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Variation

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Variation

    Variation

JournaloflntegrativePlantBiology

    ;FormerlyActaBotanicaSinica2005,47(3):375379

    ;http://www.blackwellsynergy.corn

    ;http://www.chineseplantscience.com

    ;VariationintheAgronomicandMorphologicalTraitsof

    ;IranianChickpeaAccessions

    ;MohammadRezaNAGHAVIandMohammadRezaJAHANSOUZ

    ;(PlantBreedingDepartment,AgriculturalCollege,TheUniversityofTehran,Karaj,Iran) ;Abstract:Landracesofchickpea(CicerarietinumL.1inIranhavenotbeenadequatelycharacterizedfor ;theiragronomicandmorphologicaltraits.Suchcharacterizationwouldbehelpfulinthedevelopmentof ;improvedcultivars,sointhisstudy362chickpeaaccessions,coUectedfromthemajorchickpeagrowing ;areasofIran.wereevaluatedtodeterminetheirphenotypicdiversity.Hightoemcientsofvariation(CVs) ;wererecordedinpods/branch,seeds/pod,yield/plant,seeds/plant,pods/plantandbranches/plant.Using

    ;principalcomponentfPC)analysis.thefirstfourPCswitheigenvaluesmorethan1contributed84.10%ofthe

    ;variabilityamongaccessions,whereasPC5toPCmwerelessthanunity.PClwaspositivelyrelatedtodays

    ;tofirstmaturity.daysto50%floweringanddaysto50%maturity.Thecharacterswiththegreatestweight ;onPC2wereseeds/plantandyield/plant,whereasPC3wasmainlyrelatedtopods/plant,seeds/podand100

    ;seedweight.andPC4waspositivelyrelatedtopods/branchandnegativelytobranches/plant.Thegermplasm

    ;wasgroupedintofourclustersusingclusteranalysis.Eachclusterhadsomespecificcharacteristicsofits ;ownandthecluster1wasclearlyseparatedfromclustersII.IIIandIV.Theseaccessionsareanimportant

     ;resourcefortheestablishmentofacorecollectionofchickpeasintheworld.

    ;Keywords:chickpea(CicerarietinumL.);clusteranalysis;diversity;principalcomponentanalysis. ;Chickpea(CicerarietinumL.1isamajorfoodle.

    ;gumeandanimportantsourceofproteininmany

    ;countries.ItiscultivatedmainlyinAlgeria,Ethiopia,

    ;Iran,India,Mexico,Morocco,Myanmar,Pakistan,

    ;Spain,Syria,Tanzania,Tunisia,andTurkey(Upadhyaya

    ;eta1.2001).Therearetwomaintypesofchickpea,

    ;distinguishedbyseedsize,shapeandcolor:onepro-

    ;ducesrelativelysmallseedswithanangularshapeand

    ;iscalled”desi”,theotherproduceslarge,rounded,pale-

    ;creamseedsandiscalled”kabuli”.Thekabulitypeis

    ;grownintemperateregionswhereasthedesitypeis

    ;growninthesemi-aridtropics(Malhotraeta1.1987).

    ;Thediversityofchickpeashasbeenstudiedworld. ;wide(Esereta1.1991;SaktiandSingh1993; ;UpadhyayaandOrtiz2001;Upadhyayaeta1.2001; ;Arshadeta1.2003;Ghafooreta1.2003),butthereare ;stillsomeregionsthathavelittleornoinformation ;availableregardingtheimportantagronomic ;Received7Sept.2004Accepted24Nov.2004

    ;Authorforco~espondence.Email:<mnaghavi@ut.ac.ir> ;andmorphologicaltraitsoftheirchickpeagenotypes. ;Althoughrichgermplasmofchickpeas(mainlywild ;species)hasbeenreportedfromIran(Duke1981),little ;isknownaboutthediversityoftheseaccessions. ;Thedesitypeisthemostimportantlegumecropin ;thesemi-aridenvironmentsofIranandcomprisesmore ;than50%ofthetotalareasowntolegumes.Itspro- ;ductivityinIranis0.49t/hm2,

    ;whichisverylowin

    ;comparisonwiththeproductivityof0.93t/hrninTur. ;keyandtheaverageof0.78t/hmworldwide

    ;(Upadhyayaeta1.2001).

    ;Characterizationofaccessionsforimportanttraits ;willfacilitateefficientsynthesisofbreedingpopulations ;thataredesignedtoaccomplishspecificobjectives ;(Berdahleta1.1999).Themainobjectivesofthepresent ;studyweretocharacterizephenotypicvariationinthe ;collectionofIranianaccessionsandtodetectgroups ;ofsimilarandspecificmorphologicaltypes. ;

    ;376JournalofIntegrativePlantBiology(FormerlyActaBotanicaSinica)Vo1.47No.32005

    ;1MaterialsandMethods

    ;Thematerialscomprised362chickpea(Cicer ;arietinumL.)accessionscollectedfromthemajor ;chickpeagrowingareasofIran.Theseaccessions ;andtwocontrolcultivars(PyrooseandKaka)were ;evaluatedinanaugmenteddesignattheexperimen

