DOC

State-of-The-Art

By Leon Carpenter,2014-07-19 00:31
10 views 0
State-of-The-Artof,OF,art,State,the,state,THE

    State-of-The-Art

    ;Nov.

    ;2005,

    ;V

    ;olume2,No.1l(SerialNo..12)!Iina

    ;EducationReview,ISSN1548-.6613,USA

    ;State--of-The--ArtTechnologiesUsedinTrainingDeliveryand

    ;AdministrationattheInstituteofPublicAdministration:CaseStudy

    ;SalehA.EwainInstituteofPublicAdministration,SaudiArabia

    ;Abstract:TheInstituteofPublicAdministrationI:IPA),inSaudiArabia,isawellrenownedtraining ;institutiondesignatedfortrainingcivilservantsintheKingdomofSaudiArabia.Thispapermainlydiscussesthe

    ;USeSoftechnologiesintheadministrativeaspectsoftheIPA.Theauthoralsopointsouttheobstaclesfacedand

    ;lessonslearnedfromtheimplementationandUSeofthesetechnologies.

    ;Keywords:IPA;State?of-The--ArtTechnologies;trainingadministration;trainingdelivery ;1.Introduction

    ;TheInstituteofPublicAdmi~istmtion(IPA),iinSaudiArabia(http://www.ipa.edu.sa),isawellrenowned

    ;traininginstitutiondesignatedfortrainingcivilservantsintheKingdomofSaudiArabia.Inadditiontoits ;headquartersinRiyadk.theIPAhasthreebranchesin:Riyadh,Dammam,andJeddah.Alongsideitsmainfunctionof

    ;trainingcivilservants,theIPAhasthreefBrtherfimctions:Consultation,Research,andGovernmentDocumentation.

    ;EveryyetheIPAtrainsabout27,000employeesinmorethan340trainingprogramsandseminars.1kse ;programscoveralmostalladministrativeandmanagerialfields,,rangingfromdataentrytoStrategicManagement

    ;trainingprogramsandspecialRoundTableprogramsforDeputyMinisters.ProgramsdeliveredbytheIPAare

    ;dividedintofourtypes.”in-serviceprograms,preserviceprograms,highermanagementprogramsandspecial

    ;programs.TheseprogramsaredeliveredmainlyattheIPApremises,.withsomein.-housetraining.Itisworthnoting

    ;thattheprivatesectorhaslatelybeen~ningbenefitfromtheprogramspresentedbytheIPA. ;Inthedomainsofadministrationandtraining,theIPAisusingstateof-the.

    arttechnologies.Alongsidethe

    ;hardwareandequipmentusedintheInstitute.theIPAUSeSthe’’ProductivitySystems”whichisagroupof

    ;applicationsusedintrainingadministrationanddelivery,Thispaperwilldiscusstheusesoftechnologies

inthe

    ;administrativeaspectsoftheIPA,trainingadministration,aswellasthetrainingdeliverytechnologiesdomains.It

    ;,,viilconcentrateontheusesoftechntologiesjtntrainingadministrationanddelivery. ;2.SummaryofRelatedLiteratureandResearch

    ;Littleliteratureandresearchoneffectivetrainingtechnologyintegrationexists,butratherfocuseson ;educationaltechnologyintegrationatvariouslevelsofeducation.However,.mostresearchresultsinthatarea

    ;applytotrainingastheyapplytoeducation.AccordingtoGustafsonandKors(2003),astudybytheUniversityof

    ;Washingtonsurveyed3000oftheuniversityfacultyandstudentsconcludedthat’’Itshouldnotbeoverloo

    kedthat

    ;technologyisanenhancementofinstruction,atooltomakenewconnectionsandadvanceknowledgethrough

    ;‘SalehA.

    ;S.Ewain.,PhDatOhioStateUniversity,MasteratMinnesotaStateUniversity,.BachelorattheUniversityofMissouri.

    ;USA,

    ;.directorofTrainingTechnologiesCenterattheInstituteofPublicAdministration,RiyadhII141,SaudiArabia.

