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Nov.2005,Volume2,N!l!!:!US.ChinaEducationReview,ISSN1548-6613,USA

    ;TheInfluencingandEffectiveModelofEarlyChildhood

    ;Teachers’JobSatisfactioninChina

    ;YongJiangEastChinaNormalUniversity

    ;Abstract:ThepurposeofthisstudywastoexploretheinfluencingandeffectivemodelsofChineseearly ;childhoodteachers’jobsatisfaction.Usingaquestionnaireof317teachersfrom21kindergartensinShanghai,

    ;China,thepresentstudyestablishedtheinfluencingandeffectivestructuremodelofteachers’jobsatisfaction.The

    ;resultsdemonstratedthatorganizationalclimateandteachers’involvementincurriculumreforillarethedirect

    ;factorstoaffectteachers’{obsatisfaction,whichiStheimportantintermediatevariabletoinfiuenceonteachers’

    ;professionalcommitment,autonomyandburnout.ItiSalsoconeludedthatorganizationalclimateimproves

    ;teachers’professiona1commitment.What’Smore.involvingincurriculumrefoITllnotonlyfacilitatesteachers’

    ;autonomybutalsodeclinesteachers’burnout.

    ;Keywords:influencingandeffectivemodel;iobsatisfaction;teacher

    ;1.Introduction

    ;Teachers’jobsatisfactionhasperhapsbeeninvestigatedmoreandmore,ofteninrelationshiptoteacher ;stress,jobcommitment,professionalautonomy,schoo1climateandSOon(Jackson,Schwab,&Schuler,1986).

    ;Satisfactionmaybeexaminedinthecontextofexpectations:individua1bringstoajobsituationvalueandiob

    ;expectationanditisimportantthatthesefactorsarelargelymetwithsatisfactiontobeexperienced(Steers&

    ;Rhodes,1978).InChina,teacherjobsatisfactionhas,inseveralyears,beenallareaofconcerning.What ;mentionedare,morerecently,Chinaspecificconditionsrelatedwithjobsatisfactionshouldbesuggested,suchas

    ;thecurrenteducationa1changesintermsoftheNewCurriculumReform1eadedbytheMinistryofEducationin

    ;thelatestfiveyears.Althoughthereareplentyofpreviousresearchesintoteacher.jobsatisfaction,thestudieson

    ;earlychildhoodteachers’areheavilyneglected.Thecurrentstudyfocusesontheinfluencingfactorsandeffective

    ;mechanismofearlychildhoodteachers’jobsatisfaction.Itpresents,asastructureequationmodelstudy.findings

    ;ofresearchintoChineseearlychildhoodteachers’jobsatisfaction.Itdescribestheimportantvariables.s

uchas

    ;teachers’involvementincurriculumreform,organizationalclimate,professionalcommitment.teachers,

    ;autonomy,teachers’burnoutanditscomplicatedrelationshipwithiobsarisfaction.

    ;2.LiteratureReview

    ;2.1TheDefinitionofTeachers’JobSatisfaction

    ;Psychologistshaveexplainedthephenomenonofjobsatisfactionbyexaminingthefeelingsorfeedbackof

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    ;individuals.Hoppock(1935)describedjobsatisfactionas”anycombinationofpsychological,physiologicaland

    ;environmentalcircumstancesthatcauseapersontruthfullytosay,’iamhappywithmyjob.”‘

    ;IntheaccountoftheComellUniversitystudiesofjobsatisfaction,Smith(1983)statedsimplyjob ;satisfactionis”thefeelingsaworkerhasabouthisjob.”Shefurtherindicatedthatjobsatisfactionisa”functionof

    ;theknowledgeofthefactorsorelementsofjobsatisfactionwouldappearessentialtoanindepthunderst

    andingof

    ;thephenomenon.AndMonford,citedinBlockerandRichardson,statedthatthefactorsthatteachersfoundmost

    ;importantabouttheirworkwerehelpfulsupervisors,freedomtoplanandteach,andgoodrel~ionswith ;coworkers.

