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book2L07_the greatest invention

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book2L07_the greatest invention

    

     周;第 1 次课 授课时间 2010

    授课章节 Lesson seven: the greatest invention

    本,章(节 课堂讲授,? ( 实践课, ( 教学时数 2课时 授课方式

    

    

    

    ~1. Introduce background information to students: author, cultural

    information, etc.

    

    2. New words & expressions.

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

     1.background information

    

    2. Usage of new words and expressions.

    

    

    思考题

    1. Preview the text and expressions.

    教学内容与组织安排

    Part one: Warming-up Qs:

     What is science?

     What do you think is the greatest invention?

     What do you think is the image of a scientist? What is the driving force of the scientists to do

    their research?

     Is science only for science itself?

     What does science benefit us?

     Will science do any harm to human being?

    

    Quotes:

     Science is an imaginative adventure of the mind seeking truth in a world of mystery.

     Sir Cyril Hinshelwood English chemist.

     Nobel prize 1956

     Science is the desire to know causes.

     William Hazlitt English essayist

     Science is a great game. It is inspiring and refreshing. The playing field is the universe itself.

     Isidor Isaac Rabi U.S. physicist

     Nobel prize 1944

     Science is a wonderful thing if one doesn’t have to earn one’s living at it.

     Albert Einstein

     The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not “Eureka!”

    (“I found it!”) but rather, “hmm... that’s funny…”

     Isaac Asimov

     No science is immune to the infection of politics and the corruption of power.

Jacob Bronowski

    Questions:

     Can you give some examples of terrorism?

     Why did they take the terrorism?

     How do we respond to the terrorism?

    Quotes

     Terrorism has become the systematic weapon of a war that knows no borders or seldom has a

    face.

     Jacques Chirac

     We all have to be concerned about terrorism, but you will never end terrorism by terrorizing

    others.

     Martin Luther King III

     Everybody’s worried about stopping terrorism. Well, there’s a really easy way: stop participating

    in it.

     Noam Chomsky

    Part two: Background information:

    I. Author

    Lord Dunsany (July 24, 1878October 25, 1957) was an Irish writer and dramatist. His full name was Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th Baron Dunsany.

    Lord Dunsany was educated at Eton College and Sandhurst. He served as an officer during the Boer War and World War I. He was a keen huntsman, and sportsman, and was at one time the chess and pistol champion of Ireland.

    His fame arose, however, from his prolific writings of short stories, novels, plays and poetry, reportedly mostly written with a quill pen.

    His writings:

    The work of Lord Dunsany must be the foundation of any good library of fantasy and science fiction. His most notable fantasy short stories include:The Gods of Pegana, The Book of Wonder, The Man

    Who Ate the Phoenix etc.

    His significance within the genre of fantasy writing is considerable.

    Quote of the author:

    Logic, like whiskey, loses its beneficial effect when taken in too large quantities.

    II. Fantasy and Fable

    ; Fantasy: It is a situation imagined by an individual or group, which does not correspond

    with reality but expresses certain desires or aims of its creator.

    1. Fantasies typically involve situations which are impossible (such as the existence of

    magic powers) or highly unlikely (such as world peace).

    2. In literature fantasy is a form of fiction, usually novels or short stories.

    3. As a genre, fantasy is both associated and contrasted with science fiction and horror

    fiction.

    4. “Fantasy” seems reserved for fiction that features magic, brave knights, damsels in

    distress, mythical beasts, and quests.

    ; Fable: A fable is a short story or folk tale with a moral at the end. It often, but not

    necessarily, makes metaphorical use of an animal as its central character. In some cases

    usage of the term has been extended to include stories with mythical or legendary elements.

    An author of fables is a fabulist.

    III. The Caribbean

    The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. These islands curve

    southward from the bottom tip of Florida to the Northwest of Venezuela in South America. There are at least 7,000 islands, islets, reefs and caves in the region. They are organized into twenty-five

    territories including sovereign states, overseas departments and dependencies.

    The name “West Indies” originates from Christopher Columbus’ idea that he had landed in India when

    he had in fact reached the Americas. The Caribbean consists of the Antilles and the Bahamas and is

    part of North America.

    IV. Germ Warfare

    1. Germ is an informal term for a disease-causing organism, particularly bacteria.

    2. Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other

    disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. It is meant to incapacitate or

    kill an adversary.

    3. Biological warfare is a cause for concern because a successful attack could conceivably result in

    thousands, possibly even millions, of deaths and could cause severe disruptions to societies and

    economies. However the consensus among military analysts is that except in the context of

    bioterrorism, biological warfare is militarily of little use.

     周;第 2 次课 授课时间 2010

    授课章节 Lesson seven: the greatest invention 本,章(节 课堂讲授,? ( 实践课, ( 教学时数 2课时 授课方式

    

    

    1. Lead-in discussion. ~ 2. Detailed study of the text.

    

     3学习本文作为现代寓言的文体特征;及其在文中的表现方式。

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

     1. Comprehend and translate some of the key sentences;

    

    2.Translate and paraphrase.