    ;36

    ;

    ;

    ;State.of-The.ArtTechnologiesUsedinTrainingDeliveryandAdministatio”

    ;atthe堕坐生!!!!!!!墼竺一

    ———————————————————————————————————————

    ———————————————————————一一

    ;elecnDIlicmealls…technologycanhaveapowerfulimpactonlearningandteachingenvironment”?Ithasbeen

    ;reDeatedlyfoundthatcarefulplanningisprerequisitefortheeffectiveimplementationoftechnologyand ;telecommunicati0nsineducationandtraining(Cradler,2000).Zemelman,Daniels,andHyde(1998)have

    ;indicatedthatbestpracticecallsfortrainingtobebuiltaroundexperientialactivitiesratherthanthe0tlcal ;1ecnlres.Surry(2002)statesthattechnologyisexpensiveandcollegesneedtoplanforadequatefimding0mthe

    ;outsetoftheprocessinordertobeabletoacquire,utilize,maintainandupgradetechnology.Otherllteratunas

    ;enlDhasizedtheneedfortraininginimplementingtechnology.Effectivetechnologytrainingmustbehands0n,

    ;svstematic,andongoing.Additionally,avarietyofmodelsandapproachesshouldbeavailabletoaccotllmodate

    ;difrerentneeds,schedules,andlearningstyles(Antonacci,2002).LeggettandPerichittee(1988)haveidentified

    ;fivecategoriesofobstaclestotechnologyintegration:time,expertise,access,resources,andsupport?Al

so,

    ;literaturewarnsofthemisuseoftechnology”Itisnotbeneficialtoaprogramtoincludetechnologysimply

    ;becauseitisavailable.Thistrapcatcheseventhebestintendedprograms”,(Bucciandothers,2003).

    ;3.UsesofTechnologyintheAdministrationoftheIPA

    ;TheIPAusesautomatedcomputerizedprocessesinallaspectsofitsself-administration.Theseinclude: ;Personnel,finance,procurement,stockmanagement,maintenance,documentmanagement,consultations,research,

    ;andsocialactivities.Theproceduresintheseareasarecarriedoutusingaworkflowapplicationpartofthe ;ProductivitySystems.

    ;3.1UsesofTechnologyInTrainingAdministration

    ;TheadministrationoftheIPAtrainingisautomatedatthelevelsofprograminitiation,programdesign, ;trainingpackagespreparation,trainerdutycards,scheduling,remoteelectronicapplications,takingtrainees’

    ;attendance,grading,clientsreporting,certification,andprogramevaluation.Alloftheseactivitiesare ;accomplishedelectronicallyandpaperless.

    ;Toillustratefurther,trainingprogramsattheIPAareinitiatedindifferentways.Arequestforaprogram ;couldbeinitiatedbasedonatrainingneedsanalysisstudy,asuggestionfromatrainer,orarequestfroma ;governmentagency.Fortheprogramtogetapproved,ithastogothroughanautomatedprocessmanagedbythe

    ;ProgramsDesignandDevelopmentDepartment.Thisprocessinvolvescompletingelectronicformsfromwhich

    ;alltheprocessstepsandtransactionsaredone.

    ;Ifthetrainingprogramgetsapproved,thenextstepistodesigntheprogrambasedonthetrainingneedusing

    ;electronicformsbytheprogramdesignerandreviewer.Thenthetrainingpackageandpresentationsarealso

    ;deignedandevaluatedelectronicallyusingspecializedsoftwareintegratedintotheProductivitySystems.

    ;Trainees’applicationstotheIPAtrainingprogramsarecompletedelectronicallyandremotely.Thetrainees

    ;applyfortrainingprogramfromtheirorganizationsusingelectronicapplicationsthroughtheIntemet.The

    ;decisionsontheapplicationsarestudiedelectronicallybasedonpredefinedcriteria.Ifthesoftwarecannotmakea

    ;decisionontheadmission,theapplicationistransferredtobestudiedmanually.CommunicationbetweentheIPA

    ;andtraineesononehandandtheirorganizationsontheotherarecarriedoutelectronicallyduringtheapplication

    ;process,duringtrainingandbeyond.

