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UniversityUniver

    University

    Nov.2005,Volume2,No.11(SerialNo.12)US-ChinaEducationReview,ISSNIS48-6613,USA ;UniversityOrientationandDevelopingPlanningStudies

    ;ontheCaseofYanshanUniversity

    ;YongfengXuYanshanUniversity

    ;Abstract:Scientificdevelopingconceptofhighereducationisoverall,coordinatedandsustainedbasedon

    ;facts.Thedevelopingplanningofauniversitywhichistheperspectiveofanuniversitymustbeunified,directed

    ;andcompletedscientifically.TakeYanshanUniversityforexample,duringits1lthFive-Year-Planperiod,wehold

    ;theopinionthatuniversityorientationisanorlTtofformulatingtheuniversitydevelopingplanning.Meanwhile,

    ;scientificdevelopingplanistheprerequisitetoimplementingscientificdevelopingconceptofhighereducation.

    ;Keywords:university;orientation;develop;planning

    ;1.UniversityOrientation

    ;1.1TheConceptionofUniversityOrientation

    ;Theorientationofauniversityshouldbeconsideredatthreeaspects,namelyhighereducationorientationin

    ;thewholesocialsystem,universityorientationinthewholehighereducationsystemandessentialinternalfactors

    ;inthegrowthofauniversity.Thisarticleattemptstoexploretherelationshipbetweenuniversityorientationand

    ;developingplanningonthebasisofstudiesononeuniversity.Hencethearticleonlyanalyzesthelattertwo ;aspects?

    ;Everyuniversityexistsasasubsysteminhighereducationsystem.Thesubsystemisindependentaswellas

    ;relatedtothewholesystemsothatthesubsystemsinevitablycooperateandcompeteininformation,energy,and

    ;resources.Everysubsystempossessesdifferentinformation,energy,andresourcesbecauseofdifferenthistory,

    ;conditionandstatus.Everysubsystemisalsoobjectivelyinacertainenergylevelforitsdifferentfunctionsinthe

    ;wholesystem.Inotherwords,eachuniversitycertainlyhasitsownpositionwhichisobjectiveandwillnot ;changeorinfluenceforman’swillingness.Thearticleraisestheideathatnowadays,universitiesneedtos

    ettlethe

    ;problemoforientationinfivea~pectswhichincludefunctionorientation,levelandtypeorientation,discipline

    ;orientation.scaleorientationandcharacteristicsorientation.

;1.2FunctionOrientation

    ;Universityfunctionsarethefunctionsofhighereducationsystemperformedwhentheuniversityisregarded

    ;asasubsystemofsocialsystem.Inthehistoryofmodemuniversities,theirfunctionsexperiencedaprocessof

    ;keepingdevelopingandimprovingsincethefoundationofthefirstuniversityBolognaUniversity,theinitial

    ;universitiesincludingParisUniversityandOxfordUniversityonlypossessedthefunctionofteaching.Humboldt

    ;foundedandformedandputforwardtheprincipleofcombiningteachingandresearchingsoastoexpandthe

    ;functionsoftheuniversityintheearly19th’s.Beforelong.UniversityofWisconsininAmericafurthered

    ;‘YongfcngXu,

    ;associateresearcherofHigherEducationDevelopmentandResearchCenter,YanshanUniversity;ResearchField:

    ;highereducationadmin;Address:HigherEducationDevelopmentandResearchCenter,YanshanUniversity,Qinhuangdao,Hebei

    ;Province,P.R.China;Postcode:066004,

    ;XianjunLiu.(2003).OnUniversityOrientation.ResearchOllHigherEducation,(1) ;lO

    ;

    ;UnlversityOrienta

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    ;ndDevelopingPlann

    ;ingStudiesontheCaseofYanshanUniversity

    ;universityfunctionsgrowingbyandpracticedtheprincipleofservingsociety.Itisgenerallyacknowledgeda

    ;nemain

    lcfj0nsfortheuniversitytocultivate,researchandservesociety.Eachuniversityalwaysposseses ;di

    erentnctionsf0ritsdifferenthistory,subjectandobjectconditionsevenifthefunctionsaresimilarbuttheir ;levelsandcharacteristicsvary.Therefore,therearedifferencesamongtheuniversitiesorientation?Onlyby

    ;identifyingthedifferencesexactlycantheorientationbeexact-

    ;Y_anshanUniversityhasahistoryof85years.Itbegantocultivategraduatesin1960sandhasadvantagesin

    ;t1lefieldOfwhole.setheavymachineryandequipmentinChina.Machinerydesignandtheoryisthenationalkey