    ;talstationoftheAgriculturalCollegeoftheUniver

    ;sityofTehranIranin2003.Eachaccessionwas ;sownbyhandina3mlongrowwith0.5mrow

    ;spacing.Twocontrolchickpeacultivarswerere

    ;peatedafterevery10entries.Dataondaysto50% ;flowering(daysfromsowingtoappearanceof50% ;flowers),daystofirstmaturity(daysfromsowing ;toappearanceoffirstmaturity),daysto50%matu

    ;rity(daysfromsowingtoappearanceof50%

    ;maturity),wererecordedasasinglevalueforeach ;row.Pods/plant(numbers),seeds/pod(numbers), ;seeds/plant(numbers),pods/branch(numbers), ;branches/plant(numbers),yield/plant(g)werere

    ;cordedfrom10plantsthathadbeenrandomlycho

    ;senineachrowandthemeansofthequantitative ;datasetswereusedforanalysis.Inaddition,100ma

    ;tureseedswereusedtorecordweight(g).Thedata ;recordedwereanalyzedforsimplestatisticsfi.e. ;mean,coefficientofvariation(CV)andrange)and ;fornumericaltaxonomictechniquesusingthepro

    ;cedureofprincipalcomponent(PC)andcluster ;analysisusingcomputersoftwareStatisticaandSPSS ;(Chicago,IL,USA).Asthetraitsweremeasuredon ;difFerentscalesthemeanobservationsofeachtrait ;werestandardizedpriortotheanalysestoeliminate ;scaledifferences.Principalcomponentanalysisofdata ;wasperformedtoinvestigatetheimportanceofdiffer

    ;enttraitsinexplainingmultivariatepolymorphism ;(Mallikarjunaeta1.2003).

    ;Clusteranalysiswasconductedonthebasisaver

    ;agedistanceofkmeansandtheaccessionsineach

    ;clusterwereanalyzedforbasicstatistics;15%of ;landraceswastakenatrandomwithineachofthefour ;clustersandplottedaccordingtotheirfirsttwoPC ;SC0reS.

    ;2Results

    ;Means.CVsandrangesfor10charactersinthe ;362chickpeaaccessionsandmeansandstandarder

    ;rorsofthetwocontrolcultivars(PyrooseandKaka) ;arepresentedinTable1.HighCVswererecordedin ;pods/branch(64.74%),seeds/pod(63.79%),yield/plant ;(52.47%),seeds/plant(50.15%),pods/plant(42.74%) ;andbranches/plant(46.04%),revealingahighlevelof ;diversityamongtheIranianaccessionsofchickpea. ;Smal1CVswereobservedfortheothercharacters.in

    ;eluding100seedweight,daysto50%flowering,days ;tofirstmaturityanddaysto50%maturity.

    ;Principalcomponentanalysiscandeterminewhich ;ofthecharactersmoststronglycontributestothePC. ;Theanalysesreducedtheoriginal10charactersinthe ;experimentto4PCs.Thefirst4PCswitheigenvalues ;>lexplained84.10%ofthevariationamongthe362 ;accessions(Table2,.OtherPCshadeigenvalues<1

    ;andhavenotbeeninterpreted.PC1whichisthemost ;importantcomponent,explained28.90%ofthetotal ;variationandwaspositivelyrelatedtodaystofirst ;maturity,daysto50%floweringanddaysto50% ;maturity,isthereforeaweightedaverageofthesethree ;characters;PC,accountedfor27.64%ofthetotalvaria

    ;tionandthecharacterswiththegreatestweightonthis ;componentwereseeds/plantandyield/plant;PC3was ;mainlyrelatedtopods/plant,seed/podand100seed

    ;weight;PC4waspositivelyrelatedtopods/branchand ;negativelytobranches/plant.

    ;Theentriesinthisstudyweregroupedinto4clus

    ;tersbasedonaveragelinkage.ClusterIconsistedof ;19accessions.clusterIIof160.clusterIIIof72and ;clusterIVof105accessions.Thecontrolcultivars ;(PyrooseandKaka1wereincludedinclusterIV.The ;meanvalueandthestandarddeviationforeachcluster ;(Table31revealedthataccessionsincluster1werelate ;inmaturitywithhighseeds/plantandhighyield, ;whereasaccessionsgroupedinclusterI1wereme

    ;diuminmaturitywithlowseeds/plantandpods/plant, ;andwereverylowyielding.AccessionsinclustersIII ;andIVshowedmediummaturityandalsohadmedium ;

    ;MohammadRezaNAGHAVIandMohammadRezaJAHANSOUZ:VariationintheAgronomicandM

    orphologicalTraits

    ;ofIranianChickpeaAccessions377

    ;Table1Means,coefficientsofvariation(CVs)andrangesforl0charactersin362accessionsandmeansan

    dstandard

    ;Table2Principalcomponents(PCs)for10charactersin ;the362accessionsofchickpea

    ;yield.Theinformationontheclusterstowhichpar

    ;ticularaccessionswithtraitsofinterestbelongwill ;assistinresearchingill_oreaccessionswithsimilartraits ;(Upadhyayaeta1.2001).Thereare105accessionsin ;clusterIV,includingPyrooseandKaka,and

    ;theoretically,theseaccessionsmaybesimilartothe ;checkcultivarsthatareplantedinIran.