    ;Afterthetrainingprogramsstart,thetrainees’attendanceistakenbytrainerselectronically.Grading(the

    ;trainingresult)iscompletedelectronically,andtrainees’resultsaresenttotraineesandtheirorganization

    s

    ;electronically.Trainingprogramsareevaluatedbythetrainerandtraineesandbenefitingorganizations ;37

;

    ;State-of-The-ArtTechnologiesUsedinTrainingDeliveryandAdministration

    ;attheInstituteofPublicAdministration:CaseStud

    ;electronically.AdmissionentranceexalTISforthepreserviceprogramsarecompleted ;,

    ;graded,andposted

    ;electronically.

    ;3.2UsesofTechnologyinTrainingDelivery

    ;Tl1eIPAwithinitsheadquartersandotherthreebrancheshasover260trainingroomsofdifferentsizes ;designedfordifferenttrainingpurposes.Thesetrainingroomsinclude:standardtrainingrooms ;,computerlabs,

    ;EnglishComputer-AidedLanguageLabs,meetingrooms,conferencerooms,videoconferencingrooms,and

    ;computerizedlongdistancelearninglabs.

    ;Eachtrainingroomcomesequippedwithstandardequipment:atrainerpodiumwithinstalledcomputer,LCD

    ;Screen,mouse,andelectronicdigitalremotecontro1.Moreover,roomshave:aceilingmountedprojector,

    ;mountedprojeetionscreen,speakers,andanintercomwiththeTrainingTechnologiesCenter.Also,eachtraining

    ;roomisnetworkedtotheIPALANandtotheIntemet.Sometrainingroomsareequippedwithanelectronic ;blackboard,asoundsystemandvideoconferencingequipment.Inadditiontothestandardequipment,other

    ;technologiesareprovidedintrainingroomsuponrequest.Theseequipmenfsinclude:adigitaldocumentcamera,a

    ;videocamera,adigitalphotocamera,awirelesskeyboardandmouseandpointingdevice.Whendelivering

    ;trainingoutsidetheIPA’spremises,orifneededforanyotherpurpose,trainersandstaffcanborrowneeded

    ;technologiessuchasnotebookcomputers.tabletPCs,portableprojectors,andelectronicstoragedevices. ;TheIPAhasanAudio-Visuallibrarywhichaccommodatesoverthreethousandstrainingfilmsandtraining

    ;casestudies,andforty-fivelocallyproduced

    ngcasestudies.Thesetrainingmaterialsarestoreddigitallyand

    ;deliveredtotrainingroomsandtrainers’officesthroughthenetwork.

    ;PowerPointpresentationsforeverytrainingprogramarestoredinaservernetworkedtothetrainingrooms.

    ;Inthetrainingroom,thetrainerscanaCCeSStheIPA’sProductivitySystem,wheretheycanperformdifferentkinds

    ;ofactivitiesduringthetrainingsession,suchastakingattendanceelectronically,displayingdigitallystored

    ;trainingmaterial,trainingpresentations,trainingfilmsandcasestudies.Theseactivitiesareperformedthrough

    ;incorporationoftheUSeofdifferentequipmentanddigitalmaterials:computer,projector,LAN,pre-designed

    ;digitaltrainingpackagesandmaterials,digitaltrainingfilmsandcases,andtheInteract. ;TheUSeSofvideoconferencingroomsande-learninglabsforthepurposeoftrainingarenotimplemented

    ;fullyyetattheIPA.Itisplanedthatsometrainingprogramsoractivitiesbenefitfromthesetechnologiesby ;cooperationbetweentlieIPAbranchesandotherinstitutionslocallyoraroundtheworld.Thee-learninglabsatthe

    ;IPAareimplementedincooperationwiththeWorldBank.Thisprojectfacilitatestheremotecooperationand

    ;exchangeinthefieldoftrainingbetweentheBankandanumberoftrainingandhighereducationinstitutions

    ;aroundtheworld.

