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The_5 (2)

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The_5 (2)

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;!V01me2,No.11(SerialNo.12)u璺二’hnaEducationReview,ISSN15486613,USA

    ;TheModeofPromotingLearnerAutonomyforNon-EnglishMajors

    ;throughClassroomInstruction

    ;JinxiaLiu’LinyiNormalUniversity

    ;Abstract:Inthispapertheauthorintroducesasurveystudyoflearner’sreadinesstowardsautonomyof

    ;nonEnglishmajors.Basedontheresultofthesurveyandthepreviousresearches,theauthorproposesamodeof

    ;promotinglearnerautonomyofnonEnglishmajorsthroughclassroominstructioninChina.

    ;Keywords:learnerautonomy;nonEnglishmajors;mode

    ;1.Intr0duc廿0n

    ;ClassroomisthemainplacewherelearnersofEnglishasforeignlanguagegoabouttheirlanguagelearning.

    ;Thoughthepromotionofautonomousapproachestolanguagelearningisjustifiedoneducationaland ;psychologicalgrounds.ithasnotestablishedintheuniversitysettinginChinaforsomepracticalreasons.The

    ;beliefsandattitudeslearnersholdhaveaprofoundinfluenceontheirlearningbehaviors.sothisvariabilityis

    ;accountedfor,inpart,bydifferencesinlearner’beliefsaboutlanguagelearning.Thepaperarguestherefore,thatit

    ;isnecessarytogaugelearners’readinessforthechangesinbeliefsandbehaviorswhichautonomyimplies.Before

    ;experimentingwiththefeasibilityofincorporatinglearnerautonomyintoclassroominstruction,theauthor

    ;conductsastudyofexamininglearners’beliefsabouttheirlearning.Basedontheresultandtheprevious

    ;researches,theauthorproposesamodeofpromotinglearnerautonomyofnonEnglishmajorsthrough

    classroom

    ;instructioninChina

    ;2.AStudyoftheReadinessofLearnerAutonomyforNon-EnglishMajors

    ;Themethodweuseinthisstudyisquestionnaire.Thepurposeofthisistoinvestigatetreadinessof

    ;Chineseuniversitystudents’learnerautonomy,includingtheirbeliefsandattitudestowardslearnerautonomyand

    ;theirindependentlearningabilities.Thereare300subjectsinall,whoarealliuniorsofnon.Englishmajors.The

    ;subjectsweresimilarinacademicbackground.TheyallbegantolearnEnglishwhentheywereinsecondary

    ;schoo1.Allofthemhadpassedthenationaluniversityentranceexamination.TheyarefromLiny~Normal

    ;UniversityinShandongprovince,and60%ofthemhadpassedCET

4.Weissued300questionnairesheets.and

    ;gotback288validsheets.Thesubjectsweretoldthatthepurposeofthesurveywastocollectresearchdataand

    ;hadnothingtodowiththeiracademicscores.Thentheywereencouragedtofinishthequestionnairewithwhat

    ;wasreallyontheirmind.ThedesignofthequestionnaireisbasedontheonemadebySheerinin1997tosurvey

    ;students’attitudestoindependentlearning.Thequestionsinherquestionnaireweredesignedinaeasywayfor

    ;learnerstoanswer.Byanalyzingstudents’answers,theirperformancescanbeidentifiedveryclearlv.

    ;.JinxiaLiu,female,associateprofessorofSchoolofForeignLanguageofLinyiNormalUniversity;Researchfields:plied

    ;linguisticsandlanguageteaching;Address:SchoolofForeignLanguageofLinyiNormalUniversity,Linyi

    ;.

    ;ShandongPro”vince

    ;,P.R.China;Postcode:276005.

