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commercialization

By Esther Shaw,2014-08-11 02:43
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commercialization

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     New BBC in Digital Age

    目录

    1.Introduction: .................................................................................................................................. 1

    2. Body .............................................................................................................................................. 2

    2.1 Position: an institution but also a PSB................................................................................. 2

    2.1.1 BBC could be an institution. ..................................................................................... 2

    2.1.2 How BBC gets funds and builds up new corporate culture. ..................................... 3

    2.1.3 BBC should carry its mission in digital age ............................................................... 4

    2.2 Challenges: Consumer sovereignty and Public interest ...................................................... 5

    2.2.1 Concepts of consumer and citizen ........................................................................... 5

    2.2.2 Changing audiences.................................................................................................. 6

    2.2.3 Competition ............................................................................................................. 7

    2.4 Suggestions ......................................................................................................................... 8

    2.4.1 Funding is the first question to ask. ......................................................................... 8

    2.4.2 Advertisement and public space .............................................................................. 8

    2.4.3 Subscribers ............................................................................................................. 10

    2.5 Regulation: ........................................................................................................................ 10

    3. Conclusion: .................................................................................................................................. 12

    4 Reference: .................................................................................................................................... 12

    1.Introduction:

    Because of the convergence of media, the emerging of social media, now media

    is in an age of equalization. Both Dyke and Peacock and other professors are all agree that BBC will still play an important role in digital age and also face a lot of challenges including how to fit audiences tastes, how to deal with governments invention and

    how to deal with commercial media organization. Apart from those thorny issues, its

    licensee fee again is put on the table.

    Does new media age provide more possibilities for BBC to form its economic

    mode? Could BBC cancel the licensee fee? If not, what could BBC do to face the

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    doubts from others? Is it definitely to be cut? Then, how much? Are there other measures that BBC could get funds? What are the challenges BBC needs to up to?

    2. Body

    2.1 Position: an institution but also a PSB

    2.1.1 BBC could be an institution.

    Peacock has implicated that BBC could be a special, as an institution, but it will be no longer special as a role in PSB, I would argue that BBC could be an institution which still carries on its former mission in digital age.

    New media’s biggest function is to allow people more easily access to website. People could use blogs, social media or mobile phones to write news and send them to the website. Many professors predict that in the future everyone could be a journalist. Even if that becomes reality, it still has a long way to go. If BBC could be an institution, which organizes part-time journalists as their resource, it could spend much more less money to operate, and temp journalists could use BBC’s brand

    awareness as a tool to work sell their works.

    This could really be true. In the past, when a college student graduated and entered BBC, then he or she could probably stay in BBC until he or she retired. But now no one could expect receiving a job forever. In the 2002, one thousand jobs in BBC were cut out. In the STRATEGY REVIEW of 2010, words of BBC of “leaving space

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for others” “We can’t attempt to do everything” “put quality first” all indicate that

    BBC will cut a series of units of programs including Music Six, which also means there probably have a tide of redundancy.

    It is a good chance to re-conduct BBC’s internal structure if it could make good advantage of the challenges, to create a whole new organization. As commercial media facing increasing market fragmentation and audience segmentation, BBC could avoid following their steps by having representatives of public.

    In order to define its role, Dyke said BBC have to become the most creative organization in the world, not just in the designing programs areas, but the whole BBC including the commercial parts, finance, strategy, public and HR (P467). In 2002, Dyke reduced cut the business units, decreased the volume of internal trading and cut the cost of financial management. By doing so, he successfully cut the running of licensee fee from 24 percent to 15 percent. He works out a complete level of management and saved ;200 million every year to produce programmes and

    digital services.

    Dyke’s twin aims were to create a flatter, less hierarchical and bureaucratic,

    less divided and internally competitive organization, and to make massive

    saving on bureaucracy (P468 Born).

    2.1.2 How BBC gets funds and builds up new corporate culture.

    In order to operate, BBC could get its income through a mix of commercial bids, subscription and advertising. Peacock in his book draws an outline of financing the

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reformed system of future public broadcasting:

    There would be a separate budget to be allocated to programmes that conform with stated aims of public service broadcasting as translated into a list of approved types of TV productions. Competitive bids would emanate from companies obliged to offer PSB programmes and these could be made in conjunction with independent producers of programmes (P45 Peacock).