    ;4.Planning,BuildingandImplementationoftheTechnologies

    ;PlanningforTrainingtechnologiesattheIPAinvolvesinadditiontotheTrainingTechnologyCenter,the ;cooperationamongdifferentdepartments:PlanningandDevelopment,QualityControlUhit,ProgramDesignand

    ;Development,ComputerCenter,andtherelatedprogramsector(department).

    ;MostsoftwarerelatedtotrainingtechnologiesareprogrammedlocallybytheApplicationsDepartmentatthe

    ;IPA’sComputerCenter.NormallyarequestcomesfromadepartmenttotheApplicationsDepartment.an

    dthen

    ;theapplicationisprogrammedincooperationwiththatdepartment.toassurethatitmeetsthespecificneedsofthe

    ;department.Hardwareandequipmentarenormallyoutsourcedfromleadingcompaniesintherelatedarea.

    ;38

    ;

    ;

    ;state.of-The.ArtTechnologiesUsedinTrainingDeliveryandAdministratio”

    ;attheInstitute0fP!!!!兰一一

    ———————————————————————————————————————

    ——————

    ;TheimD1ementationprocessinvolvesfourphases:(1)apilotimplementationtotesttheaPPlcaono ;hardware;(2)alimitedimplementationtoovercomeobstaclesandproblems;(3)afinalimplemenaiontoueme

    ;technologY;(4)acontinualimprovementprocess,mainlyasolutionforproblemsfacedduringacmal ;implementatiOn.Orbasedondevelopmentsuggestionsmadebytheusers,ortogoinlinewimtechnolog1cal

    ;development.

    ;5.ObstaclesFaced

    ;f1)LimitedResources:therewerelimitedresourcesinfinance,humanresources,infrastructures,andPace

    ;toimDlementtheproject.AttheIPAwehadtomakeperiodicalplans(5years)toimplementtechnologybased0n

    ;technologyprioritytoovercometheseresourcelimitations?

    ;f212IncorporatingInfrastructures:tominimizecost,highermanagementrequestedthatweusetheavailable

    ;infmsnucture.suchasLANandservers.Sometimesthisdoesnotmeetourbestrequirementsforeducational

    ;techno1ogies.suchasbandwidthandstoragespace.Somemodificationsintheinfrastructuresarenecessaryto

    ;meettheseneeds.

    ;(3)TechnicalProblems:sometechnologyprojectsmetunexpectedtechnicalproblemswhenimplementedt

    ;Mostoftheseproblemsrelatetodifferenttechnologyandsoftwareintegration.Someoftheseproblemsare

    ;sOlvable.butsomeneededallocatingofunplannedandnewresourcestosolve.Wesolvedmostoftheproblemsin

    ;cooperationwithourComputerCenterandvendors.

    ;(41Needforskilledandspecializedhumanresources:someadvancedtechnologiesneedskilledand ;specializedhumanresourcestoimplement,run,andmaintain.Forexample,toruntheelearninglabswehadto

    ;employorextensivelytraintwospecialistsateachlocation.

    ;(5)NeedforPolices:useoftrainingtechnologiesinvolvescopyrightsandmanyregulations.Wehadtocreate

    ;manyadministrativepoliciesandregulationsfortrainees,andtechnicianstocomplywith. ;6.LearnedLessonsfromtheImplementationandUseoftheseTechnologies

    ;(1)Involvestakeholders:involvingusersintheprocessesofplanninganddecisionmakingaboutthe ;technologyisanimpo~antissueforitssuccess.Thisinvolvementwillmeettheirneedsmore,minimizechange

    ;resistance,andmakemoreuseofthetechnology.

    ;(2)TrainUsers:althoughtrainersmightbeexpertintheirfields,trainingontheuseoftechnologywill ;minimizeexpectedresistancebysomeusers,andrequestsforusersupport.

