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Anesthesia Regimens

By Jeffery Butler,2014-07-04 13:12
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Anesthesia Regimens

Anesthesia/Analgesia Regimens

静脉注射(iv)

    腹腔注射(ip)

    口服(po)

    皮下注射(sc, SQ)

    灌胃(ig)

    Anesthesia and Analgesia of Mice

    Parenteral Anesthesia of Mice:

    Duration of surgical Agent Dose anesthesia

    Pentobarbital 50 mg/kg IP 20-40 minutes

    30Tribromoethanol (avertin) 240 mg/kg IP 15-45 minutes

    29Metomidate/fentanyl 60 mg/kg + 0.06 mg/kg SQ 20-30 minutes

    80-100 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg Ketamine/xylazine 20-30 minutes 29IP

    Inhalational Anesthesia of Mice: Methoxyflurane 甲氧氟烷and Halothane

     are no longer available from vendors in the United States. Isoflurane异氟醚, is

    the inhalational anesthetic of choice for use in laboratory animals. However, due to it's high vapor pressure汽压 isoflurane has to be used with a precision vaporizer.

    Methoxyflurane is available from vendors outside the United States but it is difficult and

    tmexpensive to obtain. Due to it's lower vapor pressure, methoxyflurane (Metafane) can be

    used without a vaporizer to anesthesize mice. Care should be taken to prevent the mouse from coming into direct contact with the metafane. Typically a gauze pledget is moistened with methoxyflurane and placed in the bottom of a drop jar (future picture). An elevated platform is placed in the bottom of the drop jar to prevent direct contact of the mouse with the anesthetic. After the mouse is anesthetized it can be removed and a nosecone utilized to maintain anesthesia. A nosecone can be fashioned by using an empty syringe case into which a metafane wetted cotton has been placed. Positioning the animals nose into the syringe case will maintain anesthesia. This method of anesthesia must be done in a fume hood to prevent inhalation of the anesthetic by the technician.

    For short term anesthesia of mice, a mixture of 75%CO2 and 25% Oxygen can be utilized. Typically this is utilized for taking blood or tissue samples (tail snips) because it provides only a very brief period of anesthesia. If you have not used this technique before we recommend you request assistance from the Office of Animal Resources.

Analgesia of Mice:

    Subcutaneous wounding, implantations or procedures without incising through

    muscle wall:

    ; Local analgesia (e.g., Bupivacaine布比卡因)

     Incisions into peritoneal cavity or the muscle wall:

    ; NSAIDs非类固醇性抗炎药 (e.g., Flunixin meglumine氟胺烟酸葡胺)

    And/or

    ; Narcotics麻醉品 (e.g., Buprenorphine, Butorphanol)

     Incisions into thorax through the muscle wall:

    ; Narcotics (e.g., Buprenorphine, Butorphanol)

    Agent Dose

    31 0.05-0.1 mg/kg SQ BIDBuprenorphine丁丙诺啡

    31 1-5 mg/kg SQ QIDButorphanol布托啡诺

    36 2.5 mg/kg SQ SID to BIDFlunixin Meglumine氟胺烟酸葡胺

    Bupivacaine 0.5%; use a tb syringe to drip a Bupivacaine as alternative analgesic; bupivacaine few drops on the suture line. You close the is a long acting local analgesic, it is not a narcotic, muscle layer, apply the bupivacaine, then and can be administered one time. close the skin. Performed one time. tid是一日三次;bid是一日两次; qid是一日四次

Anesthesia and Analgesia of Rats

    Parenteral Anesthesia of Rats: Agent Dose Onset Duration

    19 5 90 minutes 30 mg/kg IP Pentobarbital戊巴比妥

    19Pentobarbital 40 mg/kg IP 5 120 minutes Ketamine-xylazine氯胺40 mg/kg; 5 5 80 minutes 19酮赛拉嗪 mg/kg IP

    60 mg/kg; 7.5 Ketamine-xylazine 2 115 minutes 19mg/kg

    Ketamine-medetomidine75 mg/kg; 0.5 20-30 minutes 29 mg/kg美托咪定

Inhalational Anesthesia of Rats: Methoxyflurane and Halothane are no

    longer available from vendors in the United States. Isoflurane, is the inhalational anesthetic of choice for use in laboratory animals, however, due to it's high vapor pressure isoflurane has be used with a precision vaporizer.