    ;

    ;

    ;TheM0deofPromotingLearnerAutonomyfo

    ;rNon-E

    ;nglishM

    ;ajorsthrough

    ;ClassroomInstruction

    ;3.TheAnalysisoftheResultsfromOurQuestionnaire

    ;Inthefirsttwoquestions,wemainlyinvestigatestudents’understandingoflearnerautonomyandtheir

    ;opiniononteacher.studentrelationship.Inthefirstquestion,”inyouropinion,thelearnerautonomymea

    ns:1)

    ;independentlvstudyafterclasswithoutteachers’instructions.2)toalargeextent,equalwithself-study.3

    )other

    ;answers”.

    ;60.85%Ofthestudentschosethefirstoption,and33.44%ofthestudentschosethesecondoption.The ;resultshowsthatmoststudentsdonothaveaveryclearideaaboutwhatlearnerautonomyis.Generallyspeaking,

    ;thepotentialhostilitytowardstheideaofautonomouslanguagelearningpartlyresultsfromafalseassumption

    ;aboutwhatautonomyisandwhatitentails.Sothisphenomenoncannotbeneglected.Inthesecondquestion

    ;aboutstudents,opinionontheteacherstudentrelationship.morethanhalfofthestudents(61.17%)thinkthatthe

    ;teacheristhetransmitterofknowledge,andthatstudentisthereceiverofknowledge.They(18.89%)seldom

    ;regardtherelationshipasallequalandnonhierarchicalone,Thisresultwasfromthetraditionalmodeofteaching.

    ;Inmosttraditionalmodesofteaching,therewouldseemtobetwomainroleswhichtheteachersperform:thefirst

    ;oneisthatofknower:theteacherisasourceofknowledgeintermsofboththetargetlanguageandthechoiceof

    ;methodology+Inotherwords,theteacherisafigureofauthoritywhodecidesonwhatshouldbelearnedandhow

    ;thisshouldbestbelearned.Thesecondroleisthatofactivityorganizer:theteachersetsupandsteerslearning

    ;activitiesintherightdirection,motivatesandencouragesstudentsandprovidesauthoritativefeedbackon

    ;students’performance.Whileinalearner-centeredclassroom,studentsareseenasbeingabletoassumeamore

    ;activeandparticipatoryrolethanisusualintraditionalapproaches.Logically,studentrolescannotberedefined

    ;withoutaparallelredefinitionofteacherroles.InChina,learnersaretaughtinateacher-centeredclassroomfrom

    ;theirchildhood,theyhaveevengotusedtothiskindofteachingmethodwithoutconsciousness.Topromote

    ;students’autonomyintheirlanguagelearning,theteachershouldfirstraisethestudents’awarenessoflearner

    ;autonomy,atthesametime;theteachershouldchangetheirtraditionalrolesandmovetonewones:counselor,

    ;facilitator,resourceandawareness-raiser.Theteachercanexplaintheconceptoflearnerautonomyandtheteacher

    ;andstudents’rolesfromthebeginning.

    ;Theninthefollowingquestions3,4,5,students’answersshowtheirdependenceontheirteachers.Inthe

    ;thirdquestion.55.2l%ofthestudentschosethefirstanswerinsteadofchoosing’studentsshouldchoosefor

    ;themselveswhatexercisestodoandwhatbookstoread.’Inthefourthone.76.66%ofthestudentsthinkthat

    ;teachersshouldtellstudentswhattheyhavetodosothattheycanlcamEnglishbetter.Forthefifthone.80%of

    ;thestudentstendtothinkthatteachershavetheresponsibilitytocorrectstudents’mistakes.Theresultsshowthat

    ;studentsstilldependalotontheirteachersintheirminds.Thisphenomenonshowsthatstudentsseemedtohave

    ;gotusedtotheteacher-dominatedmethodology.Theydidnotregarditastheirownresponsibilitiestodecidewhat

    ;tolearn.Thoughsomestudentspreferredtoevaluatetheirlearningabilitiesbythemselves,theydidnotknowhow

    ;todoitandwerenotsurewhethertheirevaluationwaseffectiveornot,sofinallytheyhadtoturntotheteacher’

    ;forhelp.inallautonomouslearningcircumstance,itisthestudent’sresponsibilitytodecidelearningmanner.So

;theideasthatthesubjectsholdintheinvestigationshouldbechanged.Itistheteacher’sresponsibilitytoch

    ange ;thestudents’attitudetowardlearningprocessandimprovetheirskillsbycreatingopportunitiesforthemt

    o

    ;practiceorprovidelearnertrainingifnecessary.

