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Tangka

By Ricardo Harrison,2014-07-19 00:47
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Tangka

    Tangka

TEXTANDPHoToSBYXIAoZHoU

    ;?-_ibetanpaintingartismainlyrevealedinmuralpaintingsaswellastangka.Tangkaincar-natesnotonlyt

    hespecialchar-

    ;acterofTibetanpaintingartbutalsothe ;featuresofTibetantraditionalcraftsand ;mounung.

    ;Inthefaceofavaluabletangka~Jnt- ;ing,however,howoneshouldenjoyit? ;Howwasitpainted?Howwasitcomplet- ;ed?Whatpartswereinvolvedintheere- ;ationofatangka?And,isthereanything ;thatisspecialtotangkapainung? ;paintingsuniquetothe

    ;Tibetanraceisaspecialartthatcom- ;binesBuddhapaintingcomingintothe ;Tibetaninhabitedareasfromoutside ;withlocalpaintingart.Suchaconclu

    ;siondovestailwithwhatisdescribedin ;Buddhistscriptures.

    ;Treatmentofstatuesontangkais ;basicallycommontothedescriptionin ;Buddhistsutras,suchasImageCre

    ;0nSutraand300Imagesof

    ;Buddhas.

    ;ntheTibetanswereproducing

    ;tangkapaintings,theyadoptaway ;uniquetothemselvesbygivingplay

    ;totheroleofrhythmicandmovinglines. ;Thefingerwidthofthepersoninthe ;paintingsisgenerallythebasicmeasure

    ;mentunitforthebodydinlensionon ;Buddhistpaintings,thatis,twelvetimes ;ofafingerwidthisafacewidth,five ;limesofafacewidthistheheightofa ;sittingBuddha,andninetimesofaface ;widthistheheightofastandingBuddha. ;PicturelayoutofBuddhistPalntings ;includesgrouppaintingsandnumerous ;Buddhapaintings.Grouppaintings

    ;alwaysdescribethelifestoriesof ;Sakyamuniwithfloatingclouds,run

    ;nmgwater,treesandstonesasdivi

    ;sions.Eachpicture,orseveralofthem. ;representsastory.NumerousBuddha ;palntmgsgenerallsmaincompo- ;nentsincludefollowing(accordingto ;Tibetanpronounciation):

    ;1.Mailung:Thisisthemainpic

    ;turesoftangka.Accordmgtothecon

    ;tentsshowedinMailung,tangkapaint- ;mgartofTibetanracecanbedivided ;roughlyintoDetang(alsocalled ;Xietang)reflectingBuddhism,Mantang ;reflectingTibetanmedicaltreatment ;andmedicine,Zetangreflecting”tibetan

    ;?

    ;astronomy,andZongtangonTibetan ;heroicepicKingGesar.AstoDetang, ;LifeofBudAhaisthemostfamous ;whichconsistsof30tangkas.It ;describes108exploitsofBuddha ;Sakyamunifromaccumulatingfunds ;andfoodatfirsttodefeatingevilsand ;becomingBuddhaatlast.

    ;2.Kunta:Thisreferstohangingbelt ;oftangka.

    ;3.Gungshing:Thisreferstosquare ;誊??9(@(邑》

    ;

    ;Paintingclothprocessed

    ;InkIinesketch.

    ;woodenspindleontheupperedgeof ;tangka.Itslengthisequaltothewidth ;ofatangkapicture,whichcallhelpin ;spreadingthehungpictures.

    ;4.Shiekekunta:Itishangingbelton ;curtainclothoftangka.?enthetang

    ;kaisspread,itisfastenedtoacurtain ;clothinshapeofflowers.

    ;5.ieke:Curtainclothoftangka. ;Usuallyitisusedtocoverthetangkato ;keepoffdustwhenthetangkais ;CHINA’STIBETN0.3.2OO4

;(I)

    ;wrapped;anditservesasdecorationin ;shapeofflowerswhenthetangkais ;hungforexhibition.Itisgenerallymade ;ofsilk.

    ;6.Guidagarbo:Tmsreferstolock

    ;stitchofwhitethreadaroundMailung ;ofthetangka.

    ;7.Gyiarinside):Tmsisinsidecol

    ;orfulframearoundtheMailungofa ;tangka.Itismadeofredbrocadewith ;thesignificationofrainbowandspiritof ;fairies.

    ;8.Gyiaroutside):Tmsisoutside ;colorfulframearoundMailungoftang

    ;ka.Itismadeofyellowbrocadewith ;thesamesignificationasGyia(inside). ;9.Gyishamo:Itisbrocadeusedin ;cadebeltshungrespectivelyonthecur- ;tainclothofatangka.Itcanpressthe ;‘‘innerenergy”ofatangka.

    ;12.Tongqug:Tmsisasquarebro- ;cadeatthebottomofthemountof ;Mailung.Congratulatorywordsare ;alwayswrittenonthisbrocade,the ;dimensionandcolorofwhichcanbe ;decidedbydimensionandaesthetic ;iudgmentofthepicturesofthetangka. ;13.Tangshing.’Tmsreferstothe

    ;woodenaxeoftangka.Ithastwopro- ;tradingendsforsettingupaxeshandles ;14.Tangdo:Tmsreferstothehan

    ;dieoftangka.Itisusuallymadeof ;metalsuchasgold.silverandcoppe~in ;additiontowood,bonesandporcelain. ;1.Beforepaintingatangka,produce ;theparticularpaintingclothfirst.Stitch ;foursidesoftheclothtoabamboofrallle ;soastotightentheclothandthenfasten ;thefralnetoabigeaselbyrope. ;TheclothinlightcolorisUSUally ;Makingsketches.

