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Spectral

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SpectralSpectr

    Spectral

JoURNALoFRAREEARTHS

    ;Vo1.21,No.1,Feb.2003,P.23

    ;SpectralParametersofNd3:Sr6YSc(BO36

    ;LinZhoubin(林州斌),HuZushu(胡祖树),WangGuofu(王国富)

    ;(FujianInstituteofResearchontheStructureofMatter,ChineseAcademyofSciences,Fuzhou350002,

    China)

    ;Abstract:rI1hecrystalNd?:SrtYSc(BO3)6wasgrownbythetopseededsolutiongrowthmethodfromaLi6B4O9flux.rI1he

    ;spectralpropertiesofNd?:SrtYSc(BO3)6crystalwereinvestigated.UsingJuddOfelttheorytoanalyzetheoptical

    ;strengthmeasuredinabsorptionspectrum,thefollowingspectralparameterswereobtained:parameters

    ofosciHator

    ;strengthsnaren2=1.194x1020cm2,n4=4.

    ;186x1020cm2andn6=3.35lx1020cm2.Theradiativelifetimeis ;322its,andthefluorescencebranchratioswerecalculated:1=0.465,2=0.453,3=0.079and4=0.0O4.The

    ;resultsindicatethatNd:SrtYSc(BO3)6crystalseelnstobeapotentialhighefficientlasermateria1. ;Keywords:optics;Nd?:SrtYSc(BO3)6crystal;crystalgrowth;spectralparameters;JuddOfelttheory;rareearths

    ;CLCnumber:TG146.4Documentcode:AArticleID:10020721(2003)01002303

    ;Inrecentyears,researchonnewmaterialswith ;improvedspectralpropertiesfordiodepumpingisof ;increasinginterest,sincediode?laserpumpedsolid? ;statelasershavebeenfoundinawidevarietyofappli. ;cationsinthefieldsofmilitary,industry,medical ;treatmentandscientificresearchesduetotheadvan

    ;tagesofhighstability,compactness,highefficiency ;andlonglifetime,andhasbecomeoneofhotpointsin ;thelaserfield.

    ;Thecomplexboratecompoundsarethetypesof ;excellentlasergainmedia,becausetheyhavegood ;chemicalandphysicalproperties.Foxexample,Nd3 ;:YAl3(BO3)4(NYAB)crystalisagoodserf-frequency

    ;doublingsolid—statelasercrystal….andNd3:GdA13

    ;(BO3)4(NGAB)crystalisapotentialserf-~equency

    ;doublinglasercrystal[2,3[.TheCr3orTi.doped

    ;RE3(BO3)4crystal,whereRE=Y?orthelanthanide ;La3-YbandX=A1,Sc,canberegardedas

    ;thegoodlasergainmedium.SinceSrtYSc(BO3)6

    ;crystalbelongstotrigonalsystemwithspacegroup ;R3…,theNd?dopedSrtYSc(BO3)6maybebecome

    ;alasergainmediumaswellasNYABcrysta1.Based ;ontheJudd?Ofehtheory,astandardapproachforcal? ;culatingtheparity?forbiddenelectricdioderadiative ;transitionratesbetweenthevariouslevelsofrareearth ;ionsinbothglassandcrystallinehost,wecalculated ;thespectralparametersofNd?:SrtYSc(BO3)6crys

    ;ta1.

    ;1Experimental

    ;Thecrystalgrowthwascarriedoutinaverticaltu

    ;bularmufflefurnacewithanicke1..chromewireasheat.. ;ingelementL.First.thechemicalswithmolarratiosof ;SrCO3:Y2O3:Sc2O3:Li2CO3:H3BO3=12:1:1:3:16were ;mixed,thenthemixturewasheatedat750oCfor48h. ;Aplatinumcruciblewiththeobtainedmeltwasplaced ;inafurnace,keepingat1000oCfor24h,andthens1. ;owlycooleddownto9O0oCatarateof1oC?h-1tha ;platinumwireasaseed,untilatinycrystalwas ;formed.Byusingthisseed,alargeneodymiumdoped

    ;crystalgrowthexperimentswereperformedbythetop

    ;seededmethod.Thefullychargedcrucibleoftheabove ;meltdopedwithdoping8%molarfraction)Nd2O3was ;keptatatemperatureof50?abovethesaturation

    ;temperaturefor24htomakethesolutionmeltcom. ;pletelyandhomogeneously.Thesaturationtemperature ;ofthesolutionwasexactlydetenninedbyrepeated ;seeding.Duringthegrowthprocess,thetemperature ;wascooledatarateof1??dinthefirstweek.then

    ;2oC?dfrom947to855oC.atthesanletimethe

    ;crystalwasrotatedattherateof20r?min.Thecrys.

    ;tal0fNdj:Sr6YSc(BO3)6withdimensions35InInx28 ;InInx13InInhasbeengrownbythetop——seededmeth.

    ;odfromaLi6B409flux.

    ;Thesamplewithdimensionsupto6.5mmx5.0

    ;mmx2.5mmwascutfromtheas?growncrystaland ;polished,andappliedtothespectralexperiment.The ;Receiveddate:20020l20;reviseddate:20020310

    ;Foundationitem:NaturalScienceFoundationofFujianProvince(A0110018)

    ;Biography:LinZhoubin(1968).Male,Mast~;Majorinstudyoflaserandnonlinearcrystal

    ;*Correspondingauthor(E?mail:wgf@ms.fjirsm.ac.cn) ;

    ;absorptioncoefficient().thewavelengthinthe ;rangeof3.

;00to900nmatroomtemperaturewas

    ;recordedonthePerkinElmerUV??VIS??NIRSpectrome?? ;ter(Lambda90O)(Fig.1).

