works in this form, named from the Italian for “sung,” of which Bach
had to write one a week for a time. One of Bach’s secular ones is about coffee addiction. ANSWER: cantatas
13. Name each of the following works of that most literarily notable chauffeur of Andre the Giant, Samuel Beckett, FTPE..
 Following a trio of French novels, Beckett wrote this English-language work, whose London-dwelling protagonist
interacts with such characters as Celia and Mr. Kelly. In one scene, he and Ticklepenny attempt to light a radiator.
 This 1930 work is a long poem about Rene Descartes.
 This play, originating as a monologue for Pat Magee, opens on a “late evening in the future,” the title character’s sixty-
ninth birthday. Beckett’s own stage instructions for it guide the actor to become one with the central prop, a reel.
ANSWER: Krapp’s Last Tape (or La Dernière bande)
14. This plateau edge separates southern Africa’s highland interior from the costal strip. It is primarily in South Africa, but
extends through Lesotho and Mozambique. FTPE:
 Name this important physical feature of south Africa.
ANSWER: the Great Escarpment
 Part of the Great Escarpment is this primary mountain range of South Africa. It forms the eastern border of Lesotho. Its
highest peak is Emlebe near the Swaziland border.
ANSWER: the Drakensbergs
 The Drakensbergs are the source of this 1,300-mile river. It flows westward through the veld to Alexander Bay.
ANSWER: the Orange River
15. Name each of the following odd operations from World War II, FTPE.
 Succeeding the cash-and-carry program, this proposal of Roosevelt’s was enacted via a namesake act of March, 1941.
 This secret operation designed to remove German scientists to the United States towards the end of the war looked for
targets on the black list, which was assembled from scraps of paper found in a Polish toilet.
ANSWER: Operation or Project Paperclip (or Operation Overcast)  Operations Freshman and Grouse were designed to destroy a plant producing this substance in Denmark so as to
cripple the Nazi atomic energy project.
ANSWER: heavy water (accept equivalents)
16. The act for which he is best known, a so-called “Golden Law” abolishing slavery, was actually enacted by his Princess
Regent while he toured Europe. FTPE:
 Name this second monarchial ruler of Brazil.
ANSWER: Dom Pedro II of Brazil (prompt on “Pedro”)
 Pedro II’s Fabian approach to the abolition of slavery can be seen in this 1871 act, which granted liberty to all children
ANSWER: the Law of the Free Womb or Lei do Ventre Livre (or Rio Branco Law)  Pedro’s weakened position after emancipation allowed this Field Marshall and head of Rio Grande do Sul state to
overthrow him in 1889. He ruled Brazil for about two years until this Chavezesque attempts to rule by decree got him
forced to resign.
ANSWER: Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca
17. Name each of the following things that are peculiar to plant cell division, FTPE.
 Formed by radial nucleation using Golgi-delivered components, this structure is the predicessor to the cell wall that
will divide the daughter cells. It grows until reaching the preprophase band.
ANSWER: the cell plate
 The cell plate is assembled on this structure, consisting of microtubules and microfilaments. Sometimes called a
scaffold and initially shaped like a barrel, it is analogous to the algal phycoplast.
ANSWER: the phragmoplast
 The phragmoplast often grows into phragmosomes, bands of cytoplasm that appear in these plant cell organelles during
ANSWER: central vacuoles
18. Name these philosophers of history, FTPE.
 This late Italian posited a highly influential theory of history as a three-stage cycle in his 1725 New Science.
ANSWER: Giambattista Vico
 This critical Sturm und Drang philosopher posited the volkgeist as the origin of nations and wrote such historical works as Ideas for the Philosophy of History of Humanity, Adrastea, and To Cyrus. ANSWER: Johann Gottfried von Herder
 This Arab polymath from Tunis never completed his Kitab al-Ibar, but its first work, the Muqaddimah or Prolegomena,
is a highly influential early work of universal history.
ANSWER: Wali al-Din 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Hasan Ibn
19. The fruits of this artist’s attempts at sculpture include his Weimar Monument to the March Dead. His inability to draw may have caused him to hire someone to do his architecture homework. FTPE:
 Name this architect whose notable works include his own home in Lincoln, Massachusetts.
ANSWER: Walter Adolph Gropius
 Shortly after leaving Peter Behrens’ firm with Adolf Meyer, Gropius designed this shoe factory in Alfeld. It is notable
for a steel-reinforced glass wall.
ANSWER: the Fagus Works or Faguswerk (accept Fagus Factory or anything like that)
 Gropius teamed up with Emery Roth & Sons and Pietro Belluschi to design this New York skyscraper completed in
ANSWER: the Pan Am Building (accept the MetLife Building)
20. At one point in the story in which he appears, this crafty but cowardly drunk with a name meaning “all-needing” buys a
sheep, then compels it to jump off a cliff, causing a whole flock to follow. FTPE:
 Name this multilingual vagabond, a main character of the later books of Gargantua and Pantagruel. ANSWER: Panurge
 Panurge consults with this character, a priest from Huymes, about funnels and the dubious matter of cuckoldry. He
responds with enormous lists of adjectives.
ANSWER: Friar John
 In book five, Panurge hears the instruction “trinc” from this object. Its priestess, Bacbuc, then had him drink a “book,”
in the form of a flask of Falernian wine.
ANSWER: the Holy Bottle (or Sacred Bottle or Dive Bouteille)
21. This being is infuriated that he cannot cut off Thor’s head in spite of a claim to it because of having no claim to Thor’s
neck, so sews shut Thor’s lips with a leather thong. FTPE:
 Name this brother of Eitri.
 Because Brok was stung in the eye by Loki in the form of a fly, he had to momentarily stop operating the bellows for
Eitri, which led to this hammer’s imperfection.
ANSWER: Mjöllnir or Smasher (prompt on “Thor’s hammer” or similar things)
 Brok was pissed at Loki for claiming that these rival dwarves, known by the name of their father, were the greatest
craftsmen in the universe. Loki had to go to them to get a replacement for Sif’s hair to keep Thor from engaging in some Romero-style smashing.
ANSWER: Ivaldi’s sons