    ;Thepurposeofthequestion6-10istotestthestudents’abilitiesoflearnerautonomy,yettheresultswereno

    t

    ;optimistic.Morethanhalfofthesubjects(59.11%)thoughtthattheirabilitiestolearnindependentlywasn

    otso ;strong.Mostofthemweremoredependentonteacherthanonthemselvestocarryouttheirplansandevalu

    ate ;47 ;

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    ;nomyforNon-EnglishMajorsthroughClassroomInstruction

    ;theirlearningresults.Theystillpreferredthetraditionalwayofteaching.Chineseuniversitystudentshavelearned

    ;Englishoversixyears.Theyhavehadcertainabilitiestostartautonomouslearning. ;Becauseourtraditional

    ;culturedoesnotholdautonomyinesteem,thestrategiesoflearnerautonomyhaven’treceivedmuchattentionasit

    ;shoulddo.Researchshowthatinformaleducationalcenterslearnersdonotautomaticallyacceptresponsibilityfor

    ;theirlearning(Little,1990).Soteachersmusthelpthemtodoso,andtheywillnotnecessarilyfinditeasyto ;reflectcriticallyonthelearningprocess.Soteachersmustfirstprovidethemwithappropriatetoolsand ;opportunitiestopractice.Therefore,trainingforlearnerautonomycomessignificantly.Thisisparticulartruewith

    ;ChinesenonEnglishmajors,whoonlyhavetwoyearstolearnEnglishunderthesupervisionofteachers.Thusit

    ;isquitenecessaryfortheteacherstoinvolvesomelearner-trainingprogramsintheirEnglishteachingtoimprove

    ;students’abilitiestolcamautonomously.

    ;4.TheModeofPromotingLearnerAutonomyforNon-EnglishMajorsthrough

    ;ClassroomInstruction

    ;Fromtheaboveanalysiswemade,wecanseethatthestudentsarenotquiteclearaboutwhat1earner ;autonomyreallymeans,andthattheyarestilldependentquitealotontheirteachersintheirminds.Thereare

    ;variousreasonsforthis.Itispartlybecauseofstudents’culturalbeliefontheonehandandpartlythetraditional

    ;teacher-centeredteachingmethodsontheotherhand.Sotodeveloptheabilityoflearnerautonomyamongthem,

    ;heighteningstudents’awarenessoftheirroleinthelearningprocessandfindinganewwayofinteractionb

    etween

    ;thestudentsandtheteachersarequiteimportant.Basedontheabovestudy,andtheChinesecollegeEnglish

    ;teaching’sbackground,thewriteroffersamodeofpromotinglearnerautonomyofnon—Englishmajors

    inChina,

    ;whichincludesfourstages:1)raisingtheawareness;2)changingtheattitudes;3)transferringroles.4)positive

    ;interdependence.Inthismode,wechoosetointegratestrategytrainingintoregularcourse.AccordingtoScharle

    ;&Szabo(2000),therearethreepracticalreasonsfordoingthat:first,combininglearnerdevelopmentwithregular

    ;curricularaimsmaysavealotoftimeandenergy.Second,therearesomenotparticularlymotivatedstuden

tswho

    ;wouldneverbevolunteertoattendanelectivestrategytrainingcourse.Third,wecanusethecontentsofthe

    ;regularschoolcurriculumasameaningfulcontextforstrategytraining.Wewillhaveadetaileddescriptionofthis

    ;modelinthefollowingsections.