    ;In1978,Teachers’jobsatisfactionhasbeenstudiedasanoverallconstructandasafacetconstruct.Inhis

    ;research,Holdawayfoundthatoverallsatisfactionwascloselyrelatedto”workingwithstudents,societalattitudes,

    ;statusofteachers,recognition,andachievement”.Zigarreli(1996)referstoteachers’jobsatisfactionasasingle,

    ;generalmeasurethatisastatisticallysignificantpredictorofeffectiveschools.Evans(1997),whoaddresses

    ;problemsoftheconceptualizationandconstructvalidityofteachers’jobsatisfaction,claimsthattheconceptis

    ;ambiguous.Shearguesthatthesourceoftheambiguityisthelackofacleardistinctionbetween’’satisfactory”

    ;and”satisfying”,whichresultsinproblemsofconstructvalidity.Evanssuggestsre-conceptualizing’’jo

    b

    ;satisfaction”intermsofitstwoconstituents:iobfulfillment(relatedwithachievement)andjobcomfort(related

    ;withworkingconditions).Theformerreferstoone’sevaluationofhowwellthejobisperformed,andisbas

    edon

    ;theassumptionthatachievementsenhancebothjob-relatedandachievementrelatedsatisfaction.The

    latterrelates

    ;towhatdegreeissatisfiedwiththeconditionsofthejob.

    ;Inthecurrentstudy,whichemphasizestheglobalnotionofthisconcept,teachers’jobsatisfactionwas

    ;examinedusingbothdimensions.Jobsatisfactionrelatestopositiveattitudesandbeliefstowardsseveralaspects

    ;ofthejobortheprofession.

    ;2.2TheSignificanceofTeachers’JobSatisfaction

    ;Severalstudiesfocusedontherelationshipbetweeniobsatisfactionandextrarolebehaviortowards ;individualsinsideandoutsidetheorganization.Itisalsoimportanttostudyjobsatisfactionbecauseofitseffects

    ;onteacherretentionandcontinuousdevelopment.Hall,Pearson,andCarroll(1992)foundthatteacherswhowere

    ;planningtoleavetheprofessionreportedlesssatisfactionandamorenegativeattitudetowardteachingasacareer.

    ;Jobsatisfactionwasalsofoundtobeassociatedwithteacherquality,organizationalcommitmentand ;organizationalperformanceinreferencetothefollowingschoo1areas:academicachievement,studentbehavior,

    ;studentsatisfaction,teacherturnover,andadministrativeperformance(Ostroff,1992;Mathieu,l991). ;2.3TheDimensionsofTeachers’JobSarisfaction

    ;A1951studybyKahnmadeuseofaseventy-itemsatisfactioninventorythatwasadministeredtoemployees

    ;ofatractorcompany;thefollowinginterpretablefactorsemerged:satisfactionwithimmediatesupervisor,intrinsic

    ;andstatusfactorsinthejobitself,organizationasasystem,andindirectsatisfactionwithmobilityandpotential

    ;wagesnowandinthefuture.

    ;Harrisonanalyzedinter-correlationsof78itemsusingTryon’sCumulativeCommunalityClusterAnaly

    sis.

    ;The1961studyproducedthefollowingeightfactors:opportunitytoadvanceandaccomplish,workingconditions,

    ;non?economicstabilityandsecurity,pe~onalrelationswithimmediatesupervisor,compensation, ;communicationswithtopmanagement,workingwithrelationswithotherinplantgroups,andin-plant

    standardof

;operation.