    

    

思考题

    1. Review sentence paraphrase;

    

    教学内容与组织安排 I. Word Study

    1. appeal: v. a. to make a serious request for help, money, information

     b. to be attractive or interesting

     c. to make formal request to a court

     She appealed to the kidnappers to release her son.

     Does the idea of working abroad appeal to you?

     If you are not satisfied, you can appeal.

    appeal n. 恳求;呼吁:吸引力:上诉; 申诉

     appeal for aid

     an appeal to parents to supervise their children

     The film has great appeal for young audience.

     an appeal to the European court of Human Rights 2. fierce: a. very strong; done with very strong feelings and energy

    fierce emotions 强烈的感情

    fierce attack 猛烈的进攻

    fierce competition 激烈的竞争

    fierce anger 极度愤怒

    fierce look 面目狰狞

    fierce tempest 狂风暴雨 3. glory: n. great honor; praise

    return with glory 凯旋

    in one’s glory 得意之时

    go to glory 死;升天

    glory to do/in doing sth. 为做某事而自豪

    glorify oneself 自夸

    a glorious death 光荣的牺牲 4.spur: v. a. to encourage a horse to go faster

     b. to incite or stimulate

     n. a fact or event that makes you try harder to do sth.

     The rider spurred on to his destination.

     He was spurred on by poverty to commit a crime.

     To him difficulties were simply spurs to endeavor.

     Ambition is an excellent spur for the young.

II. Phrases and Expressions

1. adapt to: to change your ideas or behavior so that you can deal with a new

    situation

     Most students have little difficulty adapting to college life.

     When he moved to Canada, the children adapted to the change very well. adapt for: to change sth. so that it can be used in a different purpose

     The materials can be adapted for use with older children.

     You can adapt this fabric for anything from driver’s suit to gloves. 2. be born to do/be sth.: to be very suitable for a particular job, activity, etc.

     She was born to be a dancer.

     He is a person born to lead.

    be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth 生于富贵人家

    be born under a lucky star 生来就幸运

    born and bred 土生土长

    I wasn’t born yesterday. 不要拿我当小孩。

    There is one born every minute. 随时有人犯傻。 3. but for: without, if not for

     But for these interruptions the meeting would have finished half an hour ago.

     But for my brother's help, I would not have finished. 4. drive away: to make someone stop wanting sth. or stop wanting to be with

    someone

     Increasing prices will only drive customers away.

     Your possessiveness will drive Liz away if you’re not careful. 5. if only: used to express a strong wish

     If only I had a car, I could get out of this place.

     “If only I could see for three days,” said the blind girl. 6. let loose: to let sb. or sth. go free

     You should not let loose your indignation in this way.

     Don’t let your dog loose if there are any sheep around. 7. lose grip on: a. to lose the power and control over

     b. to become less able to understand things or deal with them

     The policeman would not lose his grip on the thief.

     Don’t lose your grip on the rope or you’ll fall.

     Are you starting to lose your grip on reality?

    be in the grip of sth. 处于不利局势之中

     The forest is still in the grip of winter.

    get a grip on oneself 控制自己的感情

     Stop being hysterical and get a grip on yourself.

    have a grip on sth. 对某事的控制

     The church no longer has a strong grip on the population. 8. mark off: to make an area separate by drawing a line around it or putting a rope

    around it

     We marked off the limits of our lots with stakes.

     The place was marked off as a tennis court.

     Her smiling eyes marks her off from other girls.

    9. put into/in:a. to enter a port or harbor

     b. to spend time or use energy working or practising sth.

     c. to interrupt sb. in order to say sth

     The ship put in a port.

     You have to put in a lot of effort to learn a new language.

     He put in a good word for me.

    put across 表达清楚

    put away 收拾起来: 存钱

    put down 批评某人

    put forward 提出

    put off 延期

    put through 为某人接通电话

    10. what if: what would happen if

     What if we move the picture over here?

     It sounds like a good offer, but what if it’s a trick?

    11. within one’s grasp: to be able to achieve or attain sth.

     Success is within our grasp now.

     She has an excellent position within her grasp.

    beyond one’s grasp 力量达不到

    have a good grasp of 深刻了解

    in the grasp of ??????掌握中

    keep a firm grasp on 抓紧

    Grasp all, lose all. []贪多必失。

Language points (words and expressions)

    1. I was tired of looking at the tropical sea, so I went ashore and walked into a tavern to

    see if they had any decent wines in that country. (para5)

    go ashore: go to the shore

     prefix a-”加在名词、动词、形容词前,构成副词或表语形容词 They were walking abreast. (side by side)

     He was standing a few steps apart from them.

     She left the door ajar.slightly open 半开(

     Many of those visitors came from afar (far away).

    decent: acceptable, good enough

     a decent meal/job/house/ hotel decent clothes/ wages

    2. When the bottle had been uncorked and the wine poured out, like liquid tropical

    sunlight, I watched it go down under that black mustache. (para5) [paraphrase]: The bottle was opened and the wine was poured out. The man with black

    mustache drank it up although it was pretty strong, like hot liquid sunlight. liquid: (literacy) clear, shining like water

    晶莹的蓝眼睛 liquid blue eyes

    3. We aimed at the mastery of the whole Caribbean. (para6)

    [paraphrase]: It was our purpose to have complete control of the whole Caribbean. The enemy had complete mastery (the status of master or control) of the seas and no

    ships could get through.