    ;subiectandthefundofresearchisnearly$100,000,000everyyear.In2003,YanshanUniversitySciencePark

    ;wasfbunded.Thus,Y_anshaI1Universityhasthreefunctionsofcultivating,researchingandservingsociety.Each

    ;subiecthasdifferenthistoryandeffectssothatithasdifferentfunctions.Forexample,sdbjectsofscience, ;economicsandadministrationarestillweakinservingsociety.Onlyengineeringpossessesthreefunctions.The

    ;abovearethebasicanalysesonfunctionorientationofinternalsystemofYanshanUniversity. ;1.3LevelandTypeOrientation

    ;Levelandtypeofauniversityaretwoconceptionswhicharedifferentandrelatingwitheachother.Level ;herepointstodifferentlevelofcultivating,forexample,cultivatingstudentsfordoctoraldegree,masterdegree,

    ;bachelordegreeandprofessionaltraining.Typeheremeansthetypeofauniversitysuchasthetypeofresearch,

    ;typeofteachingandresearch,typeofteachingandtypesofappliedtechnology.Thetypeofresearchreferstothe

    ;universitiesthatgiveprioritytocultivatinggraduatesorgraduateswhichholdlargeproportion.Typeofteaching

    ;andresearchinggivesprioritytocultivatingbachelorsandgraduateswhichholdcertainproportion.Theuniversity

    ;thatonlycultivatesbachelorsandtherearenotanyorfewgraduatesshouldbecategorizedintothetypeof ;teaching.Trainingschoolsfallintothetypeofappliedtechnology.YanshanUniversitycultivatesdoctors,masters

    ;andbachelors.Thereare15,000bachelorsaswellas2,000graduateswhohold10%.YanshanUniversityis

    ;positionedasthetypeofteachingandresearching.

    ;1,4DisciplineOrientation

    ;Thedisciplineofhighereducationcanbedividedinto12categories,namelyscience.engineering,agronomy,

    ;medicine,art,historiography,philosophy,administration,law,educationandmilitary.Theuniversitythatonly

    ;cultivatesinonesubjectiscalledthecollegeofmonosubjectsuchasengineeringcollegeormedicalcoll

    ege.The

    ;universityhavingmulti-subjectscultivatesqualifiedpersonintwoormoresubjects.Universitiesthatcultivate

    ;qualifiedpersoninthreeormoresubjectsincludingscienceandachieveshighlevelarecomprehensiveuniversity.

    ;Therearesomedifferencesbetweenmulti-subjectsuniversityandcomprehensiveuniversity.Theydifferinthe

    ;levelofthesubjects.Thelevelofthesubjectsinamulti-subjectsuniversityisunbalanced.Contrastively,thelevel

    ;ofthesubjectsinacomprehensiveuniversitybalancesespeciallythelevelofscienceishigh.YanshanUniversity

    ;canbeorientedasamulti-subjectsuniversity.Iftheorientationchangestocomprehensiveuniversity,theweak

    ;subjectswillneedmoresupport.

    ;1.5Scale0rientatlon

    ;Scaleofauniversitymeansthequantityofthestudentsintheuniversity.Scaleofauniversitydeterminesth

e

    ;resourcesofrunningtheuniversity,andresourcesrestrictthescaleofauniversityonthecontrary.Neitherlarger

    ;scalenorsmallerscaleisbetter.Scaleofauniversityshouldbesuitable.Whatscaleissuitable?Scaleorientation

    ;shouldbesubordinatedtothetypeanddisciplineorientation.Scaleofauniversityofresearchingtypeshouldnot

    ;betoolargebecausethistypeofuniversitiesgiveprioritytocultivatinghigher-classqualifiedpersonssuchas

    ;HarvardUniversityandMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyinwhichstudentsareaboutl5.000andthe ;

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    ;DevelopingPlanningStudiesontheCaseofYanshanUniversity

    ;proportionofbachelorsandgradu.atesarealmostequaltohigheducationalfundperstudent.Inaddition,scaleofa

    ;multi--subjectuniversityandacomprehensiveuniversityarelargerthanthatofamono--subjectcollegebecauseif

    ;thequantityofstudentsinonesubjectisequal,moresubjectsmeanmorestudents.Generallyspeaking,scaleofa

    ;comprehensiveuniversityoramulti-subjectsuniversityshouldbe10,000to2O,000studentswithaccordanceto

    ;thelawofscalebenefit.TsingHuaUniversityandPekingUniversitywitllthescaleofabout20.O00studentsmake

    ;efforttobefirst-classuniversityintheworld.Theproportionofbachelorstograduatesinthetwouniversitiesis

    ;1:1.CaliforniaInstituteofTechnologyisamultisubjectsuniversitywithsmallscaleandhilevelisalsoa

    ;first-classuniversityintheworldinwhichthereareabout2,000studentsandtheproportionofgraduatesto

;bachelorsis1:1.