    Peacock also said that the licensee fee would not be exclusively for the BBC, but I would strongly suggest only BBC could charge the licensee fee, because PSB has a special place in society which provides services for the interest of public. If BBC has been an institution, receiving certain amount of licensee fee, will prevent it from being a fully commercial institution. Because of the commercial bits has been a part of financing BBC, no doubt that they will have a voice in the board of BBC. By licensee fee, promising certain amounts of representatives of listeners and views in the board, which could stop commercial bids from being too big. They will have to work together for BBC’s operation and decisions.

    2.1.3 BBC should carry its mission in digital age

    In BBC’ strategy review, there is obvious data showing that its audience’s

    component has changed. BBC terrestrial viewers are decreasing every year, whist the digital viewers are increasing. BBC Three reaches 11.3 million people a week and now attracts 36% more 16-34 year-olds than it did three years ago. On radio, 4.1 million adults now tune into BBC digital radio stations each week. The BBC website had 29.5

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    million UK unique users on average per week in January 2010, up from 13.7 million in January 2006with the service now reaching 54% of adult internet users in a week.17 (Strategy Review).

    The above proves that BBC has walked in the forefront in the digital media, on the other hand, BBC should play a more important role in digital era, because British broadcasting medias are still at the risk of market fragmentation and audience segmentation (P488 Uncertain Vision).

    Dyke also emphasizes the following points: international, particularly in providing independent information and mediating opinion; national, in terms of fostering social intergration through the main networks; and regional or local, especially given the consolidation and commercialization of ITV and its consequent withbranded BBCi (Born, 488)

    2.2 Challenges: Consumer sovereignty and Public interest

    2.2.1 Concepts of consumer and citizen

    BBC has been incorporated with commercial funds, which aims at making money, but still it needs to be a symbol as PSB. Here comes the question: what is the new concept of “PSB”, to recognize it, we need to introduce these two words

    “consumer” and “citizen”.

     Consumersown “consumer sovereignty”. The market should provide what

    they want, where they want. As a “citizen”, the PSB should defend their interest and provide them a wide variety of educational and sophisticated programs. Commercial

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    media needs to attract the media viewers, but PSB should cater different needs and tastes, including some minority groups.

    And that is actually where many professors disagreed with Peacock. Fairbairn said public as a whole so that consumer sovereignty subordinated this notion of ‘social choice’ and the core principles of university, equity, and accountability that underpin it in broadcasting policy (P23 Booth). She doubts whether the institution of BBC couldn’t know and fulfill public interest, which leads to be unaccountable to the

    British people (P24 Booth). Pratten and Deakin also suggest distinguishing between the role of individuals as consumers and their roles as citizens, because we need to avoid that a market may just serve individual as consumer but not citizen (P29 Booth).

    2.2.2 Changing audiences

    Though BBC has lead ahead of the digital media, still it faces an intensive problem: how does that mean for putting the same context into TV and digital media. BBC launched Iplayer, a service enables audiences download all shows and programmes within a week in TV, in December 2007. People’s viewing habits are

    being changed: Fairbairn notes the popularity of the BBC-94 percent of people watch it at least once a week (P25 Booth). People now don’t watch TV. Instead they go

    online. BBC forecasted that there would be 500 thousand people to visit its website. But it turned out that in the first six months, Iplayer had attracted more than 180 million people visited and downloaded its programs.

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    But still in new media, the BBC has to attract the young generation. No matter in what kinds of media, this is for sure: they all need to built in flexibility so as to adopt audience’s changing tastes and the way new market develops (P486 Uncertain Vision).

    2.3 Competition 2.

    Because of digital media, the traditional media business and a range of local newspaper and media companies have been under pressure of being squeezed out of the market. After BBC has opened wider its advertisement market, accepted commercial bids and received the subscribers, but still in charge of lisencee fee, certainly it will have to face more criticism and pressure.

    Fairbairn claims that the mix systems of British broadcasting have been one of its strengths. By funding different source vary from subscription, advertising and the lisensee fee-leads to a variety of contend provision (P24 Booth).