    ;4.1RaisingtheAwareness

    ;Nunanproposesfivelevelstotrainlearnerstobemoreautonomous:”1)Awareness:learnersaremadeaware

    ;ofpedagogicalgoals,contentsandstrategies;2)Involvement:learnersareactivelyinvolvedinthelearning;3)

    ;intervention:learnersareencouragedtomodifyandadapttheirgoals,learningstyleandstrategies;4)Creation:

    ;learnerssetuptheirowngoalsandplansforself-directedleaming;5)Transcendence:learnersmovebeyond

    ;classroomsettingforindependentlearning.”(citedinWangXiaoling,2002).SofromNunan’sproposalwecan

    ;seeraisingawarenessisthestartingpoint.Inthisphase,theteacherpresentsnewviewpointsandnewexperience

    ;tothelearnersandencouragesthemtobringtheinnerprocessesoftheirlearningtotheconsciousleveloftheir

    ;thinking.Stevickoncesaid”Successdependslessonmaterials,techniques,andlinguisticanalysis,andmoreon

    ;whatgoesoninsideandbetweenthepeopleintheclassroom’(Stevick,1980:4,citedinThanasoulas,2000).In

    ;languageteaching,teacherscanprovideallthenecessarycircumstancesandinput,butlearningcanonlyhappenif

    ;learneriswillingtocontribute.Scharle&Szabof2000:4)suggest”nomatterhowmuchstudentslearnthrough

    ;lessons,thereisalwaysplentymoretheywillneedtolearnbypracticeontheirow/l….Thebestwaytoprep

    are

    ;

    ;TheModeofPromotingLearnerAutonomy

    ;forNon-EnglishMajorsthroughClassroomInstruction

    ;tl1emforthistaskistohelpthembecomemoreautonomous.”Thewillingnesstobeautonomousinlanguage

    ;lea

    1ingiscloselyrelatedtotheperceivedvaluesofautonomouslanguagelearningandthemotivationwhich ;Donlveithinksis”oneofthekeyfactorsthatinfluencetherateandsuccessofsecond/foreignlanguagelearning?

    ;MotivationprovidestheprimaryimpetustoinitiateleamingtheL2andlaterthedrivingforcetosustainthelong

    ;andoftentediouslearningprocess”(Domyei,1998:117,citedinThanasoulas,2000).

    ;AccordingtoDeci&Ryan,therearetwotypesofmotivation:intrinsicmotivationandextrinsicmoti

vation-

    ;IntheirtheorySelf-DeterminationTheory(Deci&Ryan,1985),intrinsicmotivationreferstodoingsomething

    ;becauseitisinherentlyinterestingorenjoyable,andextrinsicmotivation,whichreferstodoingsomething

    ;becauseitleadstoaseparableoutcome.Overthreedecadesofresearchhasshownthattheintrinsicmotivation

    ;resultsinhigh.qualitylearningandcreativitythroughactingonone’sinherentinterests.Scharle&Szabo(2000:71

    ;thinkthat”Weneedtoencourageintrinsicmotivationthesourceofwhichissomeinnerdriveorinterestofthe

    ;learner.Intrinsicmotivatedlearnersaremoreabletoidentifywiththegoalsoflearningandthatmakesthemmore

    ;willingtotakeresponsibilityfortheoutcome.Inturn,alargerscopeforstudentself-determinationandautonomy

    ;generatesintrinsicmotivation.”AccordingtoDeci&Ryan’sstudy,someextrinsicmotivationcanbeinternalized

    ;togetasnearaspossibletotheintrinsicmotivation.Sotheteachersshouldnotonlyuseintrinsicmotivationto

    ;fosterlearnerautonomy.