    ;Withineachclusterl5%oflandraceswererandomly ;chosenandthefirsttwoPCscoreswereplottedtoaid ;visualizationofgroupdifferences(Fig.1).ClustersI, ;II,IIIandIVwerenotclearlyseparated,whichmay ;berelatedtoamixtureofaccessionswithdifferent ;morphologicaltraits.

;3Discussion

    ;Thedescriptionofagronomicallyimportantanduse

    ;fulcharacteristicsisanimportantprerequisiteforef- ;fectiveandefficientutilizationofgermplasmcollec

    ;tionsinbreedingprograms(Duvick1984).AnIranian ;Table3Meanandstandarddeviationfor4clustersbasedon10charactersinchickpea

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    ;378JournalofIntegrativePlantBiology(FormerlyActaBotanicaSinica)Vo1.47No?32005

    ;6

    ;5

    ;4

    ;3

    ;2

    ;3.52.51.50.50.51.52.5

    ;PCAl

    ;Fig.1.Principalcomponentanalysis(PCA)for10charactersintheIranianchickpeaaccessions.Bi.plotis

    shownfor15%

    ;ofaccessionsrandomlyselectedwithineachcluster.1,2,3and4representtheclusternumber.

    ;chickpeacollectionhasbeenassembledandwehave ;shownthatthereisahighlevelofmorphologicaldiver- ;sityformostofthetraitsobserved,whichmaybeuse- ;fulf0rfuturebreedingendeavors.Characterssuchas ;100-seedweight,daysto50%flowering,daystofirst ;maturityanddaysto50%maturityshowedlowCVs, ;whichappearstolimitthescopeofselectionforthese ;traitsinthepresentaccessionsofchickpea.Hence, ;othersourcesofchickpeaareneededinordertofind ;highvariationforthesetraits.

    ;Multivariatemethodsofanalysis,suchasthePC ;andclusteranalysesusedinthepresentstudy,have ;shownthegermplasmgroupingsinmanygeneticre

    ;sourcessuchasblackgram(Ghafooreta1.2001),sor- ;ghum(Greniereta1.2001),quinoa(Ortizeta1.1998), ;sugarcane(TaiandMiller2002),cacti(Carmonaand ;Casas2005)andchickpea(Ghafooreta1.2003).In ;ouranalysis,wewereabletodefinegroupsofacces- ;sionsthatweresignificantlydifferentfromeachother ;f0rcharactersofinterest.Ghafooreta1.(2003)also ;foundthatthefirstthreePCscontributed88.58%of ;thevariabilityamong62genotypesofchickpeaevalu- ;atedf0rllquantitativetraits.

    ;Wefoundthattherewasnorelationshipbetween ;geneticdivergenceandgeographicaloriginsbecause ;accessionsfromoneplaceenteredintomorethanone

    ;cluster.Conversely,accessionsfromdifferentgeo- ;graphicaloriginswererelativelyuniqueandtendtobe ;clusteredinonepartofthedendrogram,whichinfor- ;mationsuggeststhatthemorphologicalvariationana- ;lyzedisdeterminednotonlybyenvironmentaldiffer. ;encesbutalsobygeneticfactors.

    ;Thecurrent362chickpeaaccessionsavailablein ;theGenBankcollectionofUniversityofTehranarenot ;adequatefordevelopingacorecollectionandthege- ;neticdiversityofthecollectioncanonlybeconsidered ;afteradditionalgermplasmiscollectedand ;characterized.Upadhyayaeta1.(2001)developedacore ;subsetOfl956accessionsusinggeographicdistribu- ;tionaccessionsanddataonl3quantitativetraits.That ;corecollectionrepresentedl1.5%oftheaccessions ;andpreservedthegeneticvariationavailableintheen. ;tirecollection.Therefore,thecoresetofaccessions ;shouldbemaintainedasadynamicratherthanstatic ;setofcollections(Brownl995)andsothecontentand ;sizeofthedesignatedcorecollectionsoftheworldwill ;u

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    ;MohammadRezaNAGHAVIandMohammadRezaJAHANSOUZ:VariationintheAgronomicandM

    orphologicalTraits

    ;ofIranianChickpeaAccessions379

    ;changeasadditionalaccessionsbecomeavailable ;(Brown1989).

    ;Inconclusion.thechickpeaaccessionsusedinthis ;researchareanewresourcethathasbeencollected ;fromdifferentpartsofIranandcanbeusedincon- ;junctionwithotheraccessionsfromallovertheworld ;todesignacomprehensivecorecollectionofchickpea ;germplasm.Thesegeneticresourcesareusefulfor ;screeningthedesirabletraitsinchickpeas. ;References

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    ;(Managingeditor:PingHE)

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