Lecture 5 Notes, Chapter 3 cont’d (Air Pollution)
The toll of air pollution: WHO (World Health Organization) estimates that air pollution kills approximately 4.3 million people worldwide.
Natural pollution sources
1.Volcanoes: Mt. Pinatubo released nearly 20 million tons of _____________ into the stratosphere.
2.Wildfires: release dust, smoke, soot, ash, nitrogen oxides, __________________, and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) into the atmosphere.
3. Dust storms: originate in desert areas, but can enter urban areas. At any one moment, a _________ of dust are aloft in the atmosphere.
Anthropogenic pollution is most common in urban regions. People are moving into cities, so air pollution is becoming an increasing problem. About _____________ people (roughly ____ the world population) live in cities.
1/3 of these have unhealthy levels of air pollution. So, a MASSIVE problem: ___________ people.
Two in five Americans live in counties that have unhealthy levels of either ozone or particle pollution at least part of the year. Metro Atlanta has both.
T/F Anthropogenic means “generated in air.”
stthT/F Atlanta rank 1 in the nation for year-round particle pollution, and 4 for ozone.
T/F Wildfires, dust storms, and volcanic explosions are natural sources of pollution.
Air pollution is becoming an increasingly large problem because by 2010______of the world population will live in cities.
T/F By 2010 about 5 million people will live in cities with unhealthy levels of air pollution.
Throughout the world, air pollution kills _____of people each year
D. Tens of millions
Types of Pollutants
1. Carbon Monoxide
Carbon monoxide is:
It is colorless and odorless.
Natural sources create 90% of it. Examples include: decaying logs, forest fires, other organic decomposition: humanity is adapted to these levels.
10% is from humans. This portion is ____________________________________ areas, and therefore makes up more than a 10% impact.
The ______________ such gas, coal and wood generate emissions of carbon monoxide.
___________________________ are the main source of carbon monoxide pollution in urban areas.
Car exhaust emissions contain carbon monoxide created by _______________________ in the engine.
In many tropical areas, a big source is _______________________. This is introducing more carbon to the atmosphere
2. Photochemical Smog
Caused by a chemical reaction between nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds __________ in the presence of sunlight.
Nitrogen oxides and VOC’s come from: ____________________ and industrial emissions, gasoline
vapors, and chemical solvents as well as _______________, like vegetation.
The main ingredient of smog is _________________________.
Ground level ozone
Ozone (O3) is formed by the reaction of ____________ on air containing VOC’s and nitrogen oxides.
Ground level ozone damages biological tissues. More than 12 million children are at risk
3. Industrial Smog and Sulfur Oxides/Acid Rain
Industrial smog is: air pollution that is associated with __________________. ______________is a big component.
Often smog contains sulfur and nitrogen oxides, which have been emitted by ___________________. They are converted to acids in the atmosphere, forming acid rain or acid snow.
Precipitation more acidic than vinegar and lemon juice has fallen in the eastern US, Scandinavia and Europe.
1. Damaging _____________________
2. Damaging ____________________
3. Increasing __________ levels in fish
4. Damage to stone _________________________
1. Damaging forests : Some northern forests are ______________, causing damage in the billions of dollars.
2. Damaging aquatic life: Several hundred lakes in the US and Canada cannot support any aquatic life. One reason is because acid deposition causes the release of harmful aluminum and magnesium.
3. Acid rain and mercury: Relatively harmless mercury deposits that were sitting at the bottom of lakes get converted in acidified lakes into toxic __________________. The mercury can move through biological systems. Methylmercury can harm neurological development in fetuses, infants, and children.
4. Damaging buildings and sculptures. Examples include the great artworks of Italy, among other places.
Particulates are: ___________________________________________ They can get into small channels
in lung tissue and cause _____________: a scarring, thickening and other damage. There is a _______
greater risk of premature death due to particulate pollution as compared with non-polluted air.
A. Carbon Monoxide
B. Photochemical Smog
C. Industrial Smog
1. The main ingredient is ozone
2. The sulfur in this contributes to formation of acid rain
3. Causes fibrosis in the lungs
4. Fires put this colorless, odorless gas into the air
5. Associated with coal-burning industries
6. Caused by interaction of UV radiation with nitrogen oxide and VOC’s in automobile exhaust
B. Carbon monoxide
C. Acid rain (sulfur)
1. Which one occurs due to burning vegetation?
2. Which one is harming the statues of Italy?
3. Which one is good in the stratosphere, but bad on the ground?
4. Which one is contributing to mercury in fish?
5. Which one is harming some forests?
6. Which one is adding carbon to the atmosphere?
An Anthropogenic Atmosphere
We have created an anthropogenic atmosphere.
Winds move air pollution
They can produce dramatic dust movement. Dust from Africa contributes to the soils of South America
and Europe. Texas dust goes across the Atlantic.
Wind-borne pollution causes tensions between different countries and different states and regions.
Air pollution moves west, or northwest from the US to Canada, and from North America to Europe.
Inversions occur when:
Warm air rises (remember convection). But cool air doesn’t (cool air sinks). So, when air is cooler at
the surface, the air doesn’t rise.
Two ways an inversion can happen:
1. Cold air tumbles down ______________________
2. Cold air comes in from a ____________________
With air inversions, pollutants don’t get carried away. They are _____________________.
T/F Air pollution can move across the oceans from one continent to another.
T/F Inversions occur when, instead of the temperature getting wamer with elevation, it gets cooler.
T/F Inversions typically mean that pollutants in the air are carried away quickly.
T/F Inversions occur when warm winds come rushing down a steep mountain slope.
T/F Inversions occur when warm air moves in from an ocean current.
On Your Own. thPage 83 of GSU edition (based on 7 edition) of Geosystems
The total cost to implement the Clean Sir Act was ___________________
However, the estimated net financial benefits is: __________________