    ;TheUniversityoftheResearchingTypeshouldnotbeinlargescalebecauselargerscalewillreduce ;educationalresourcesforeachstudentaccordinglyanddoesnotobeythelawofcultivatingthequalifiedwhichis

    ;differentfromproducingproducts.Intheperspectiveofeducationaleconomics,highereducationdoesnotpursue

    ;profits.Highereducationofferpara-publicarticleswhichneedsupportfrompublicfundsrestrictedbystate

    ;finance.Therefore,inthefinalanalysis,scaleofauniversityisrestrictedbynationaleconomicdevelopment.

    ;Largerscaledoesnotnecessarilymeansmorefunds.Onthecontrary,largerscalemeanslesseducational ;resourcesandlowerlevelofrunning.Inits1IthFive.Year-Planperiod,YanshanUniversitywillberankedinthe

    ;categoryoftypeofteachingandresearchingwithhighlevelwith17,400bachelorsand6,000graduatesandthe

    ;proportionof3:lofbachelorstograduatesby2010.

    ;1.6Characteristjcs0rientation

    ;Characteristicsmeanadvantages.Thecharacteristicsofauniversityrefertothespecialconnotationwith ;contrasttootheruniversities.Thecharacteristicsofauniversitycanbedemonstratedbytheconceptionandstyle

    ;ofrunningtheuniversity,cultivatingaim,subjects’level,coursesystemandsoon.Distinguishedcharacteristics

    ;whichareimportantsymboloftheadvantagesoftheuniversityhelpimprovethelevelofrunningandmakethe

    ;universityoutstandingamongthecounterparts.Everyuniversityshouldholditsownadvantageandformitsown

    ;characteristicsnomatterhowlongthehistoryorhowhightheleve1.Itisaprocessforauniversitytoidentifyits

    ;owncharacteristics.Theuniversitywithlongerhistoryalwayshasprominentfeatures.YanshanUniversityisa

    ;multisubjectsuniversityonthebasisofitsadvantageswhichisheavymachineryandequipment,givingpriority

    ;toengineering.Therefore,theadvantageinthesubjectofheavymachineryandequipmentisthecharacteristicsof

    ;YanshanUniversitywhichisabletoimproveitselftobefirstclassgroupofsubjectsinChina.YanshanU

    niversity

    ;hasaccomplishedgoodinteractiveorganismofcombiningandpromotingtoeachotherwithinteaching, ;researchingandindustryduringalongtimeofrunning.Thisorganismisalsotheadvantagewhichisnotas ;distinguishedastheformer.

    ;2.UniversityDevelopingPlanning

    ;2.1TheConceptionofUniversityDevelopingPlanning

    ;Universitydevelopingplanningcallalsobenamedthestrategyplanningofuniversitydevelopment.In1972,

    ;twoAmericanscholarsinducedstrategyplanningintohighereducation.UniversityDevelopingPlannin

    gisthe ;specificpresentationofitsdevelopingstrategywhichislong-term,overallandinvolvesthedestinyandfu

    tureof ;theorganization.Itisaplanoflongterm,ownprinciplesandmacroscopic.Itscontentincludestheguiding

    ;XianjunLiu.(2003).OnUniversityOrientation.ResearchonHigherEducation,(1)

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    ;heCaseofYanshanUniversity

    ;ideology,aim.tasksandmethods.Thelong.termplanmeans1020ormoreyearsandtheshort’termplan

    means

    ;ve2Lrswhichareinaccordancewiththenationaldevelopingplanning.Accordingtotheshort?termplan,theannua1

    ;workplanisnecessary.

    ;Itistheprimarydutytoformulatedevelopingplanforscientificadministration.Itsaimistomakethe ;universitvdeveloPinthedirectionmeetingtherequirementofeconomicandsocialdevelopmentonthebasisof

    ;its0wnconditi0n.What,smore,italsoaimstopromotethesocialprofitsandeconomicprofits.Theuniversity

    ;makeseveryendeavortoexistanddevelopinfiercecompetition.

    ;Howtomakeagoodplan?Ibelievethattheplanshouldbeunderthedirectionandcontrolofscientific ;developmentconcept,followingthebasiclawofhighereducation.Weshouldrecognizethedevelopmentofa

    ;universityiscoordinated,overallandsustainedinitsscale,quality,structureandprofits.Universityorientationis

    ;t11es

    ndardandnormofmakingplan.Performingscientificdevelopingplanguaranteescompletingscientific ;developingconceptioninhighereducation.

