Rifle: v -- to search a place or container quickly because you are looking for
something, especially something to steal:
Sally rifled through her wardrobe looking for a dress.
The robber had rifled his wallet and stolen ?200.
1 continuing for ever and having no end:
Church members express a belief in eternal life after death. She’s an eternal optimist.
2 seeming to continue for ever, especially because of being boring or annoying:
Night after night, Manson was aware of his eternal hunger. the eternal arguments between mother and son
1 an eternity a period of time that seems very long because you are annoyed, anxious etc:
Here she waited for what seemed like an eternity.
That week was an eternity of solitude and boredom.
2 the whole of time without any end:
a little animal preserved for all eternity as a fossil Out of/from nowhere: happening or appearing suddenly and without warning: In the last few seconds, Gunnell came from nowhere to win another gold medal. From out of nowhere he asks me to marry him!
Note: Do not use another negative word (e.g. “not”) with nowhere. Use
anywhere with not:
We had nowhere to go.
We didn’t have anywhere to go.
Not lift/raise a finger to: not make any effort to help someone with their work:
I do all the work around the house - Frank never lifts a finger.
In the face of danger, Charles did not lift a finger to save his girl friend though a
moment ago he had declared that he would do anything for her. So much for somebody/something: spoken used to say that a particular action,
idea, statement etc was not useful or did not produce the result that was hoped
He’s late again. So much for good intentions!
So much for getting up early every morning.
I can’t get it off the pan - so much for it being nonstick. Spasmodic: adj.
1 happening for short irregular periods, not continuously: spasmodic machine gun fire
2 (formal or medical) of or relating to a muscle spasm: a spasmodic cough
1 an occasion when your muscles suddenly become tight, causing you pain: Maggie felt a muscle spasm in her back.
A spasm of pain twisted Cheviot's face.
Tom's jaw muscles had gone into spasm.
back/shoulder/throat etc spasm
2 spasm of grief/laughter/coughing: a sudden strong feeling or reaction that you
have for a short period of time:
I felt a spasm of fear.
1 to bring sth back after it has not been used or has not existed for a period of
Local people have decided to revive this centuries-old tradition.
2 to become healthy and strong again, or to make sb or sth healthy and strong
again [ recover]:
The economy is beginning to revive.
The doctors revived her with injections of glucose.(葡萄糖)
to produce a play again after it has not been performed for a long time: 3
Beijing People’s Art Theatre has decided to revive some old plays next year. Revival: noun
1. a process in which something becomes active or strong again:
The US and the UK have expectations of economic revival.
There has been a revival of interest in Picasso's work.
2. when something becomes popular again
Traditional English food seems to be enjoying a revival at the moment. Wet: to make oneself, one’s clothes, or one’s bed wet because one passes water from
one’s body by accident
He nearly wet himself. He was so scared.
Sam’s wet his bed again.
1 to delay doing something:
Buyers have been holding off until the price falls.
Hold off making your decision until Monday.
2 hold somebody off
a) to prevent someone who is trying to attack or defeat you from succeeding:
At that point our troops were too weak to hold them off.
b) to prevent someone from coming towards you or succeeding in speaking to
There’s already a crowd of reporters outside – I’ll try to hold them off for a
3 if rain or bad weather holds off, it does not start, although it looked as if it
The rain held off until after the game.
Bid: (bade or bid, bid or bidden)
1 bid somebody good afternoon/good morning etc -- to greet someone
2 to order or tell someone what to do
The queen bade us enter.
3 to offer to pay a particular price for goods, especially in an auction
She bid ?100 for a Victorian chair.
The two men ended up bidding against each other at the auction.
Three firms bid for the contract on the new buildings.
1 if something reposes somewhere, it has been put there
2 if someone reposes somewhere, they rest there
3 repose your trust/hope etc in somebody: to trust someone to help you The strength of the court used to be that, when all else failed, trust continued to repose there at least.
Then you reposed an absolutely blind faith in the Emperor! Two skulls repose upon the same pillow in their dusty mine. Repose: noun. (formal or literary) a state of calm or comfortable rest
His face looked less hard in repose.
1 cotton on (to) ---- to begin to understand something [ realize]:
It took me a while to cotton on.
Sarah soon cottoned on to what he was trying to do.
2 cotton to somebody/something ---- to begin to like a person, idea etc:
I didn’t cotton to her at first, but she’s really nice.