     Everybody was impressed by her quick mastery (full command of a subject) of those

    complicated theories.

    4. …he was not at all what one would regard as the figure of a soldier. (para11) the figure of a soldier: the kind of person one would expect to see as a soldier, tall and

strong

    figure

     You have to watch our diet if you want to keep your figure. shape the exact figure number both a political and a religious figure person to play the figure of a judge character 5. Our Minister … was a cavalry officer and could not adapt his ideas to modern

    science. He thought of war simply as an opportunity for cavalry charges and fine

    uniforms and glory. (para12)

    cavalry charges: rushes to attack the enemy on horseback

     1. The hotel charged me $50 for a room for the night. (ask in payment) 2. Suddenly the wild animal charged at us. (rush to attack)

     3. He was charged with murder and betrayal. (to accuse formally of a crime) 4. The soldiers charged their guns and prepared to fire. (to load) 5. He is always charged with strength and power. (to take in the correct amount of

    electricity/power)

    6. “We had to get rid of him in order to fulfill our just aspirations.” (para12) get rid of him: to get him out of the way or remove him from office fulfill our just aspirations: to achieve our just goals

    a just ruler a just cause just deserts a just appraisal honorable and fair 公正的

     consistent with what is morally right; righteous 正义的

     properly due or merited 应得的

     based on fact or sound reason; well-founded 有根有据的 7. Once, if a nation had twelve battleships it was a Great Power…(para16) [paraphrase]: It refers to the 19th century when colonialists and imperialists pursued

    gunboat diplomacy.炮舰外交(

    Gunboat diplomacy: the use of a threat or show of armed force by a country to support a

    claim, demand, complaint, etc. against another.

    8. But what if we know how to let loose a plague capable of destroying whole nations? (para16)

    what if: what would happen if

    let loose: to let sb. or sth. go free

    plague: any disease causing death and spreading quickly to a large number of people What if we move the picture over here? 我们把画移到这儿怎么样? You should not let loose your indignation in this way. 你不该用这种方式发泄愤慨. A great many people have been swept away by the plague.

     That child is a plague of her life.

     The little boy plagued his father by begging over and over to go to the zoo. You’ve been plaguing me with silly questions all day!

    9. “We looked for a new and deadlier germ.” (para18)

    deadly (adj.): very dangerous, likely to cause death

    Cf. deadly poison deadly enemy deadly silence

    deadly (adv.): deadly serious deadly boring

Cultural notes:

    the seven deadly sins

    Those faults in a person's character which are thought to be the cause of all evil actions.

    Ranked in order of severity (worst sins listed first) as in Dante's Divine Comedy, the

    seven deadly sins are:

    1. pride (vanity) a desire to be important or attractive to others or excessive love of

    self 傲慢

    2. envy (jealousy) resentment of others for their possessions 嫉妒

    3. wrath (anger) inappropriate (unrighteous) feelings of hatred, revenge 暴怒

    4. sloth laziness; idleness and wastefulness of time 懒惰

    5. avarice (covetousness, greed) a desire to possess more than one has need or use

    for 贪婪

    6. gluttony wasting of food 饕餮

    7. lust unlawful sexual desire 淫欲

10. “We knew that we had marvelous powers within our grasp, if only Carasierra could

    be kept at his work.” (para18)

    have sth. within one’s grasp: to be able to achieve or attain sth.

    keep sb. at sth.: to force sb. to continue to do sth.

     Success is within our grasp now. 现在我们已有成功的把握了.

     She has an excellent position within her grasp. 她唾手可得一个很好的职位.

     To do exercise once in awhile is not enough. You’ve got to keep at it.

     He keeps at his studies, although he is ill.

     Keep at him for payment.

    11. “Always spurred on by a fierce ambition. His very life was devoted to making inventions.” (para20)

     spur: to urge sb. to try harder

     fierce: very strong

     very: used to emphasize a noun e.g. that very day

     He was spurred on by poverty to commit a crime.(刺激(

     To him difficulties were simply spurs to endeavor.(刺激,物()

     Ambition is an excellent spur for the young. 雄心是青年人的一种极好的推动力.

    12. “I tried everything: threats, appeals to him to think of our ancient glory, even

    bribes.” (para23)

     bribe (n.): money or sth. valuable given to sb. to persuade him to do sth.

    dishonest

     bribe (v.): to pay sb. to persuade him to do sth. Dishonest

    bribe sb. (with sth.)/bribe sb. (into doing sth.):

     They bribed the superintendent with cigarettes. 他们用香烟贿赂管理员.

     She was offered a $50000 bribe to drop the charges. 有人用5万元贿赂她,要她撤回控告.

    13. “We were so nearly one of the Great Powers but for a fancy that came to this man’s

    mind.” (para24)

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