    ;UsingtheScienceResearchAssociate(SRA)EmployeeInventory,BachrandRench(1958)obtainedfive

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    ;ThelnfluencingandEffectiveModelofEarlyChildhoodTea

    ;chers’JobSatis—

    ;factioninChina

    ;identifiablefactorsrelativetojobsatisfaction:organizationandmanagement,lmmediatesupervision,material

    ;rewards.fellowemployees,andintrinsicjobsatisfaction.A1957reviewoftheliteratureonjobsatisfactionby

    ;Herzberg,Mausner,Peterson,andCapwwellconcludedthat:

    ;Factoranalyticstudieshaveindicatedthepresenceofsixrelativelyindependentfactors:(1)general ;satisfactionandmoral,(2)attitudestowardthecompanyanditspolicies,(3)satisfactionwithintrinsicaspects

    ;ofthejob.(4)attitudestowardtheimmediatesupervisor,(5)attitudestowardsatisfactionofaspirations,and

    ;(6)satisfactionwithconditionsofpresentjob.

    ;Inrecentyears.Jobsatisfactionisoftenclassifiedintointrinsicandextrinsicdimensions(Chase,1985). ;Intrinsicsatisfactionisderivedfromindividuallydeterminedtask-relatedrewardsandisrelatedtofeelingsof

    ;competence,self-determination,andself-fulfillment.Incontrastthesourcesofextrinsicsatisfactioncomefrom

    ;income,prestige,andpowerwhichexistindependentlyoftheindividualwhoisoccupyingtherole(Lortie,1975;

    ;Steers&Rhodes,1979).

    ;IntIlepresentstudy,welayemphasisupontherelationbetweenteacherjobsatisfactionwithseverallatent ;importantvariables,suchasteachers’involvementincurriculumreform,organizationalclimate,professional

    ;commitment,professionalautonomy,andteacherburnout.Someresearchersuggestedtwodistinctterms,job

    ;comfortandjobfulfillment(seeEvans,1997),ascomponentsofjobsatisfaction,whichisinterpretedas:astateof

    ;minddeterminedbytheextenttowhichtheindividualperceivesher/hisjobrelatedneedstobemet.Ho

    wever,the

    ;currentstudypointsoutthetwodimensionscouldbemergedintoonelatentvariableintermsoftheresultsofthe

    ;confirmatoryfactoranalysis.

    ;2.4TheInfluencingFactorsonTeachers’JobSatisfaction

    ;Chasereportedinastudyintheearly1950sthatfreedominplanningwork,adequacyofsalary,feelings ;aboutqualityleadership,andparticipationineducationalandpersonnelpolicyplanningaffectedsatisfaction.

    ;Twomajortheoreticalapproachesareoftencitedinliteratureacrossdisciplines:Herzberg’sdual-factor

    ;theory(1959)andQuarsteinetaL’ssituationaloccurrencestheory(1992).Herzbergdistinguishesbetwe

en

    ;motivatorandhygienefactorsasmutuallyexclusive.Environmentalfactors(orjobcontext-related)suchaspolicy,

    ;salaryandphysicalworkingconditionsareidentifiedas”dissatisfiers”,whichareseparatedfromsatisfiers(orjob

    ;contentrelatedfactors)suchasachievement,responsibility,andintrinsicchallenges.Ontheotherhand,

    ;Quartein’scompositefunctionofjobsatisfactionisnotasstrictonthedichotomy.Quarsteineta1.believethatjob

    ;satisfactionisafunctionofbothsituationaloccurrences,suchasbeingrecognized,andsituationalcharacteristics.

    ;suchaspay,andthattogethertheseprovideabetterpredictionofjobsatisfactionthaneitheronealone.Trailing

    ;thesecondschoolofthought,thisstudydevelopedamodelthatcoveredbothpositiveandnegativefactorsinone,

    ;nottwo,latentconstructofjobsatisfaction.