    ;Learningstrategiesserveastoolstoimproveone’slanguagecompetence,andlearnerscanonlybeheld

    ;responsiblefortheircompetenceiftheyareawareofthesetools.Sotheteachersneedtoshowstudentsthevariety

    ;ofavailablestrategies,helpingthemtofindoutwhattheirownworks,andhelpthemtodiscoverhowandwhento

    ;usethesestrategies.Theteacherscanalsobringstudentstothethrillingexperienceofexploringandexpanding

    ;tl1eirownabilities.

    ;Theefficiencyofteachingdependsonlearners’motivation,skills,andwillingnessorabilitytocooper~eand

    ;workasacommunityverymuch.Soinordertoraiselearnersawareness,thefirststepistousedifferentways

    ;(suchasopenquestions,whichareinfavorofthepositivesidesofthestudents;Englishlearning)toget ;informationaboutyourstudents’existingattitudesandknowledge.Basedontheinformation,youcandecide

    ;whicharetheareaswhereawarenessraisingismostneeded,andwhicharetheoneswhereyoucanmovestraight

    ;ontothepracticestage.Thenyoucanuseactivities,forexample,guessinghiddenstrengths, ;togiveconfidenceto

    ;andmotivatestudentsbyemphasizingskillsandknowledgetheyalreadypossess.ThentheteacherCanusesome

    ;examplestogettl1estudentstothinkabouttheirlearningstylesandintroducesomenewstrategiestohelpstudents

    ;tofindoutwhatworksbestforthem,forexample,explicitinstruction.Wehavealreadydiscussedexplicit

    ;instructioninChapterThree.Inthisphase,theteachershouldpayattentiontotheirchoiceofactivities,andall

    ;activitiestheteacherchoosesshouldbeaimedatopeningthestudents’eyestonewwaysofthinkingaboutt

    heir

    ;learning.

    ;4.2ChangingAttitudes

    ;Webster’sRevisedUnabridgedDictionarydefines”attitude’’as”acomplexmentalorientationinvolving

    ;beliefsandfeelingsandvaluesanddispositionstoactincertainways”,whileCollinsCobuildStudent,s

    ;Dictionaryexplainsthat:”Yourattitudetosomethingisthewayyouthinkandfeelaboutit”.Intheliteratureon

    ;attitudechanging,attitudehasbeenreferredtoas’learnermotivations,valuedbeliefs,evaluations.whatone

    ;believesisacceptable,orresponsesorientedtowardsapproachingandavoiding’(Wenden,1991:52).Fo

    rWenden.

    ;twokindsofattitudesarecrucial:attitudeslearnersholdabouttheirrolesinthelearningprocess ;,andtheir

    ;capacitiesasleamers(Wenden,1991:53).Inasense,attitudesareaformofmeta.cognitiveknowledge.Atanv

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    ;rate,”learnerbeliefsabouttheirroleandcapacityaslearnerswillbeshapedandmaintained…byotherbeliefsthey

    ;holdaboutthemselvesaslearners”(Wenden,1991:541.

    ;Nowadays,moreandmorepeoplealeinclinedtobelievethatautonomyisauniversalconcept,andthat ;learnerautonomyhasnoculturalincompatibility.Inthisthesiswealsoprefertobelievethatabsolutecultural

    ;incompatibilitydoesnotexist,however,theculturebeliefdoesinfluencethelearnerautonomy. ;Unlikemany

    ;westerncountries,theculturesinsomenonwesterncountries,forexample,China,donotholdautono

    myin

    ;esteem.Thismayfurtherinfluencelearners’beliefsandattitudestowardlanguagelearningandautonom

    y.

    ;Littlewood(1999)oncecompilesalistofpredictionsaboutAsianlanguagelearners.Thesepredictionsar

ebased

    ;onareviewoftheliteratureonAsianstudents’beliefsandattitudestowardslanguagelearning.Thepredic

    tions

    ;saythatAsianlanguagelearnersarelikelyto

    ;1)Haveastronginclinationtoformgroupswhichworktow

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