     We all agree that it’s very important to keep competition for British media.

    In 2002, BBC launched Freeview in partnership with BskyB and Crown Castle. Freeview has a great competitive advantage, which is allow consumers pay one-off charge to get DTV and skip the pay television, and those who are content with a wider but limited range of digital channels. So Freeview enjoyed great success being the main competitor for SkyB within a year of being launched (P488 Born).

    After BBC announced its strategy, Sky mainly criticize it in two aspects: one is BBC is identifying with its own interest instead of public’s, the other is BBC has failed

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to make cost effective (Sweney).

    BBC first has licensee fee, now it could raise commercial bids, advertisement fee and subscribers. The above cases of competition probably happen more. In order to avoid BBC becomes an enormous “market power”, there should be restrictions.

    2.4 Suggestions

    2.4.1 Funding is the first question to ask.

    First of all, we need to focus on the question as Peacock suggests: how to ascertain the amount and the composition of the BBC (P45 Peacock). This is really a toughest challenge for BBC to meet, because it will have a great impact on BBC’s

    every aspects especially the provision of programmes. Money is the boss. Commercial bids might have a bigger voice if they own a too big stock.

    Then come with those questions: how far should BBC go? Should licensee fee have more stakes or commercial bids? How wider should BBC open its advertisement markets? How much should BBC in charge from its subscribers? As I suggested at the very beginning, BBC could be an institution which still carry on its mission in digital age, the licensee fee should still be the biggest player in its fund.

    2.4.2 Advertisement and public space

    Many social medias like Wikipedia, Twitter, Sina Micro-Blog and many other website have enlarged people’s public space, on the other hand they also bring more

    threats to traditional public space. BBC could embed advertisement in its services,

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but it should also play a guarantor in its public space.

    BBC could hire many part-time journalists in the future. All of them will contribute to the contents of BBC’s website and other channels. When the new

    media comes, many freelancers could embed advertisements in their blogs. In its advertising service, BBC should consider seriously about “public space”. In my

    opinion, the journalists shouldn’t be allowed to publish their same stories, which

    have been adopted by BBC on their own blogs and elsewhere. So that BBC could better control on regulate how the advertisement be embedded into a story.

    What’s more, BBC has to be a defendant of public space: One is technical control. BBC should ensure its programmes and services could reach as broad an audience as possible, creating value for all sections of society and serving all licensee fee payers (Strategy Review). The other is quality control, from international newsgathering to indigenous drama and comedy. BBC should still be a navigator, who helps the audience find their way around a story, points the public to this “good

    news”; BBC should be a authenticator, who helps the audience figure out what to believe, what can they trust; BBC could be a forum-leader, who helps the audience engage in a discussion in a knowledgeable way; BBC could be a sense-maker, who helps the audience derive meaning from what is happening in the world.

    As strategy Review said, BBC should carry on its mission “make the popular

    good and the good popular”.

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    2.4.3 Subscribers

    BBC has opened its wider advertisement market and subscribers. BBC should attract more young generation for its digital services. In digital age, subscribership actually is more effective to fund compared with advertisement.

    Those two services are mainly run by commercial media. The commercial media enterprises are good at doing at operating in those two fields. BBC is still a “lookie” at

    this point. It is too early to pronounce that BBC could become too risky for them.

    Plus, in order to avoid BBC’ becoming too big for the market, again the BBC ‘s

    priority is to put quality in the first place, which means BBC shouldn’t step in making sports and pornography subscribers’ services. You may argue that this isn’t appropriate, for those two kinds of programs may still involve public interests, however, BBC has to leave space for others. BBC shouldn’t do everything.

    In order to make profits for the commercial bids which is one part of BBCs fund,

    BBC should renew its relationship with younger generation and attract more young subscribers. This is the trend of digital media, if BBC could make full advantage of it, definitely it could make tremendous profits. Channel 4 bases on digital strategy and offer a series of rationales for the services. Now it is trying hard to create new content and attract younger generation (P484 Born).

    2.5 Regulation:

    In order to avoid BBC becomes the biggest risk for injustice competition and BBC could still carry on its mission, a new mode of regulation is also needed.

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