    ;2,2GuidingIdeologyandAimofRunning

    ;GuidingIdeologyisaspecificrepresentationofrunningconception.HigherEducationLawofferstheidea

    ;andconceptionofrunning.Atthesametimethelawgrantsuniversitiescorporateorganizations.Consequ

entlg

    ;universitiesareindependentandshouldtakeinitiativetoformitsowncharacteristicsundertheguidingofstate

    ;law.Differentuniversityneedsspecialandoriginalguidingideologytoavoidsimplyrepeatingandstatepolicies.

    ;WecannotdeterminetheguidingideologyofYanshanUniversitywithouttheuniversityorientationand ;actualstrength.YanshanUniversityisanolduniversitywiththehistoryof85yearsandtheadvantagesstartedas

    ;thedepartmentofHeavyMachineryofHarbinUniversityofTechnology.YanshanUniversity(formerNortheast

    ;ChinaInstituteofHeavyMachinery)wascategorizesaskeyinstitutein1978.Itssuccessfulexperiencecanbe

    ;summedupasfollows:

    ;(1)GoodbasisandteachersofHarbinUniversityofTechnology.

    ;(2)Initiativeandcreativestaffthatbearhardshipsandformgoodtradition.

    ;(3)Closeconnectionwithfactories,practiceandresearchingwhichareprinciplesforcultivatingstudentsand

    ;trainingteacherswithhighqualityoutcomes

    ;(4)Relativelyconcentratedsubjectswhoseemphasisandstrategyareoutstanding.

    ;After20yearsreformation,YanshanUniversitytransformedfromamono-subjectuniversitytomultis

    ubjects

    ;universitywithlargerscalesincemovedtothecoastalcity.Theconnotationoftheuniversityhaschangedalot.

    ;Facedwiththechallengesofinternationalizationandpopularizationofhighereducation,whatwilltheuniversity

    ;perform?Therearedistinctguidingideologyandaimfor”1lthFive—Year-Plan”.Theleadersandstaffre

    cognize

    ;clearlythattheprimarycontradictionatpresentorinthenearfutureistomeettheneedsofpeople’sdesireto

    ;makechildrenaccepthighereducationanditscontradictionwiththeinsufficientresources.Theuniversitywill

    ;continuetoofferfocalsupporttoadvantageoussubjectsinordertomakethemfirstclassinChinaSoastokeep

    ;theadvantages.Forthenewandweaksubjects,theuniversitywillensuregoodteachinglevelandresearching

    ;conditionandtrytocultivategraduatesinmostsubjects.TheoverallaimistomakeYanshanUniversitybethe

    ;first-classuniversityofteachingandresearchingtypeinChinawithtremendousstrengthinengineeringespecially

    ;first-classgroupsofsubjectsofheavymachineryandinternationalreputationincoordinationinscience, ;engineering,art,economics,administration,lawandeducationby2020.Theshort-termplanistomakeYanshan

    ;KeyongCai.(2003)+StrategyPlanning:TheKeytoUniversityDevelopment.CommunicationHigherEducationResearch,(4)

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    ;UniversitybeamultisubjectsuniversityofteachingandresearchingtypeinChinawithtremendousstrengthin

    ;engineeringespeciallyfirstclasssubjectofheavymachineryandequipment.

    ;2.3TasksandMeasures

    ;Tasksaretheworkswhichneedtobedonebeforeachievingtheaimandalsothesubtargetundertheoverall ;target.Theuniversitycanidentifythesubjectconstructiontarget,researchingtarget,cultivatingtarget,te

    acher

    ;trainingtarget,scaletarget,administrationtargetandsoon.

    ;SubjectConstructionTarget:by2010,thenationalkeysubjectswillhavebeenincreasedby2andprovincial

    ;keysubjectswillhavebeenincreasedby6,post-doctorworkstationwillhavebeenincreasedby1,first-level

    ;doctorgrantingdisciplineswillhavebeenincreasedby3,secondleveldoctorgrantingdisciplineswill

    havebeen

    ;increasedby17,mastergrantingdisciplineswillhavebeenincreasedby16,MBAdegreegrantingwillpassthe

    ;assessment,3excellentdoctoralthesiswillemerge.

    ;ResearchingTarget:By2010,thefundforresearchingwilladdupto$200,000,000,3000articlesamong ;whichthereare300willbe,150researchprojectswillbecompleted,3nationalscientificprogressaward,

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