    ;2CalculationBasedonJudd.OfeIt

    ;Theory

    ;AccordingtoJudd—Ofehtheory[‘...thedataof

    ;absorptionspectracanbeusedtopredicttheradiative ;lifetimeoftheF3,2excitedJmanifoldandthebranch

    ;ingratiosofthefluorescencetransitionstothelower

    ;lyingIJmanifold.Theprocedureinvolvesfirstmea

    ;suringthelineoscillatorstrengthSpofthetransitions ;betweenthegroundI9,2JmanifoldandtheexcitedJ ;manifold.Theexperimentallineoscillatorstrength ;causedbytransitionofelectronicdipolecanbecalcu

    ;latedusingthefollowingequation[:

    ;a()d=ID(1)

    ;wherea()istheabsorptioncoefficient;JDistheav

    ;erageNd”iondensityinthelattice.eistheelectric

    ;change,istheaveragewavelengthoftheabsorption ;band;nistherefractiveindex,wehaveroughlyesti

    ;matedn=1.73bymeasuringtheBrewsterangletan ;B8te:n;cisthevelocityoflight;histhePlank ;constant;Jisthetotalangularmomentumofthe ;groundstate(J=9/2inNd”).Andtheoscillator

    ;strengthofNd?ionscanbeexpressedinthethreepa

    ;rametersformula:

    ;S=?nI<[(S,L)J]IIluu’Il,’l[(S,=2.4,6.’

    ;L)J]>I(2)

    ;where<Iluu’Ilisthedoublyreducedunittensor

    ;operator,ValuesusedwerecalculatedbyCamallW ;TJf0rNd?.sincethereducedmatrixelementsex- ;hibitonlysmallvariationswithhostlattice13J.

    ;Having

    ;obtmnedtheexperimentallinestrengthsSpfordiffer

    ;entlinebandsaccordingtoEq.(1),theoscillator ;strengthparametersn()canbecalculatedbyleast ;squarefittingofEq.(2).Theprobabilityoftheradi

    ;E

    ;rj

    ;,

    ;

    ;

    ;}

    ;u

;C

    ;

    ;

    ;

    ;

    ;2/nm

    ;Fig.1Nd:Sr6YSc(BO3)6(.orptionspectrum

    ;JOURNALOFRAREEARTHS,Vo1.21,No.1,Feb.2003 ;ativetransitionrateoftheF3,2IJisgivenby: ;A[F,,,(|s,)’,]=T?nl

    ;<F3,2IlU’’Il(S,L)J>I(3)

    ;wherethedatafor14F3,2IlUu’Il(S,L)J>Iale

    ;givenbyW.F.Krupke?,and(S,L)Jarethequa

    ;ntumnumbersofthelowerstate.J=3/2.Theradi

    ;ativelifetimeisreciprocal

    ;~”tad=?A[(S,L)J,(S,L)J](4)

    ;s,L,J

    ;Thenthefluorescencebranchratiofortransitionis ;definedby

    ;j9[(S,L)J]=A[(S,L)J;(S,L)J]

    ;A(S,L)J,(S,L)J

    ;3lsuitsandDiscussion

    ;(5)

    ;TheconcentrationofNd”intheSr6YSc(BO3)6

    ;crystalwasdeterminedtobe6.0%(atomfraction)by ;electronprobemicroanalysismethod,thus,JD=1.48 ;×1o20cm.AccordingtoEq.(1),theexperimental ;lineoscillatorstrengthS.ofdifferentbandscanbe ;obtainedfromtheabsorptionspectrum.Then,theo8

    ;cillatorstrengthparametersn()(=2,4,6)canbe ;obtainedbyleastsquarefittingofEq.(2),aslistedin ;Table1.T0iustifytheresul~obtained,weusedthese ;parameterstocalculatethelineoscillatorstrengthSal ;ofthetenabsorptionbands.1istedinTable2. ;Theroot..mean..squaredeviationoftheexperiment ;andcalculatedlinestrengthsisdefinedas ;

    ;,

    ;Z||0(Smeas_

    ;)--_

    ;Sea|2

    ;-o.223cm2

    ;whereN”isthenumberoftransitions,and?paristhe

    ;numberofparameter.Ameasurementoftherelative

    ;errorofthefittingisgivenbyrmsAS/rmsS= ;11.5%.

    ;Thefluorescencebranchratiosandtransitionproba

    ;bilitiesofF3/2IJinNd3:Sr6YSc(SO3)6crystalare ;listedinTable3.Theradiativelifetimeis322. ;Inconclusion,aspectroscopicstudyofNd: ;Sr6YSc(BO3)6crystalwereperformedbasedonJudd

    ;Ofelttheory.Threeparametersoflineoscillator ;strengthn()(=2,4,6)ofNd?ioninSr6YSc ;(BO3)6crystalwerecalculated:n2=1.194×1020

    ;cm,n4=4.186×1020cmandn6=3.

    ;351×1020

    ;cm.Theradiativelifetimeis322((s.Comparingwith

    ;otherNd”dopedcrystals,whichwereusedaslaser

    ;materials,thethreeparametersn()inNd:Sr6YSc ;(BO3)6crystalarerelativelylarge,whichimpliesthat ;Nd”:Sr6YSc(BO3)6crystalhasstrongabilityoflaser

    ;oscillations.Therefore,Nd3:Sr6YSc(BO3)6crystalcan ;beregardedasakindofhighefficientlasermateria1. ;

    ;ListZBeta1.

    ;TlabIe1SpectralparametersofN:SrsYSc(BO3)’andotherNd3~-dopedcrystals._

    ;.

    ;16atomfraction

    ;Table2MeasuredandcalculatedlinestrengthsofNd3in ;SrsYSc(BO3)’

    ;Table3Fluorescencebranchratiosandtransition ;probabilityof’IJ

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    ;

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