    Methoxyflurane is available from vendors outside the United States but it is difficult and

    tmexpensive to obtain. Due to it's lower vapor pressure, methoxyflurane (Metafane) can be

    used without a vaporizer to anesthesize mice. Care should be taken to prevent the mouse from coming into direct contact with the metafane. Typically a gauze pledget is moistened with methoxyflurane and placed in the bottom of a drop jar. An elevated platform is placed in the bottom of the drop jar to prevent direct contact of the mouse with the anesthetic. After the mouse is anesthetized it can be removed and a nosecone utilized to maintain anesthesia. A nosecone can be fashioned by using an empty syringe case into which a metafane wetted cotton has been placed. Positioning the animals nose into the syringe case will maintain anesthesia. This method of anesthesia must be done in a fume hood to prevent inhalation of the anesthetic by the technician.

    For short term anesthesia of rats, a mixture of 75%CO2 and 25% Oxygen can be utilized. Typically this is utilized for taking blood or tissue samples (tail snips) because it provides only a very brief period of anesthesia. If you have not used this technique before we recommend you request assistance from the Office of Animal Resources.

    Analgesia of Rats:

Agent Dose

    29Buprenorphine 0.01-0.05 mg/kg SQ or IV TID to BID

    29 0.1-0.25 mg/kg PO, BID to TID

    31Butorphanol 2 mg/kg SQ every 4 hours

    Bupivacaine as alternative analgesic; Bupivacaine 0.5%; use a tb syringe to drip a

    bupivacaine is a long acting local analgesic, it few drops on the suture line. You close the

    is not a narcotic, and can be administered one muscle layer, apply the bupivacaine, then

    time. close the skin. Performed one time.

Anesthesia and Analgesia of Rabbits

    Parenteral Anesthesia of Rabbits:

    Duration of surgical Agent Dose (mg/kg) anesthesia

    Ketamine 35 mg/kg IM 29 minutes 25-4013 xylazine 5 mg/kg IM

    Ketamine 10 mg/kg IV 20-30 minutes 29xylazine 3 mg/kg IV

    Ketamine 35 mg/kg IM

    xylazine 5 mg/kg IM 100 minutes

    13 0.75 mg/kg IM acepromazine乙酰丙嗪

    Ketamine 35 mg/kg IM

    xylazine 5 mg/kg IM 60-90 minutes

    290.1 mg/kg IM butorphanol布托啡诺

    Induce with 10 mg/kg IV and

    administer increments of 14 Pentobarbital: 20-30 minutes 2-10 mg until a satisfactory

    level of anesthesia is reached

Inhalational Anesthesia of Rabbits: Several gaseous anesthetics

    have been used successfully in the rabbit (e.g isoflurane). Isoflurane requires the use of a

    precision vaporizer to deliver the appropriate amount of anesthetic and also an appropriate

    scavenging system to prevent exposure of personnel to the anesthetic. Since induction will

    require "masking the rabbit" or placement of an endotracheal tube it is standard practice to

    use a preanesthetic.

    Analgesia of Rabbits:

    Agent Dose

    15Morphine sulphate硫酸吗啡 2-4mg/kg SC every 2-4 hours

    ,2916Buprenorphine 0.02-0.05 mg/kg SQ or IV TID or BID

    29Butorphanol 0.1 - 0.5 mg/kg IV every 4 hours

Anesthesia and Analgesia of Guinea pigs

    Parenteral Anesthesia of Guinea pigs:

Agent Dose (mg/kg) Duration

    1Ketamine-xylazine* 30; 5 IM 30-45 minutes

    3Ketamine-xylazine 44; 5 IM 74 minutes

    Pentobarbital 15 mg/kg IP + 60 minutes 1!0.4ml/kg IM fentanyl-droperdiol芬太尼

    29Pentobarbital 37 mg/kg IP 60-90 minutes

    * Note: Not suitable for procedures requiring deep anesthesia.

    ! Note: High doses of fentanyl-droperdiol (0.88 ml/kg has been associated with muscle and nerve damage)

    Inhalational Anesthesia of Guinea pigs: Several gaseous

    anesthetics have been used successfully in the guinea pig (e.g. isoflurane). Isoflurane requires the use of a precision vaporizer to deliver the appropriate amount of anesthetic and also an appropriate scavenging system to prevent personnel exposure to the anesthetic. Induction will require "masking the guinea pig" or the use of an induction chamber. An endotracheal tube should be utilized to maintain anesthesia.