    ;In1997,theNationalCenterforEducationStatistics(1997)(NCES)intheUSpublishedareportonjob ;satisfactionamongAmericanteachers.Thereportwasbasedonalargeandcomprehensivedatabaseofover

    ;40,000teachersinacomplexandrandomsampleofschools.Thesamplewasstratifiedbystate,sector,andschool

    ;leve1.Itencompassedbothelementaryandsecondary,privateandpublicschoolsthroughouttheUnitedStates.It

    ;analyzedmel993-1994SchoolsandStaffingSurvey(SASS)datacollectedbytheNCESthatexaminedawide

    ;rangeofschools,teachersandworkcharacteristics.Thesecondsectionofthisthree-partstudycorripared ;characteristicsofthemostsatisfiedandtheleastsatisfiedteachers.Themostsalientfindingofthestudywasthat

    ;workplaceconditionsconstituteadistinguishingfactorbetweenthemostsatisfiedandtheleastsatisfiedteachers:

    ;Themostsatisfiedteachersworkedinamoresupportive,safe,autonomousenvironmentthantheleastsatisfied

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    ;TheInfluencingandEffectiveModelofEarlyChildhoodTeachers’JobSatisfactioninChina

    ;teachers.

    ;Theinterrelationshipsoftheconceptsofjobsatisfactionandorganizationalclimatehavebeenstudiedina ;varietyoforganizations(RepettiandCosmas,1991;SheinfeldandZalkind,1987),withafrequentlyimplied

    ;assumptionthatorganizationalclimateisacausalfactorinjobsatisfaction(SharmaandSharma,1989;Kumara

    ;andKiochi,1989).Lawlereta1.(1974)haveusedorganizationalclimateasavariablewhichintervenesbetween

    ;organizationalprocessesandjobsatisfaction.

    ;AlthoughtheNCESreportiscomprehensive,itisonlyonereport,andveryfewotherstudieshavebeen ;conductedinthisarea.Allinall,empiricalworkondemographicattributesofteachershasbeenrelativelylimited.

    ;Researchonteacherjobsatisfactionhasfocusedmainlyontheeffectsofexogenousvariablessuchasthe ;principal’sleadershipstyleandstrategiesofdecision—makingonteachers’contentmentandrateofbumout(Kirby,

    ;Paradise,&King,1992;Koh,Steers,&Terborg,1995;Silins,1992).Sincetheseresearchersattemptedtoidentify

    ;thefactorsthatbestpredictteacherjobsatisfactionandtotestforsignificantdifferencesamonganumberof

    ;satisfactionsubscales,theyusuallyusedregressionanalysesandmultivariateanalysisofvariance(MANOVA),

    ;respectively.

    ;Researchershavealsostudiedtheconnectionbetweenteacherdemographicvariablesandjobsatisfaction.

    ;Organizationalbehaviorliteraturesuggeststhatolderemployeestendtobehappierwiththeirjobs,havelower

    ;turnoverrates,andmissfewerworkingdays(Kasl,1997;Naceur&Fook,2001).Someresearchalsohasfound

    ;thatjobsatisfactiongrowsasteachersbecomemoreexperiencedintheirwork(Hutchinson,1963),whichseems

    ;logical,sinceunsatisfiedteachersaremorelikelytoleavetheprofessionand,therefore,nothavethechanceto

    ;fullyadapttoandbuildupalongcareerinteaching.Interestingly,Robertson,Smith,andCooper(1992)intheir

    ;studydiscoveredthatteachersatisfactionispositivelycorrelatedwithage,exceptforteachersbetweentheagesof

    ;40t050.Theseteachersalsohavelowsatisfactionaboutpromotionprospects.Inaddition.genderhasalsobeen

    ;thecenterofsomeresearchonjobsatisfaction.Onaverage,femaleemployeesrespondedtosurveyswithhigher

    ;satisfactionratingthantheirmalecolleagues;andthesimilarityhasbeenobservedintheteachingprofession(Cox

    ;&Blake,1991;Hom&Griffeth,1995).Intermsofgender,femaleteachersexpressedgreaterjobsatisfactionthan

    ;theirmalecounterparts(e.g.,Chapman&Lowther,1982;Watson,Hatton,Squires,&Soliman,1991).Themore