1 if two surfaces are flush, they are at exactly the same level, so that the place
where they meet is flat
Make sure that the cupboard is flush with the wall.
2 if someone is flush, they have plenty of money to spend:
I’m feeling flush at the moment.
3 to become red in the face, for example when you are angry or embarrassed [=
Susan flushed deeplyand looked away.
He flushed angrily.
Robyn felt her cheeks flush scarlet.
Mrs Cooper flushed with indignation.
4 if you flush a toilet, or if it flushes, you make water go through it to clean it:
Why do children never remember to flush the loo (toilety) ?
She flushed the rest of her drink down the toilet.
5 to force water through a pipe in order to clean it
They flush clean water through the pipes once a day.
1 if a bird or aircraft swoops, it moves suddenly down through the air,
especially in order to attack something:
The eagle hovered, ready to swoop at any moment.
A helicopter suddenly swooped down.
2 (written) if the police, army etc swoop on a place, they go there without any
warning in order to look for someone or something
Drug officers swooped on several addresses in London last night.
More sentence examples:
On one occasion, around lunchtime, people in the village heard airplane gunfire
and a German plane swooped overhead, firing its guns.
We swooped down the big hill right onto the very busy harbor.
A bald eagle swoops across the bay and perches on a tall spruce.
The raven will swoop down to investigate the brass egg.
Luckily there was some bats swooping around for us to watch.
The plane then swooped in a tight circle back to the shore by now fairly low. Save: prep. also save for (except):
She answered all the questions save one.
The fee covers everything, save one dinner.
Little is known about his early life, save that he had a brother. Scramble: verb
1 to climb up, down, or over sth quickly and with difficulty, especially using
your hands to help you
They tried to scramble up the cliff.
She scrambled down the tree as quickly as she could.
2 to move somewhere in a hurried awkward way
scramble to/out/from etc
Alan scrambled out of the way.
Micky scrambled to his feet (=stood up very quickly and awkwardly) and
hurried into the kitchen.
3 to try to do something difficult very quickly
They were scrambling to give the impression that the situation was in control.
4 to struggle or compete with other people to get or reach something
Thousands of people will be scrambling for tickets.
1 to defeat or control a person or group, especially using force:
Government forces have managed to subdue the rebels.
Napoleon subdued much of Europe.
2 (formal) to prevent your emotions from showing or being too strong [= control]:
an excitement she could not subdue
He felt the urge to apologize, but then subdued it.
1 subdued lighting, colours etc are less bright than usual [= gentle] The subdued light made Mary appear pale.
2 a person that is subdued is unusually quiet and possibly unhappy:
Richard seems very subdued tonight.
a subdued manner
'Oh,' she said in a subdued voice.
3 an activity that is subdued does not have as much excitement as you would expect
Share issues were subdued in the early 1980s but rose strongly after that as the market improved.
The housing market is fairly subdued.
4 a sound that is subdued is quieter than usual
More sentence example:
The nation which has declared itself your enemy must be subdued by force of
arms and forced to submit to your way of thinking.
He subdued the Saxons after about 30 years of war and forced them to accept
However, domestic consumption and investment remained subdued due to near
record unemployment and uncertainty about the future.
There was a strangely subdued atmosphere around the Show Court.
Although an attractive flower. its coloring is somewhat subdued when compared
with the brilliant cultivated tulips in our gardens.
They were unable, however, to subdue the fierce tribes in the north.
The government has sent thousands of troops to subdue the rebellion in the
enclave, which has no border with the rest of Angola.
There's no doing something: (spoken)used to emphasize that it is not possible to do
There's no knowing what this lunatic will do next.
There is no denying the suffering of these families (=they are definitely suffering). There's no telling who is going to show up tonight.
Make much of somebody/something: (formal) to treat a person or thing as though
you think they are very important or special:
The press made much of the discovery.
They've always made much of their nephews and nieces.
In those interviews, Margaret Thatcher has made much of science and technology. Assertive: adj ---- behaving in a confident way, so that people notice you
The course helps women learn how to be more assertive in the workplace.
Many foreigners consider Wu Yi a practical, shrewd, assertive, dominating,
competitive, critical, and self-controlled woman in diplomatic affairs. Scholastic: adj.
1. relating to schools or teaching [academic]:
2 relating to scholasticism