    ;(3)Donotbetooenthusiasticabouttechnology:technologyshouldbeconsideredasaninvestment.Besure

    ;thattherewillbeajustifiedusageforthetechnology.

    ;(4)Technologyisquicklyoutdated:largetechnologyprojectsnormallytakealongperiodtoplanfor,get ;approved,andimplement.Whatwasuptodateduringtheplanningfortheprojectmightbeout-dated

    oreven

    ;obsoletenearcontracting.Reviseyourspecificationsandrequirementsjustbeforecontracting. ;(5)Adheretointernationalstandards:toensureeffectivefutureupgradesandintegrationbetweendifferent

    ;softwareandequipment,useonlyhardware,software,andotherequipmentwhichmeetinternationalstandards.

    ;Thiswouldalsomakeiteasiertodealwithdifferentoutsourcingagents.

    ;(6)Limitthenumberofoutsourcingagents:partnerwithexpertvendorswithproventechnologiesand ;industrialexpertiseforlongtermdevelopmentplans.Outsourcedtechnologiesmighthaveexpectedorunexpected

    ;39

;

    ;State-of-The-ArtTechnologiesUsedinTrainingDeliveryandAdministration

    ;attheInstituteofPublicAdministration:CaseStud

    ;problemstobeintegratedtogether.Normallytheseproblemsareeasiertosolveifthesourcingagencyisthesame.

    ;(7)Considerwhethertheplanedtechnologyislikelytopersist,anddeveloptechnologyreplacement ;strategiesforwhenthetechnologydiminishes.

    ;(8)Technologyisateachingandtrainingtool:manyteachersandtrainersshiftthesubjectfromteachingor ;trainingontheintendedcurriculumtoteachingtheaidtechnologyitself.Awarenessabouttrainingwith ;technologyandnotteachingtechnologyitself,orfocusingwhatwelikeinsteadoftheintendedcurriculum,

    ;should

    ;bepromoted.

    ;References:

    ;1.BUCCi,JohnsonL.,LehmanB.&O’Brien(2003).TechnologyIntegration:Connection5toEdu

    cationalTheories.

    ;ContemporaryIssuesinhnologyandTcacherEducation,Volume3(1)

    ;2.CradlerJ.ImplementingTechnologyinEducation:RecentFindingspomResearchandEvaluationStudies.Accessed

    ;23/4/2005:http://www.wested~org/techpolicy/recapproach.html

    ;3.StevenZemelman,HarveyDaniels&ArthurHyde.(1998).BestPractice,NewStandardsforTeachingandLearningin

    ;AmericaSchools.Po~smouth.NH:Heinemann,USA

    ;4.Gustafson,K.K.andKors.K.(2003).AVisionontheFuture:RemodelingtheKnowledgeArchitectureoftheUniversityof

    ;Washington.TechnicalRcpo~ofPETT.O3

    ;PO1.ProgramforEducationalTransformationthroughTechnology.Universityof ;Washington,Seattle,Washington,USA

    ;5.Surry,D.W(2002).AmodelforIntegratingInstructionalTechnologyintoHigherEducation.Apaperpresentedattheannual

    ;meetingoftheAmericanEducationalResearchAssociation,April2002,NewOdeans,LA,USA ;6.AnotonacciD.M.(2002).IntegratingTechnologyintoInstructioninHigherEducation ;7.Leggettw&PerichitteeK.(1988).Blood,Sweatand

    50YearsofTechnologyImplementationObstacles.TechTrends,

    ;43(3)

    ;(EditedbyFangzhengZhang.LiangtingWeiandRenfengLiu)

    ;(continuedfromPage26)

    ;thismatter,wecanjudgethattheprofessionalsinEducationalTechnologycannotgetwell-usedandthebenefit

    ;fromEducationalTechnologybywholesocietyisverylow.

    ;TheultimatetaskofEducationalTechnologyistooptimizetheeducationandinstructionalprocess.Onone

    ;hand,werequir?

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com