American Psychological Association Style
1) Indirect Quotation:
Even Einstein recoiled from the implication of quantum mechanics that
reality is an illusion (Gribbin, 1984, p. 2).
2) Direct Quotation
A). Quotations run into text (段中引文): Direct quotations that do not
exceed 40 words (about four typewritten lines) should be run into the text and enclosed in double quotation marks, as in the following example:
Curtius’s term “the Latin Middle Ages” covers a range of Roman legacies,
including “the share of Rome, of the Roman idea of the state, of the
Roman church, and of Roman culture”(Gribbin, 1984, p. 2).
B) Quotations set off from the text (提引文): a direct quotation of more
than 40 words (about four typewritten lines) should be set off from the text by indention and double-spaced. For dissertations and theses, however, single-spacing may be preferred because it more closely resembles a printed format. Set-off quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks.
APA indents set-off material five to seven spaces. The first
paragraph is not indented (whether or not it is indented in the original), but second and subsequent paragraphs are indented an additional five to seven spaces. For introductory sentences, the colon is replaced by a period in modern usage except where formal introductory words such as thus and following are included.
Raymond Williams explains that the word career has all but lost its
Career is now so regularly used to describe a person’s progress in
Career appeared in English…(Gribbin, 1984, p. 2).
You may combine direct and indirect quotation.
Einstein wanted to believe that quantum mechanics was a “mathematical
Trick” (Gribbin, 1984, p. 2).
Parenthetical Reference Citations in Text ;夹注；
1. Author named in your text:
Gould (1989) attributes Darwin’s success to his gift for making the
2. Author not named in your text
As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used the tangled bank, the tree of life, and the face of nature (Gould, 1989, p. 14). 3. Author and date cited in text
In a 1989 article, Gould explores some of Darwin’s most effective
4. Direct quotation with name of author
Gould (1989) explains that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life “to express the other form of interconnectedness—genealogical rather
than ecological—and to illustrate both success and failure in the history of life” (p. 14).
5. Direct quotation without name of author
Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life “to express the other form of
interconnectedness—genealogical rather than ecological” (Gould, 1989, p.
6. Work by two authors
Sexual-selection theory has been used to explore patterns of insect mating (Alock & Thornhill, 1983)…Alock and Thornhill (1983) also
7. Three, four, or five authors
Scientists have isolated a gene connected to circadian rhythms in plants (Millar, Straume, Chory, Chua, & Kay, 1995, p. 1163)….They identified
the mutations that activated light-dependent pathways (Millar, et al. , 1995, p. 1165)….
8. List two or more works by the same author in order of date of publication
Scientists have isolated a gene connected to circadian rhythms in plants (Gould, 1987, 1989).
1. Article by one author
Smith, J. (1995). The title of the article. The Title of Journal, 1, 101-105.
Simon, G. (1990). The significance of silence. Paragraph, 13,
2. Article by two authors
McLaren, P. , & Estrada, K. (1993). A dialogue on multiculturalism
and democratic culture. Educational Researcher, 22, 27-33.
3. Magazine article
Osborn. M. (1994, March 11). Status and prospects of women in
science in Europe. Science, 263, 1389-1391.
Nagel, P. C. (1992). The Lees of Virginia: Seven generations of an American family. New York: Oxford University Press.
Two or more authors:
Forsyth, A. , & Thornhill, R. (1983). The evolution of insect mating. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Stanton, D. C. (Ed.). (1987). The female autograph: Theory and practice of autobiography from the tenth to the twentieth century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.