    ;themountbottomwhenmountingthe ;tangka.Usuallyblueoryellowbrocade

    ;isadopted.Incaseofyeliowbrocade, ;therainbowadoptsonlYred;incaseof ;bluebrocade,therainbowadoptsredor ;yellow.

    ;10.Guidamabo:Tmsislocksfitchof ;redthreadontwosidesofthetangka. ;AccordingtoBuddhistexplanation,this ;decorationsignifiestheredBoddhiheart. ;11.Longlu,2:esearetworedbro. ;adoptedaspaintingcloththatcannotbe ;toohardortoodeeptopreventthepaint ;frombeingflakedorbroken.Close ;whitepoplinandcambricarethemost ;favorablechoiceaswellaswhitesilk ;clothwithoutdesign.Sometangkapic

    ;turesaresolargethatseveralPlecesot ;clothhavetobestitchedtogetherbva ;veryfineneedleandthreadandthe ;stitchedplacecannotobstructthecolor- ;ingorintactnessofpictures.

    ;

    ;

    ;Afterfasteningthepaintingclothto ;abigeasel,spreadalayeroflightglue ;watertopreventthepaintfromperme- ;atingthepaintingclothsoastomain

    ;tainthepaintingeffect.Inaddition,this ;layerofgluewatercanalsohelpthe ;paantonthepaintingclothmaintainlts ;originalcolor.

    ;enthelightgluewaterbecomes

    ;v.spreadalayerofpastewithlimeon ;thePaintingcloth.enthepaste ;almostbecomesdry,spreadthePainting ;clothonaboardoratablesurfaceor ;othersmoothsurface.Pressthecloth ;verticallyandhorizontallybysome ;stickandhardarticlessuchasglass, ;roundstoneandbowlsuntilthetexture ;onthepaintingc1othdisappears. ;2.NeXt.paintthepicture.According ;tothedimensiondescribedinBuddha ;ImageSutra,checkerthepaintingcloth. ;Effortsbemadetodrawthefoundation

;lines.includingfoursidelines,thecen

    ;tralverticalline,twosymmetricalangle ;lines.andotherfinesinneed.Thisisfo1. ;1owedbymakinga”whitedrawing’’

    ;beforeitiscoveredbyinklines.There ;aremultiplekindsofskillsemployedto ;drawlines,includingparallellines,leaf ;finesandcloudlines.endone.itis ;appliedwithcolotsaccordingtowhatis ;needinthebackdrop,suchaswaters, ;roeks,hillsandclouds.

    ;Inaccordancewiththerequirement ;ofpictures,whatisinneedistopress ;onlyonelayerofcoloreachtimewitha ;lightonefirst.WhilepaintingBuddha.it ;isnecessarytopaintalotusseatatfirst, ;thentheclothesanddecorationsandlast

    ;lypainttheBuddha’sbody.Afterall

    ;thesepaintingsarecompleted,efforts ;willbemadetopaintthedesignon ;clothesinagoldencolor.Theborderof ;somecharactersandotherdecorations ;onpicturesarealsopaintedmgolden ;color,withthegoldenpatternscalled ;Sichi.ThegoldenborderisnamedSiiie. ;3.AtlastPainttheeyesofcharac

    ;tersinthepictures.ThisstepisUSUally ;doneonaluckydate.

    ;ThePaintadoptedinTibetanpaint

    ;ingcomesfromnaturalmineraland ;plants.Itismadefrommanyvaluable ;mineralmaterialsincludinggold,silver, ;coral,pearl,carnelianandotherpre

    ;ciousstones,aswellamanyplants ;includingsaffron.Indianmadder, ;rhubarbandothers.Asaresult,the ;coloronpicturescanremainbrightfora ;longtime.whichissuitableforcollec

    ;tion.andinaddition,thepicturesare ;valuableinthemselves.

    ;Tangkahasitsownfeaturesinpic

    ;toriallayoutandsupplementarydecora- ;tions.Forexample,somenaturalscenes ;orlifelessobjectsofthe’’fouressences’’

    ;consistingofearth,water,fireandwind ;arePaintedaroundBuddhastatuesto ;signifythethemeof”allfleshhasfeel—

    ;ings”.Thisisdifferentfromthedecora—

    ;tionsinIndiaandChinesehinterland. ;InIndianpalntmgs,thereare

    ;alwayscomfortableandmagnificent ;houses,varioussacrificialflowers, ;mascotsandlewelry,etc.Inthepmnt

    ;ingsoftheChinesehinterland,there ;arealwaysfineandmagnificent ;clothes,finelycarvedchairsandsome ;humorouslifescenes.

    ;Besidesthetangkausingcommon ;paints,therearethreekindsoftangka ;thatadoptspecialPaints.Thevare ;namedasgoldentangka,vermeiltang

    ;kaandblacktangkaaccordingtotheir ;differentbackgroundcolors.ThePaints ;usedinallthesethreekindsoftangka ;aremixedwithlimeandgluewater.?

    ;Coloring.

    ;28CHINA’STlBETNO.3.2004

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