    Analgesia of Guinea Pigs:

    Agent Dose (mg/kg)

    12Morphine sulphate 2-5 mg/kg SC every 4 hours

    4Buprenorphine 0.05 mg/kg SQ TID to BID

    12Indomethacin 2.5-8.8 mg/kg PO

Anesthesia and Analgesia of Dogs

    Parenteral Anesthesia of Dogs:

    Agent Dose (mg/kg) Duration

    29Ketamine-xylazine 5; 1-2 IV or IM 30-65 minutes

    5-7.5 mg/kg IV; maintain 5-10 minutes unless a 29Propofol丙泊酚 with 0.2-0.4 mg/kg/min continuous infusion

    !*1610-18 mg/kg IV 5-15 minutes Thiopental硫喷妥钠

    29*!20-30 mg/kg IV 30-40 minutes Pentobarbital戊巴比妥

    * Note: Use of Acepromazine (0.05-1 mg/kg IM) as a preanesthetic will reduce the amount of

    16barbiturate required for anesthesia up to 50%.

    ! Note: Repeated doses of thiopental or pentobarbital will greatly prolong the recovery from anesthesia.

    Inhalational Anesthesia Dogs: Several gaseous anesthetics have been

    used successfully in the dog (e.g. isoflurane). All require the use of a precision vaporizer to deliver the appropriate amount of anesthetic and both require appropriate scavenging systems to prevent personnel exposure to the anesthetic. Induction usually requires to the use of a preanesthetic (i.e. thiopental) to allow intubation.

    Analgesia of Dogs:

    Agent Dose (mg/kg)

    32Butorphanol 0.2-0.4 mg/kg SQ every 2-5 hours

    29Buprenorphine 0.005-02 mg/kg IM, IV or SQ QID to BID

    29Morphine sulphate 0.5-5 mg/kg SC every 4 hours

    4 mg/kg IV, SC SID

    29Carprofen or

    1-2 mg/kg PO BID for seven days

    2 mg/kg SC, IM, IV SID for maximum 3 days

    29Ketoprofen or

    1 mg/kg PO SID for five days

Anesthesia and Analgesia of Cats

    Parenteral Anesthesia of Cats:

    Agent Dose (mg/kg) Duration

    Ketamine 22 mg/kg IM 20-30 minutes 29 Xylazine 1.1 mg/kg IM

    Ketamine 20 mg/kg IM 20-30 minutes 29Acepromazine 0.11 mg/kg IM

    !*16Thiopental 10-18 mg/kg IV 5-15 minutes

    29*!Pentobarbital 20-30 mg/kg IV 60-90 minutes

    * Note: Use of Acepromazine (0.05-1 mg/kg IM) as a preanesthetic will reduce the amount of barbiturate

    16required for anesthesia up to 50%.

    ! Note: Repeated doses of thiopental or pentobarbital will greatly prolong the recovery from anesthesia.

    Inhalational Anesthesia Cats: Several gaseous anesthetics have been used successfully

    in the cat (e.g. isoflurane). All require the use of a precision vaporizer to deliver the appropriate amount of anesthetic and both require appropriate scavenging systems to prevent personnel exposure to the

    29anesthetic. Induction usually requires the use of a preanesthetic (i.e. Ketamine5-20 mg/kg IM) to allow

    intubation.

    Analgesia of Cats:

    Agent Dose (mg/kg)

    29Butorphanol 0.4 mg/kg SQ every 3-4 hours

    32Buprenorphine 0.005-0.01 mg/kg IV or SQ TID to BID

    29Morphine sulphate 0.1 mg/kg SC every 4 hours

    29Carprofen 4 mg/kg SC or IV

    1 mg/kg SQ SID for up to three days

    29Ketoprofen or

    1 mg/kg PO SID for up to five days

Anesthesia and Analgesia of Macaques

    Parenteral Anesthesia of Macaques:

    Agent Dose (mg/kg) Duration

    Ketamine 10 mg/kg IM 30-40 minutes 29Xylazine 0.5 mg/kg IM

    29*Thiopental 15-20 mg/kg IV 5-10 minutes

    29*Pentobarbital 25-35 mg/kg IV 30-60 minutes

    * Note: Repeated doses of thiopental or pentobarbital will greatly prolong the recovery from anesthesia.

    Inhalational Anesthesia Macaques: Several gaseous anesthetics

    have been used successfully in the macaques (e.g. isoflurane). Isoflurane requires the use of a precision vaporizer to deliver the appropriate amount of anesthetic and also requires

    an appropriate scavenging system to prevent personnel exposure to the anesthetic. Induction usually requires to the use of a preanesthetic (i.e. Ketamine 10 mg/kg IM) to allow intubation.