    ;satisfiedgroupconsistedmostlyoffemaleteachers.teachinggrades1-4ratherthangrades58,inprivat

    erather

    ;thanpublicschools,andwithlessteachingexperiencethantheirlesssatisfiedcounterparts.Plihal(1982),found

    ;thatateacher’syearsofexperiencewaspositivelycorrelatedwithintrinsicrewardsconceptualizedbythe

    ;importanceattachedto’’reachingstudents”.Withregardtoschoollocation,ruralteacherswerefoundtobeless

;satisfied(e.g.,Haughey&Murphy,1984)thansuburbanteachers(RuhlSmith,1991).

    ;2.5CommentonLiterature

    ;Reviewingliteratureacrossdisciplinesonj0bsatisfaction,itisinterestingtoobservethateducational ;researchprimarilylooksatextrinsicfactorslikesalaryandworkingconditions,whilemanyotherfieldsoften

    ;stIldyinternalfactorslikepersonalityandinterpersonalrelationships(Hirsch,Koppich&Knapp,1998;Judge,

    ;Bono,&Locke,2000;Salopek,2000;Tratt,2000).Inaddition,politicalinterventionisuniquecomponentof

    ;beingateacherthatisregularlymentionedinthepressbutnotoftenstudies.

    ;Therearenumerousvariablescontributingtotheconstructofoveralljobsatisfaction.Managementand ;organizationalbehaviorliteraturesuggeststhattoraisejobsatisfactionforthebenefitofincreasingteachers’

    ;commitmentandproductivity,organizationsshouldattachmoreimportanceonpay,promotion,working

    ;conditions,supervision,andtheorganizationitself(Lock,Schweiger,&Latham,1986;Mitchell,Holton,Lee,&

    ;

    ;TheInfluenein2andEffectiveModelofEarlyChildhood”reachers’JobSarisfactioninChina

    ;Graske,2001;Pitt&Foreman,1999).Ineducationalresearch,teachersmostfrequentlymentionsalaries,the

    ;controloverone’sownclassroomandlessonplans,administrativeandmentoringsupport,andtheopport

    unityto

    ;participateinschooldecisionmakingasthemostsignificantfactorsthatinfluenceteacherjobsatisfaction

    ;(Caudron,1998;Ingersoll&Rossi,1995;Pisciotta,2000).Inaddition,irrelevantorlackofprofessional

    ;development,pressuresfromchangingpoliciesthatarealmostever-presentnowadays,inadequatefacilitiesand

    ;overlyrestrictedresources,lowrespectandunder-appreciationalladdtothealreadychaoticworkdaysof ;teachers(Boc,Bobbitt,Cook,&Barkanic,1998;Prince,2000;Rollefson,1990).Thesecomponents

    ;independentlyaswellasinteractivelyinfluenceteacher’sfeelingsandattitudesaboutteaching.

    ;Althoughtherearemanystudiesinvestigatedtheconnectionbetweenteacherjobsatisfactionandsome ;outsidevariables,therestillexistinsufficienciesandproblems.Firstly,withtherapiddevelopmentofeducation

    ;andcurriculumreform,Chineseteachersfacenewchallengesandopportunities.However,relatedstudiesonthis

    ;changingsocietyandteachers’jobsatisfactionareveryfew.Secondly,thepreviousresearchesstudiedtherelation

    ;betweenteachersatisfactionandonlyoneortwolatentvariablesseparately,lackingofthesystematic,compound,

    ;integratedresearchonteachers’jobsatisfaction.Thirdly,earlychildhoodteacherisa”special”group,theyhave

    ;thecharacteristicsinjobsatisfactionanditsinfluencingfactors,however,therelatedstudiesarealmostnonein

    ;China.Hence,thestudyonearlychildhoodteacherjobsatisfactionanditsconnectionwithlatentvariablesisvery

    ;importantandnecessary.

    ;3.Method

    ;3.1Participation

    ;Aquestionnair

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