APA Style

By Albert Hart,2014-10-10 18:27
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APA Style

     American Psychological Association Style

    1) Indirect Quotation:

    Even Einstein recoiled from the implication of quantum mechanics that

     reality is an illusion (Gribbin, 1984, p. 2).

2) Direct Quotation

     A). Quotations run into text (段中引文): Direct quotations that do not

    exceed 40 words (about four typewritten lines) should be run into the text and enclosed in double quotation marks, as in the following example:

Curtiuss term the Latin Middle Ages covers a range of Roman legacies,

    including the share of Rome, of the Roman idea of the state, of the

     Roman church, and of Roman culture(Gribbin, 1984, p. 2).

B) Quotations set off from the text (提引文): a direct quotation of more

    than 40 words (about four typewritten lines) should be set off from the text by indention and double-spaced. For dissertations and theses, however, single-spacing may be preferred because it more closely resembles a printed format. Set-off quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks.

     APA indents set-off material five to seven spaces. The first

    paragraph is not indented (whether or not it is indented in the original), but second and subsequent paragraphs are indented an additional five to seven spaces. For introductory sentences, the colon is replaced by a period in modern usage except where formal introductory words such as thus and following are included.

Raymond Williams explains that the word career has all but lost its

    original meaning.

     Career is now so regularly used to describe a persons progress in


     Career appeared in English(Gribbin, 1984, p. 2).

You may combine direct and indirect quotation.

Einstein wanted to believe that quantum mechanics was a mathematical

     Trick (Gribbin, 1984, p. 2).

Parenthetical Reference Citations in Text ;夹注;

    1. Author named in your text:

    Gould (1989) attributes Darwins success to his gift for making the

    appropriate metaphor.

    2. Author not named in your text

    As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used the tangled bank, the tree of life, and the face of nature (Gould, 1989, p. 14). 3. Author and date cited in text

    In a 1989 article, Gould explores some of Darwins most effective


    4. Direct quotation with name of author

    Gould (1989) explains that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life to express the other form of interconnectednessgenealogical rather

    than ecologicaland to illustrate both success and failure in the history of life (p. 14).

    5. Direct quotation without name of author

    Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life to express the other form of

    interconnectednessgenealogical rather than ecological (Gould, 1989, p.


    6. Work by two authors

    Sexual-selection theory has been used to explore patterns of insect mating (Alock & Thornhill, 1983)Alock and Thornhill (1983) also


    7. Three, four, or five authors

    Scientists have isolated a gene connected to circadian rhythms in plants (Millar, Straume, Chory, Chua, & Kay, 1995, p. 1163).They identified

    the mutations that activated light-dependent pathways (Millar, et al. , 1995, p. 1165).

    8. List two or more works by the same author in order of date of publication

    Scientists have isolated a gene connected to circadian rhythms in plants (Gould, 1987, 1989).

Reference forms


1. Article by one author

     Smith, J. (1995). The title of the article. The Title of Journal, 1, 101-105.

     Simon, G. (1990). The significance of silence. Paragraph, 13,


    2. Article by two authors

     McLaren, P. , & Estrada, K. (1993). A dialogue on multiculturalism

    and democratic culture. Educational Researcher, 22, 27-33.

    3. Magazine article

     Osborn. M. (1994, March 11). Status and prospects of women in

    science in Europe. Science, 263, 1389-1391.


    Basic form:

     Nagel, P. C. (1992). The Lees of Virginia: Seven generations of an American family. New York: Oxford University Press.

Two or more authors:

     Forsyth, A. , & Thornhill, R. (1983). The evolution of insect mating. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Edited volume:

     Stanton, D. C. (Ed.). (1987). The female autograph: Theory and practice of autobiography from the tenth to the twentieth century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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