    Analgesia of Macaques:

    Agent Dose (mg/kg)

    29Butorphanol 0.01 mg/kg IV every 3-4 hours

    29Buprenorphine 0.005-01 mg/kg IV or IM QID to BID

    29Morphine sulphate 1-2 mg/kg SC or IM every 4 hours

    292-4 mg/kg SC SID Flunixin氟尼辛

Tribromoethanol

    Guidelines for the use of Tribromoethanol (Avertin)

    Tribromoethanol (Avertin) is a quick-acting anesthetic that is used for short duration surgical procedures in mice.

    Advantages:

    ; Provides good surgical anesthesia

    ; Rapid induction

    ; Rapid recovery

    Disadvantages:

    ; Irritating, especially at high doses, high concentrations or repeated doses

    ; Degrades in the presence of heat or light to produce toxic by-products

    o Degraded solutions can be both nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic

    ; Can cause intestinal ileus several weeks after injection

    ; Effects can be somewhat unpredictable in mice under 16 days of age or in mice with

    altered carbohydrate metabolism (mouse strains used for diabetes or obesity

    models)

    Ingredients:

    ; 2.5 grams 2,2,2 Tribromoethanol

    ; 5 ml 2-methy-2-butanol (amylene hydrate, tertiary amyl alcohol)

    ; 200 ml distilled water - neutral pH (sterile)

    Preparation (12.5 mg/ml solution):

    ; Dissolve 2.5 grams Tribromoethanol in 5 ml amylene hydrate. Heat to 40 degrees C

    while stirring vigorously. Do not exceed 40 degrees C.

    ; Add distilled water, stirring continuously, up to a final volume of 200 ml.

    ; Filter through a Millipore filter (0.5 micron).

    Dosage:

    ; 240 mg/kg IP

    Storage:

    ; Filter final solution into red-cap blood collection tubes or amber (brown) colored

    sterile glass containers

    ; Solution container must be wrapped in aluminum foil to protect solution from light

    ; Solution container must be labeled with contents and date of preparation

    ; Store in refergerator for up to 2 weeks or freezer for up to 1 year

Expiration:

    ; Two-week expiration date

    ; Crystalization

    ; solution has turned yellow in color

    Precautions:

    ; Do not administer:

    o Non-sterile solutions

    o Outdated solutions

    o More concentrated solutions

    o Higher doses than recommended

    o Should only be adminstered one time due to gastrointestinal irritation

Alternative to the use of Halothane

    Alternative to the use of Halothane

    Halothane is no longer produced in the United States. Isoflurane has similar anesthetic properties and can be used in a similar fashion as halothane (e.g., vaporizer). The IACUC recommends that isoflurane be used in a vaporizer that has been manufactured for isoflurane or recalibrating a halothane vaporizer for the use of isoflurane.

    ; Isoflurane

    o High vapor pressure

    o Should be used in a precision vaporizer

    o Can be used in an anesthetic chamber (drop jar)

    ; Anesthetic gases must be scavenged properly

    ; Mice cannot come into direct contact with the isoflurane

    ; Drop jar method can only be used for non-surgical procedures Internal Volume of Chamber (L)

    Isoflurane 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 L Concentration

    1% 0.05 ml 0.10 ml 0.15 ml 0.20 ml 0.25 ml

    2% 0.10 0.20 0.31 0.41 0.51

    3% 0.15 0.31 0.46 0.61 0.77

    4% 0.20 0.41 0.61 0.82 1.02

    5% 0.26 0.51 0.77 1.02 1.28

    Volume of isoflurane given in milliliters

    Alternative to the use o Methoxyflurane

    Alternative to the use of Methoxyflurane

    Methoxyflurane is no longer produced in the United States. Isoflurane has similar anesthetic

    properties and can be used in a similar fashion as methoxyflurane (e.g., vaporizer). The IACUC recommends that isoflurane be used in a vaporizer that has been manufactured

    for isoflurane or recalibrating a vaporizer for the use of isoflurane.

    ; Isoflurane

    o High vapor pressure

    o Should be used in a precision vaporizer

    o Can be used in an anesthetic chamber (drop jar)

    ; Anesthetic gases must be scavenged properly

    ; Mice cannot come into direct contact with the isoflurane

    ; Drop jar method can only be used for non-surgical procedures Internal Volume of Chamber (L)

    Isoflurane 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 L Concentration

    1% 0.05 ml 0.10 ml 0.15 ml 0.20 ml 0.25 ml

    2% 0.10 0.20 0.31 0.41 0.51

    3% 0.15 0.31 0.46 0.61 0.77

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